DEF 14A
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

SCHEDULE 14A

Proxy Statement Pursuant to Section 14(a) of the

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

 

Filed by the Registrant  ☒                            Filed by a Party other than the Registrant  ☐

Check the appropriate box:

 

  Preliminary Proxy Statement
  Confidential, for Use of the Commission Only (as permitted by Rule 14a-6(e)(2))
  Definitive Proxy Statement
  Definitive Additional Materials
  Soliciting Material Under Rule 14a-12

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

(Name of Registrant as Specified In Its Charter)

(Name of Person(s) Filing Proxy Statement, if other than the Registrant)

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WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

(Incorporated in the Republic of Singapore)

(Company Registration Number 201218209G)

NOTICE OF 2021 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF SHAREHOLDERS

TIME: 11:00 a.m., Eastern Time

DATE: August 10, 2021

PLACE: Wave Life Sciences Ltd., 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138

To Our Shareholders:

You are cordially invited to attend the 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. to be held at 11:00 a.m., Eastern Time, on Tuesday, August 10, 2021 at 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. In this Notice, we refer to the 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders as the “2021 AGM” and we refer to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. as “Wave,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our.” Details regarding the 2021 AGM, the business to be conducted at the 2021 AGM, and information about Wave Life Sciences Ltd. that you should consider when you vote your shares are described in the attached proxy statement. The 2021 AGM is subject to the evolving COVID-19 situation, and shareholders should note that we may be required or it may be advisable to change our meeting arrangements for the 2021 AGM on short notice. Shareholders should refer to Wave’s website at https://ir.wavelifesciences.com/ and/or its announcements for the latest updates on the status of the 2021 AGM.

The 2021 AGM will be held for the following purposes:

As Special Business

 

1.

(a)        To elect Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(a))

 

  (b)

To elect Mark H.N. Corrigan, M.D. to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(b))

 

  (c)

To elect Christian Henry to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(c))

 

  (d)

To elect Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D. to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(d))

 

  (e)

To elect Adrian Rawcliffe to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(e))

 

  (f)

To elect Ken Takanashi to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(f))

 

  (g)

To elect Aik Na Tan to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(g))

 

  (h)

To elect Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D. to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(h))

 

  (i)

To elect Heidi L. Wagner, J.D. to serve on the Board of Directors;

(Ordinary Resolution 1(i))


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As Ordinary Business

 

2.

To approve the re-appointment of KPMG LLP to serve as our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor for the year ending December 31, 2021, and to authorize the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors to fix KPMG LLP’s remuneration for services provided through the date of our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders;

(Ordinary Resolution 2)

 

3.

To approve the Company’s payment of cash and equity-based compensation to non-employee directors for service on the Board of Directors and its committees (including payment in arrears to the Research and Development Committee for service for the period of January 1, 2021 through the date of the 2021 AGM and payments relating to withholding taxes to be paid to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service on behalf of one of our ex-U.S. Directors), in the manner and on the basis as set forth under “Proposal 3: Non-Employee Directors’ Compensation” in the attached proxy statement;

(Ordinary Resolution 3)

As Special Business

 

4.

To approve the Company’s 2021 Equity Incentive Plan in the manner and on the basis as set forth under “Proposal 4: Approval of the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan” in the attached proxy statement, and for our Board of Directors and/or a committee of our Board of Directors, to be authorized to (a) grant awards in accordance with the provisions of the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan; and (b) allot and issue from time to time such number of ordinary shares as may be required to be issued pursuant to the grant of awards under the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan;

(Ordinary Resolution 4)

 

5.

Pursuant to the provisions of Section 161 of the Singapore Companies Act (the “Singapore Companies Act”), Chapter 50, and also subject to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and our Constitution, authority be, and hereby is, given to our Board of Directors:

 

  (a)

to:

 

  (i)

allot and issue ordinary shares in our capital; and/or

 

  (ii)

make or grant offers, agreements, options or other instruments (including the grant of awards or options pursuant to our equity-based incentive plans and agreements in effect from time to time) that might or would require ordinary shares to be allotted and issued, whether such allotment or issuance would occur during or after the expiration of this authority (including but not limited to, the creation and issuance of warrants, rights, units, purchase contracts, debentures or other instruments (including debt instruments) convertible into or exercisable for ordinary shares),

at any time to and/or with such persons and upon such terms and conditions, for such purposes and for consideration as our directors may in their sole discretion deem fit, and with such rights or restrictions as our directors may think fit to impose and as are set forth in our Constitution; and

 

  (b)

to allot and issue ordinary shares in our capital pursuant to any offer, agreement, option or other agreement made, granted or authorized by our directors while this resolution was in effect, regardless of whether the authority conferred by this resolution may have ceased to be in effect at the time of the allotment and issuance,

and that such authority, if approved by our shareholders, shall continue in effect until the earlier of the conclusion of our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders or the expiration of the period within which our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders is required by law to be held;

(Ordinary Resolution 5)


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  6.

To approve, on a non-binding, advisory basis only, the compensation of our named executive officers:

“RESOLVED, on a non-binding, advisory basis only, that the compensation paid to the named executive officers of the Company, as disclosed pursuant to the compensation disclosure rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission, including the Compensation Discussion and Analysis, the compensation tables and the related material disclosed in this proxy statement, is hereby APPROVED.”

This non-binding advisory resolution is being proposed to shareholders as required pursuant to the requirements of Section 14A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The shareholders’ vote on this proposal is solely advisory and non-binding in nature, will have no legal effect for purposes of Singapore law and will not be enforceable against our Company or our Board of Directors; and

(Non-Binding Advisory Resolution 6)

 

7.

To transact such other business as may properly come before the 2021 AGM and all adjournments or postponements thereof.

The Board of Directors recommends the approval of each of the first six proposals.

All of the above proposals should be read in conjunction with the attached proxy statement, which sets out the specific parameters of the proposals.

Each of the matters to be voted on at the 2021 AGM (other than Proposal 6, which is the only non-binding advisory resolution) may be passed by ordinary resolution pursuant to our Constitution.

Notes About the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders

Eligibility to Vote at 2021 AGM. The Board of Directors has fixed the close of business on June 17, 2021 as the record date for determining those shareholders who will be entitled to receive copies of this Notice and the attached proxy statement. As of June 17, 2021, we had 50,313,394 ordinary shares issued and outstanding. However, under Singapore law, only registered holders of our ordinary shares (i.e., persons whose names appear on the Register of Members of the Company maintained in accordance with Section 190 of the Singapore Companies Act), or “shareholders of record,” on the date of the 2021 AGM, August 10, 2021, will be entitled to vote at the 2021 AGM. If you have sold or transferred any of your ordinary shares after June 17, 2021 and prior to the 2021 AGM, you should immediately forward this Notice and the attached proxy statement and proxy card to the purchaser or transferee of such shares, or to the bank, broker or agent through whom the sale of such shares was effected, for onward transmission to the purchaser or transferee. If you hold shares other than in registered form as a shareholder of record, and instead hold your shares as, or through, a participant in DTC (i.e., in “street name”), we understand that in order for your vote to be counted at the 2021 AGM, you must also have been a holder of shares on the date of the 2021 AGM, August 10, 2021.

Proxies. All shareholders of record as of the date of the 2021 AGM are cordially invited to attend the 2021 AGM or appoint a proxy to attend and vote in their place (referred to as a “legal proxy”). A legal proxy need not also be a shareholder of record. Whether or not you plan to attend the 2021 AGM, we urge you to vote and submit your proxy card by mail in order to ensure the presence of a quorum. A proxy card must be received by Vote Processing, c/o Broadridge, 51 Mercedes Way, Edgewood, NY 11717 not less than 48 hours before the time appointed for holding the 2021 AGM or within such other time as may be required by the Singapore Companies Act. Completion and submission of the proxy card shall not preclude a shareholder of record from attending and voting at the 2021 AGM. Any appointment of a legal proxy or proxies will be revoked if a shareholder of record attends and votes in person at the 2021 AGM, and in such event, we reserve the right to refuse to admit any person or persons appointed under the instrument of proxy or proxies to the meeting.

For the avoidance of doubt, the reference to “proxy” in this Notice does not mean a “legal proxy” entitled under Singapore law to attend and vote on behalf of a shareholder of record. The reference to “soliciting your


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proxy” means that a shareholder of record may appoint the persons identified on the proxy card as such shareholder’s legal proxies to vote in accordance with such shareholder’s instructions given via proxy or to authorize such persons to vote freely.

Beneficial or “Street Name” Holders. If your shares are held in “street name” (i.e., in the name of a bank, broker or other shareholder of record), you will receive instructions from the shareholder of record. You must follow the instructions of the shareholder of record in order for your shares to be voted. If your shares are not registered in your own name and you plan to vote your shares in person at the 2021 AGM, you should contact your broker or agent to obtain a legal proxy or broker’s proxy card and bring it to the 2021 AGM in order to vote as a legal proxy.

Singapore Audited Accounts. At the 2021 AGM, our shareholders will have the opportunity to discuss and ask questions regarding our Singapore audited accounts for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, together with the directors’ statement and independent auditors’ report thereon, in compliance with the laws of Singapore. Shareholder approval of our Singapore audited accounts is not being sought by the attached proxy statement and will not be sought at the 2021 AGM.

COVID-19. The 2021 AGM is subject to the evolving COVID-19 situation, and shareholders should note that we may be required or it may be advisable to change our meeting arrangements for the 2021 AGM on short notice. Shareholders should refer to Wave’s website at https://ir.wavelifesciences.com/ and/or its announcements for the latest updates on the status of the 2021 AGM.

When you have finished reading the attached proxy statement, you are urged to vote in accordance with the instructions set forth in the proxy statement. We encourage you to vote by proxy so that your shares will be represented and voted at the 2021 AGM, whether or not you can attend.

Thank you for your continued support of Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

 

  

BY ORDER OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

  

 

LOGO

June 28, 2021

  

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA

  

Director, President and Chief Executive Officer


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     PAGE  

Important Information About the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders and Voting

     2  

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management

     8  

Management and Corporate Governance

     11  

Executive Officer and Director Compensation

     24  

Equity Compensation Plan Information

     34  

Report of Audit Committee

     35  

Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions

     36  

Proposal 1: Election of Directors

     38  

Proposal 2: Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm and Independent Singapore Auditor and Auditor Remuneration

     39  

Proposal 3: Non-Employee Directors’ Compensation

     41  

Proposal 4: 2021 Equity Incentive Plan

     43  

Proposal 5: Ordinary Share Allotments and Issuances

     51  

Proposal 6: Non-Binding Advisory Resolution on Approval of Executive Compensation as Disclosed in the Proxy Statement

     53  

Code of Business Conduct and Ethics

     54  

Other Matters

     54  

Shareholder Proposals and Nominations For Director

     54  

Appendices

  

Appendix A — Singapore Statutory Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2020

     A-1  

Appendix B — 2021 Equity Incentive Plan

     B-1  

 

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IMPORTANT NOTICE REGARDING THE AVAILABILITY OF PROXY MATERIALS

FOR THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF SHAREHOLDERS

TO BE HELD ON AUGUST 10, 2021

The Notice, this proxy statement and our 2020 annual report to shareholders are available for viewing, printing and downloading at https://materials.proxyvote.com/. You can elect to receive distributions of our proxy statements and annual reports to shareholders for future annual general meetings by electronic delivery. For specific instructions on making such an election, please refer to the instructions on the proxy card or voting instruction form.

At no charge, we are providing each person from whom a proxy is solicited a copy of, and access to, our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as amended (our “2020 Form 10-K”). Additionally, you can find a copy of our 2020 Form 10-K on the website of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), at www.sec.gov, or in the “For Investors & Media” section of our website at http://ir.wavelifesciences.com/ under the heading “Financial Information.” You may also obtain a printed copy of our 2020 Form 10-K, free of charge, from us by sending a written request to Investor Relations, Wave Life Sciences Ltd., 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 or by email to IR@wavelifesci.com. Exhibits to our 2020 Form 10-K will be provided upon written request and payment of an appropriate processing fee.

The information provided on our website (www.wavelifesciences.com) is referenced in this proxy statement for information purposes only. The information on our website shall not be deemed to be a part of or incorporated by reference into this proxy statement or any other filings we make with the SEC or any solicitation of proxies by us.

 

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WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

733 CONCORD AVENUE

CAMBRIDGE, MA 02138

PROXY STATEMENT FOR THE WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

2021 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF SHAREHOLDERS

TO BE HELD ON AUGUST 10, 2021

This proxy statement, along with the accompanying Notice of 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders (the “Notice”), contains information about the 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (including any adjournments or postponements thereof), which we refer to in this proxy statement as the “2021 AGM.” We are holding the 2021 AGM at 11:00 a.m., Eastern Time, on Tuesday, August 10, 2021, at 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. The 2021 AGM is subject to the evolving COVID-19 situation, and shareholders should note that we may be required or it may be advisable to change our meeting arrangements for the 2021 AGM on short notice. Shareholders should refer to Wave’s website at https://ir.wavelifesciences.com/ and/or its announcements for the latest updates on the status of the 2021 AGM.

In this proxy statement, we refer to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. as “Wave,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our.”

This proxy statement relates to the solicitation of proxies by our Board of Directors for use at the 2021 AGM.

On or about June 30, 2021, we intend to begin sending this proxy statement, the Notice and the enclosed proxy card to shareholders of record as of June 17, 2021.

Although not part of this proxy statement, we are also sending, along with this proxy statement, our 2020 annual report to shareholders, which includes our financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. Except as otherwise stated herein, all monetary amounts in this proxy statement have been presented in U.S. dollars.

 

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IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF SHAREHOLDERS AND VOTING

Why is the Company Soliciting My Proxy?

The Board of Directors of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (the “Board” or our “Board”) is soliciting your proxy to vote at the 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders (the “2021 AGM”) to be held at 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 on Tuesday, August 10, 2021, at 11:00 a.m., Eastern Time, and any adjournments or postponements of the 2021 AGM. The 2021 AGM is subject to the evolving COVID-19 situation, and shareholders should note that we may be required or it may be advisable to change our meeting arrangements for the 2021 AGM on short notice. This proxy statement, along with the Notice, summarizes the purposes of the meeting and the information you need to know to vote at the 2021 AGM.

We have made available to you on the Internet or have sent you this proxy statement, the Notice, the proxy card, and our 2020 annual report to shareholders because you owned ordinary shares of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. on the record date for determining those shareholders who will be entitled to receive copies of the Notice and this proxy statement. We intend to begin distributing the proxy materials to shareholders on or about June 30, 2021.

For the avoidance of doubt, the reference to “proxy” in this proxy statement does not mean a “legal proxy” entitled under Singapore law to attend and vote on behalf of a shareholder of record. The reference to “soliciting your proxy” means that a shareholder of record may appoint the persons identified on the proxy card as such shareholder’s legal proxy to vote in accordance with such shareholder’s instructions given via proxy or to authorize such persons to vote freely.

Who Can Vote?

The Board has fixed the close of business on June 17, 2021 as the record date for determining those shareholders who will be entitled to receive copies of the Notice and this proxy statement. As of June 17, 2021, we had 50,313,394 ordinary shares issued and outstanding. However, under Singapore law, only registered holders of our ordinary shares, or “shareholders of record,” on the date of the 2021 AGM, August 10, 2021, will be entitled to vote at the 2021 AGM. If you have sold or transferred any of your ordinary shares after the record date of June 17, 2021 and prior to the 2021 AGM, you should immediately forward the Notice, this proxy statement and the proxy card to the purchaser or transferee of such shares, or to the bank, broker or agent through whom the sale of such shares was effected, for onward transmission to the purchaser or transferee. If you hold shares other than in registered form as a shareholder of record, and instead hold your shares as, or through, a participant in DTC (i.e., in “street name”), we understand that in order for your vote to be counted at the 2021 AGM (represented by a shareholder of record), you must also have been a holder of shares on the date of the 2021 AGM, August 10, 2021.

All shareholders of record as of the date of the 2021 AGM are cordially invited to attend the 2021 AGM or appoint a legal proxy to attend and vote in their place. A legal proxy need not also be a shareholder of record. Whether or not you plan to attend the 2021 AGM, we urge you to vote and submit your proxy card by mail in order to ensure the presence of a quorum. A proxy card must be received by Vote Processing, c/o Broadridge, 51 Mercedes Way, Edgewood, NY 11717 not less than 48 hours before the time appointed for holding the 2021 AGM or within such other time as may be required by the Singapore Companies Act. Completion and submission of the proxy card shall not preclude a shareholder of record from attending and voting at the 2021 AGM. Any appointment of a legal proxy or proxies will be revoked if a shareholder of record attends and votes in person at the 2021 AGM, and in such event, we reserve the right to refuse to admit any person or persons appointed under the instrument of proxy or proxies to the meeting. Shareholders of record may change or revoke their legal proxies at any time before their shares are voted at the 2021 AGM. For instructions on how to change or revoke your legal proxy, see “May I Change or Revoke My Proxy?” below.

 

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How Many Votes Do I Have?

Each ordinary share that you own or represent as a legal proxy entitles you to one vote at the 2021 AGM. The Series A preferred shares of the Company are not entitled to vote on any of the matters being proposed at the 2021 AGM.

How Do I Vote?

If you are not planning to attend the 2021 AGM, we urge you to vote by proxy. All shares represented by valid proxies that we receive through this solicitation, and that are not revoked, will be voted in accordance with your instructions on the proxy card. You may specify whether your shares should be voted for, against or abstain for each nominee for director, and whether your shares should be voted for, against or abstain with respect to each of the other proposals. If you properly submit a proxy card without giving specific voting instructions, your shares will be voted in accordance with the Board’s recommendations as noted below, except as described under “Will My Shares be Voted if I Do Not Vote or Provide Voting Instructions?” Voting by proxy will not affect your right to attend the 2021 AGM. If you are a shareholder of record such that your shares are registered directly in your name through our transfer agent, Computershare Trust Company, N.A., or you have share certificates registered in your name, you may vote:

 

   

By mail. If you received a proxy card by mail, you can vote by mail by completing, signing, dating and returning the proxy card as instructed on the card. If you sign the proxy card but do not specify how you want your shares voted, they will be voted in accordance with the Board’s recommendations as noted below.

 

   

In person at the meeting. If you attend the meeting, you may vote by completing a ballot, which will be available at the meeting.

A proxy card must be received by Vote Processing, c/o Broadridge, 51 Mercedes Way, Edgewood, NY 11717 not less than 48 hours before the time appointed for holding the 2021 AGM or within such other time as may be required by the Singapore Companies Act.

If your shares are held in “street name” (i.e., in the name of a bank, broker or other shareholder of record), you will receive instructions from the shareholder of record. You must follow the instructions of the shareholder of record in order for your shares to be voted. If your shares are not registered in your own name and you plan to vote your shares in person at the 2021 AGM, you should contact your broker or agent to obtain a legal proxy or broker’s proxy card and bring it to the 2021 AGM in order to vote.

How Does the Board of Directors Recommend That I Vote on the Proposals?

The Board of Directors recommends that you vote as follows:

 

   

FOR” each of the resolutions for the election of the nominees for director;

 

   

FOR” the approval of the re-appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor for the year ending December 31, 2021 and the authorization of the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors to fix KPMG LLP’s remuneration for services provided through the date of our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders;

 

   

FOR” the approval of cash and equity-based compensation to be paid to the non-employee members of the Board of Directors for service on the Board of Directors and its committees (including payment in arrears to the Research and Development Committee for service for the period of January 1, 2021 through the date of the 2021 AGM and payments relating to withholding taxes to be paid to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service on behalf of one of our ex-U.S. Directors), as described under “Proposal 3: Non-Employee Directors’ Compensation”;

 

   

FOR” the approval of the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan;

 

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FOR” the authorization of the Board of Directors to allot and issue ordinary shares of the Company; and

 

   

FOR” the non-binding advisory resolution on compensation of our named executive officers, as disclosed in this proxy statement.

If any other matter is presented at the 2021 AGM, your proxy card provides that your shares will be voted by the proxy holder listed in the proxy card in accordance with the proxy holder’s judgment. At the time this proxy statement was first made available, we knew of no matters that needed to be acted on at the 2021 AGM, other than those discussed in this proxy statement.

May I Change or Revoke My Proxy?

If you give us your proxy, you may change or revoke it at any time before or at the 2021 AGM in any one of the following ways:

 

   

if you received a proxy card, by signing and submitting a new proxy card with a date later than your previously delivered proxy card, which must be received by Vote Processing, c/o Broadridge, 51 Mercedes Way, Edgewood, NY 11717 not less than 48 hours before the time appointed for holding the 2021 AGM or within such other time as may be required by the Singapore Companies Act; or

 

   

by attending and voting at the 2021 AGM in person. Any appointment of a legal proxy or proxies will be revoked if a shareholder of record attends and votes in person at the 2021 AGM.

Your most current vote is the one that will be counted.

What if I Receive More Than One Proxy Card?

You may receive more than one proxy card if you hold any of our ordinary shares in more than one account, which may be in registered form or held in street name. Please vote in the manner described above under “How Do I Vote?” for each account to ensure that all of your shares are voted.

Will My Shares be Voted if I Do Not Vote or Provide Voting Instructions?

If your shares are registered in your name or if you have share certificates, they will not be counted if you do not vote as described above under “How Do I Vote?”. If your shares are held in street name and you do not provide voting instructions to the bank, broker or other nominee that holds your shares as described above, the bank, broker or other nominee that holds your shares has the authority to vote your unvoted shares without receiving instructions from you on Proposal 2: the approval of the re-appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor and the authorization of KPMG’s remuneration. We encourage you to provide voting instructions to your bank, broker or other nominee to ensure your shares will be voted at the 2021 AGM and in the manner you desire. A “broker non-vote” will occur if your broker cannot vote your shares on a particular matter because it has not received instructions from you and does not have discretionary voting authority on that matter or because your broker chooses not to vote on a matter for which it does have discretionary voting authority.

What Vote is Required to Approve Each Proposal and How are Votes Counted?

 

Proposal 1: Elect Directors

   Each nominee for director who receives the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by the holders of ordinary shares voting either in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM will be elected to serve until the next annual general meeting of shareholders (meaning the number of shares voted “for” a nominee must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such nominee).

 

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   You may vote either “for” or “against” each of the nominees, or you may “abstain” from voting for one or more nominees. If you “abstain” from voting with respect to one or more nominees, your vote will have no effect on the election of such nominees. Brokerage firms do not have authority to vote customers’ unvoted shares held by the firms in street name with respect to this proposal. As a result, any shares not voted by a customer will be treated as a broker non-vote. Such broker non-votes will have no effect on the results of this vote.

Proposal 2: Approve the Re-Appointment of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm and Independent Singapore Auditor and Authorize the Auditor’s Remuneration

   The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to approve the re-appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm and our independent Singapore auditor and to authorize the Audit Committee to fix the auditor’s remuneration (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).
   You may vote either “for” or “against” or “abstain” from voting on this proposal. Abstentions will have no effect on the results of this vote. Brokerage firms have authority to vote customers’ unvoted shares held by the firms in street name on this proposal. If a broker does not exercise this authority, such broker non-votes will have no effect on the results of this vote.

Proposal 3: Approve the Non-Employee Directors’ Compensation

   The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to approve the non-employee directors’ compensation (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).
   You may vote either “for” or “against” or “abstain” from voting on this proposal. Abstentions will have no effect on the results of this vote. Brokerage firms do not have authority to vote customers’ unvoted shares held by the firms in street name with respect to this proposal. As a result, any shares not voted by a customer will be treated as a broker non-vote. Such broker non-votes will have no effect on the results of this vote.

Proposal 4: Approve the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan

   The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to approve the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).

 

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   You may vote either “for” or “against” or “abstain” from voting on this proposal. Abstentions will have no effect on the results of this vote. Brokerage firms do not have authority to vote customers’ unvoted shares held by the firms in street name with respect to this proposal. As a result, any shares not voted by a customer will be treated as a broker non-vote. Such broker non-votes will have no effect on the results of this vote.

Proposal 5: Authorize the Board to Allot and Issue Ordinary Shares of the Company

   The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to authorize the Board to allot and issue ordinary shares of the Company (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).
   You may vote either “for” or “against” or “abstain” from voting on this proposal. Abstentions will have no effect on the results of this vote. Brokerage firms do not have authority to vote customers’ unvoted shares held by the firms in street name with respect to this proposal. As a result, any shares not voted by a customer will be treated as a broker non-vote. Such broker non-votes will have no effect on the results of this vote.

Proposal 6: Approve a Non-Binding Advisory Resolution on the Compensation of our Named Executive Officers

   This non-binding advisory resolution is being proposed to shareholders as required pursuant to Section 14A of the Exchange Act. The shareholders’ vote on this proposal is solely advisory and non-binding in nature, will have no legal effect for purposes of Singapore law and will not be enforceable against our Company or our Board. For the avoidance of doubt, this is not an Ordinary Resolution.
   The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to approve, on a non-binding, advisory basis only, the compensation of our named executive officers, as described in this proxy statement (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).
   You may vote either “for” or “against” or “abstain” from voting on this proposal. Abstentions will have no effect on the results of this vote. Brokerage firms do not have authority to vote customers’ unvoted shares held by the firms in street name with respect to this proposal. As a result, any shares not voted by a customer will be treated as a broker non-vote. Such broker non-votes will have no effect on the results of this vote.

 

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Where Can I Find the Voting Results of the 2021 AGM?

The preliminary voting results will be announced at the 2021 AGM, and we will publish preliminary results, or final results if available, in a Current Report on Form 8-K within four business days after the 2021 AGM. If final results are unavailable at the time we file the Form 8-K, then we will file an amended report on Form 8-K to disclose the final voting results within four business days after the final voting results are known.

What Are the Costs of Soliciting these Proxies?

We will pay all of the costs of soliciting these proxies. Our directors and employees may solicit proxies in person or by telephone, fax or email. We will pay these employees and directors no additional compensation for these services. We will ask banks, brokers and other institutions, nominees and fiduciaries to forward these proxy materials to their principals and to obtain authority to execute proxies. We will then reimburse them for their expenses.

We have engaged Innisfree to act as our proxy solicitor in connection with the proposals to be acted upon at our 2021 AGM. Pursuant to our agreement with our proxy solicitor, our proxy solicitor will, among other things, provide advice regarding proxy solicitation issues and solicit proxies from our shareholders on our behalf in connection with the 2021 AGM. For these services, we will pay a fee of approximately $20,000 plus expenses. If you have any questions or require any assistance, you may contact Innisfree using a dedicated toll-free number at 877-717-3898.

What Constitutes a Quorum for the 2021 AGM?

In order to hold the meeting, there must be a quorum. The presence, in person or by proxy, of at least two shareholders holding in aggregate at least a majority of all issued and outstanding ordinary shares entitled to vote at the 2021 AGM is necessary to constitute a quorum at the 2021 AGM. Votes of shareholders of record who are present in person or represented by proxy at the 2021 AGM, abstentions and broker non-votes are counted for purposes of determining whether a quorum exists.

Attending the 2021 AGM

The 2021 AGM will be held at 11:00 a.m., Eastern Time, on Tuesday, August 10, 2021 at 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. When you arrive, signs will direct you to the appropriate meeting rooms. You need not attend the 2021 AGM in person in order to vote, provided that your proxy is present to represent your vote. The 2021 AGM is subject to the evolving COVID-19 situation, and shareholders should note that we may be required or it may be advisable to change our meeting arrangements for the 2021 AGM on short notice. Shareholders should refer to Wave’s website at https://ir.wavelifesciences.com/ and/or its announcements for the latest updates on the status of the 2021 AGM.

Singapore Statutory Financial Statements

Our Singapore audited accounts for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, prepared in conformity with the provisions of the laws of Singapore, and the accompanying directors’ statement and the independent auditors’ report thereon are required under Singapore law and our Constitution to be provided to shareholders for discussion at the 2021 AGM. We refer to such materials herein collectively as the “Singapore Statutory Financial Statements.” The Singapore Statutory Financial Statements are provided as Appendix A to this proxy statement solely to satisfy this requirement. At the 2021 AGM, our shareholders will have the opportunity to discuss and ask questions regarding the Singapore Statutory Financial Statements. Shareholder approval of the Singapore Statutory Financial Statements is not being sought by this proxy statement for the 2021 AGM and will not be sought at the 2021 AGM. The Singapore Statutory Financial Statements shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or under the Exchange Act, or be subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate this information by reference into any such filing.

 

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SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF

CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the beneficial ownership of our ordinary shares as of June 15, 2021 for (i) the executive officers named in the Summary Compensation Table appearing elsewhere in this proxy statement, (ii) each of our directors, (iii) all of our current directors and executive officers as a group, and (iv) each shareholder known by us to own beneficially more than 5% of our ordinary shares. Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and includes voting or investment power with respect to the securities. We deem ordinary shares that may be acquired by an individual or group within 60 days after June 15, 2021 pursuant to the exercise of options, the vesting of restricted share unit awards, or the conversion of our outstanding Series A preferred shares into ordinary shares to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of such individual or group, but such shares are not deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person shown in the table. Except as indicated in footnotes to this table, we believe that the shareholders named in this table have sole voting and investment power with respect to all ordinary shares shown to be beneficially owned by them based on information provided to us by these shareholders. Percentage ownership is based on 50,231,204 ordinary shares outstanding on June 15, 2021.

 

     Ordinary Shares
Beneficially Owned
 

Name

   Shares      Percent  

5% Beneficial Owners

     

RA Capital Management, L.P.(1)

     7,775,207        15.5

Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd.(2)

     5,885,478        10.9

PRIMECAP Management Company(3)

     3,924,475        7.8

Entities Affiliated with Deerfield Mgmt., L.P.(4)

     3,910,430        7.8

Nantahala Capital Management, LLC(5)

     3,357,305        6.7

BlackRock, Inc.(6)

     3,025,204        6.0

BB Biotech AG(7)

     2,602,858        5.2

Directors and Named Executive Officers

     

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA(8)

     865,338        1.7

Michael Panzara, M.D., MPH(9)

     216,032        *  

Chandra Vargeese, Ph.D.(10)

     343,538        *  

Mark H. N. Corrigan, M.D.(11)

     19,687        *  

Christian Henry(11)

     57,000        *  

Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D.(12)

     7,823,207        15.6

Adrian Rawcliffe(11)

     57,000        *  

Ken Takanashi(13)

     5,933,478        11.0

Aik Na Tan

     —          *  

Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D.(14)

     344,402        *  

Heidi L. Wagner, J.D.(11)

     19,687        *  

All current directors and executive officers as a group (13 individuals)(15)

     15,923,624        28.4

 

*

Represents less than 1% of ordinary shares outstanding on June 15, 2021.

(1)

Based on information reported by RA Capital Management, L.P. (“RA Capital”). Such shares are held by RA Capital Healthcare Fund, L.P. (the “Fund”) and in a separately managed account (the “Account”). On April 1, 2021, the Fund acquired a participation interest in the reported shares as part of a reorganization of the assets of the Account (the “Reorganization”). RA Capital is the investment manager for the Fund and the Account. The general partner of RA Capital is RA Capital Management GP, LLC, of which Dr. Peter Kolchinsky and Mr. Rajeev Shah are the managing members. Investment decisions with respect to shares held by the Fund and the Account are made by a portfolio management team at RA Capital of which Dr. Peter Kolchinsky, a member of our Board, is a member. RA Capital, RA Capital Management GP, LLC, Dr. Kolchinsky and Mr. Shah may be deemed indirect beneficial owners of the shares held by the Fund and

 

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  the Account. RA Capital, RA Capital Management GP, LLC, Dr. Kolchinsky and Mr. Shah expressly disclaim beneficial ownership over all shares held by the Fund and the Account, except to the extent of their pecuniary interest therein. The Fund disclaims beneficial ownership of those securities reported by the Account, except to the extent of its pecuniary interest therein. The address for RA Capital is 200 Berkeley Street, 18th Floor, Boston, MA 02116.
(2)

Based on information reported by Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (“SNBL”) on Schedule 13D/A filed with the SEC on February 20, 2019. Consists of (i) 1,697,467 ordinary shares held by SNBL; (ii) 286,663 ordinary shares held by SNBL USA, Ltd. (“SNBL USA”); (iii) 1,801,348 Series A preferred shares held by SNBL; and (iv) 2,100,000 Series A preferred shares held by SNBL USA. The Series A preferred shares can be converted at any time on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares at the discretion of the holder. Ken Takanashi, a member of our Board, is an executive officer of SNBL and an executive officer and director of SNBL USA. SNBL and Mr. Takanashi share voting and dispositive power with respect to such shares and may be deemed to beneficially own such shares. The address of SNBL is St. Luke’s Tower 28F, 8-1, Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0044, Japan.

(3)

Based on information reported by PRIMECAP Management Company on Schedule 13G/A filed with the SEC on February 12, 2021. The address of PRIMECAP Management Company is 177 E. Colorado Blvd., 11th Floor, Pasadena, CA 91105.

(4)

Based on information reported by James E. Flynn on Schedule 13G filed with the SEC on April 9, 2021. Consists of shares held by Deerfield Partners, L.P., of which Deerfield Management Company, L.P. is the investment advisor and Deerfield Mgmt, L.P. is a general partner. The Schedule 13G indicates that shares are beneficially owned by Deerfield Mgmt, L.P., Deerfield Management Company, L.P., Deerfield Partners, L.P. and James E. Flynn. The address of these entities and Mr. Flynn is 345 Park Avenue South, 12th Floor, New York, NY 10010.

(5)

Based on information reported by Nantahala Capital Management, LLC on Schedule 13G filed with the SEC on February 16, 2021. Consists of shares beneficially owned by Nantahala Capital Management, LLC held by funds and separately managed accounts under its control. Wilmot B. Harkey and Daniel Mack are the managing members of Nantahala Capital Management, LLC and may be deemed to beneficially own such shares. The address of Nantahala Capital Management, Wilmot B. Harkey and Daniel Mack is 130 Main Street, 2nd Floor, New Canaan, CT 06840.

(6)

Based on information reported by BlackRock, Inc. on Schedule 13G filed with the SEC on February 2, 2021. Includes shares beneficially owned by BlackRock Advisors, LLC, BlackRock Investment Management (UK) Limited, BlackRock Asset Management Canada Limited, BlackRock Fund Advisors, BlackRock Asset Management Ireland Limited, BlackRock Institutional Trust Company, National Association, BlackRock Financial Management, Inc., BlackRock Japan Co., Ltd., BlackRock Asset Management Schweiz AG and BlackRock Investment Management, LLC. The filing noted that BlackRock, Inc. is a parent holding company or control person and claims sole dispositive power for 3,025,204 shares and sole voting power for 2,994,883 shares. The address of BlackRock, Inc. is 55 East 52nd Street, New York, NY 10055.

(7)

Based on information reported by BB Biotech AG and Biotech Target N.V on Schedule 13G/A filed with the SEC on February 12, 2021. Such shares are held by Biotech Target N.V., a wholly-owned subsidiary of BB Biotech AG. The address of BB Biotech AG is Schwertstrasse 6, CH-8200 Schaffhausen, Switzerland and the address of Biotech Target N.V. is Ara Hill Top Building, Unit A-5, Pletterijweg Oost 1, Curaçao.

(8)

Consists of (i) 217,351 ordinary shares held by Dr. Bolno and (ii) 647,987 ordinary shares underlying options exercisable within 60 days of June 15, 2021.

(9)

Consists of (i) 24,545 ordinary shares held by Dr. Panzara and (ii) 191,487 ordinary shares underlying options exercisable within 60 days of June 15, 2021.

(10)

Consists of (i) 22,037 ordinary shares held by Dr. Vargeese and (ii) 321,501 ordinary shares underlying options exercisable within 60 days of June 15, 2021.

(11)

Consists of ordinary shares underlying options exercisable within 60 days of June 15, 2021.

(12)

See Footnote (1) above. Also consists of 48,000 ordinary shares underlying options exercisable within 60 days of June 15, 2021 held by Dr. Kolchinsky.

 

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(13)

See Footnote (2) above. Also consists of 48,000 ordinary shares underlying options exercisable within 60 days of June 15, 2021 held by Mr. Takanashi.

(14)

Consists of (i) 30,000 ordinary shares held by Dr. Verdine and (ii) 314,402 ordinary shares underlying options exercisable within 60 days of June 15, 2021.

(15)

Consists of (i) 1,938,307 ordinary shares underlying options exercisable within 60 days of June 15, 2021, held by our current directors and executive officers, (ii) 10,083,969 outstanding ordinary shares beneficially owned by our current directors and executive officers and entities affiliated with certain of our directors, and (iii) 3,901,348 Series A preferred shares, which can be converted at any time on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares at the discretion of the holder, held by entities affiliated with one of our directors.

 

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MANAGEMENT AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Board of Directors

Pursuant to our Constitution, there is no maximum number of directors that may hold office at any time. Our Board currently consists of nine members and each of our directors is elected annually. Our Constitution requires that each of our directors retire at each annual general meeting of our shareholders, and each retiring director is then eligible for re-election.

On June 14, 2021, our Board accepted the recommendation of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and voted to nominate Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA, Mark H.N. Corrigan, M.D., Christian Henry, Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D., Adrian Rawcliffe, Ken Takanashi, Aik Na Tan, Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D., and Heidi L. Wagner, J.D., each currently a director of the Company, for election at the 2021 AGM. If each such nominee is elected, he or she will serve on our Board until our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders and until his or her successor has been elected and qualified.

Pursuant to the Singapore Companies Act, Chapter 50 (the “Singapore Companies Act”) and our Constitution, our Board must have at least one director who is ordinarily resident in Singapore. Ms. Tan is currently our Singapore resident director. Due to the Singapore Companies Act requirement that we have at least one director who is ordinarily resident in Singapore in office at all times, the sole resident director cannot resign or step down unless there is at least one other resident director. In the event that Ms. Tan is not elected at the 2021 AGM, she will continue in office after the 2021 AGM as a member of our Board until her qualifying successor (i.e., a Singapore resident director) is appointed.

Set forth below are the names of our directors, their ages as of June 15, 2021, their offices in the Company, if any, their principal occupations or employment for at least the past five years, the length of their tenure as directors and the names of other public companies in which they hold or have held directorships during the past five years. In addition, information about the specific experience, qualifications, attributes or skills that led to our Board’s conclusion at the time of filing of this proxy statement that each person listed below should serve as a director is set forth below.

 

Name

   Age     

Position/Title

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA

     47      President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

Christian Henry

     53      Chairman of the Board

Mark H.N. Corrigan, M.D.

     63      Director

Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D.

     44      Director

Adrian Rawcliffe

     49      Director

Ken Takanashi

     57      Director

Aik Na Tan

     50      Director

Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D.

     62      Director

Heidi L. Wagner, J.D.

     56      Director

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer since December 2013 and as a director since April 2014. Prior to joining us, he served at GlaxoSmithKline from 2009 to 2013 in various roles, including Vice President, Worldwide Business Development — Head of Asia BD and Investments, Head of Global Neuroscience BD, a director of Glaxo Welcome Manufacturing, Pte. Ltd. in Singapore and Vice President, Business Development for the Oncology Business Unit, where he helped establish GlaxoSmithKline’s global oncology business and served as a member of the Oncology Executive Team, Oncology Commercial Board and Cancer Research Executive Team. Prior to GlaxoSmithKline, he served as director of Research at Two River LLC, a health care private equity firm from 2004 to 2009. Dr. Bolno earned a medical degree from MCP-Hahnemann School of Medicine and an M.B.A. from Drexel University. He was a general surgery resident and cardiothoracic surgery postdoctoral research fellow at Drexel University College of Medicine. We believe

 

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that Dr. Bolno’s experience serving as our President and Chief Executive Officer since 2013, his medical degree and clinical training in cardiothoracic surgery, his business degree and experience evaluating life sciences companies in healthcare private equity, and his extensive business development and operating experience working in various roles at one of the world’s largest global healthcare companies qualify him to serve on our Board.

Christian Henry has served as a director since November 2016, and as Chairman of our Board since October 2017. Mr. Henry currently serves as the Chief Executive Officer of Pacific Biosciences, a publicly traded life sciences company, a position he has held since September 2020. Mr. Henry has also served on the board of directors of Pacific Biosciences since 2018 and serves on the board of directors of Ginkgo Bioworks, a private synthetic biology company. Mr. Henry served as Executive Vice President & Chief Commercial Officer of Illumina, Inc. from 2015 through January 2017, and previously served as Senior Vice President & Chief Commercial Officer from 2014 to 2015, Senior Vice President & General Manager Genomic Solutions from 2012 to 2014, Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer & General Manager Life Sciences from 2010 to 2012, Senior Vice President, Corporate Development & Chief Financial Officer from 2009 to 2010, Senior Vice President & Chief Financial Officer from 2007 to 2009, and Vice President & Chief Financial Officer from 2005 to 2006. Prior to joining Illumina, Inc., Mr. Henry served as the Chief Financial Officer of Tickets.com, Inc. from 2003 to 2005. From 1999 to 2003, Mr. Henry served as Vice President, Finance & Corporate Controller of Affymetrix, Inc. (acquired by Thermo Fisher Scientific in 2016). In 1997, Mr. Henry joined Nektar Therapeutics (formerly Inhale Therapeutic Systems, Inc.), as Corporate Controller, and later as its Chief Accounting Officer from 1997 to 1999. In 1996, Mr. Henry served as General Accounting Manager of Sugen, Inc. Mr. Henry began his career in 1992 at Ernst & Young LLP, where he was a Senior Accountant through 1996. Mr. Henry earned his B.A. in biochemistry and cell biology from the University of California, San Diego, and his M.B.A., with a concentration in finance, from the University of California, Irvine. We believe he is qualified to serve on our Board and as our Chairman because of his proven strengths in corporate strategy, finance and operations, along with his extensive experience leading various functions at one of the largest and most innovative genetic healthcare companies, and his experience as a board member, board committee member and chief executive officer of publicly-traded life sciences companies.

Mark H.N. Corrigan, M.D. has served as a director since September 2019. Dr. Corrigan served as the Chief Executive Officer of Correvio Pharma Corp. from March 2019 to May 2020. Prior to joining Correvio, Dr. Corrigan was President of Research and Development at Tremeau Pharmaceuticals from 2016 to March 2019. Dr. Corrigan served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Zalicus, Inc. (formerly CombinatoRx) from 2010 to 2014. Prior to that time, from 2003 to 2009, Dr. Corrigan held the role of Executive Vice President, Research and Development at Sepracor Inc. From 2000 to 2003, Dr. Corrigan served as Group Vice President, Clinical Research & Experimental Medicine at Pharmacia Corporation. Prior to this, Dr. Corrigan held various roles at The Upjohn Company, The University of North Carolina, and the National Institute of Mental Health Center for Psychoneuroendocrinology in Adults and Children at Dorthea Dix Hospital. Dr. Corrigan currently serves as a member of the board of directors of Exacis Biotherapeutics, Inc., Nabriva Therapeutics plc, and Tremeau Pharmaceuticals (of which he is also a co-founder). Dr. Corrigan previously served as a member of the board of directors of Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc., CoLucid Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Correvio Pharma Corp., and Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Dr. Corrigan holds an M.D. from the University of Virginia and received specialty training in psychiatry at Maine Medical Center and Cornell University. He received a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology from the University of Virginia. We believe he is qualified to serve on our Board because of his extensive experience working with clinical-stage, publicly-traded biopharmaceutical companies as a board member, board committee member and chief executive officer, his medical degree and clinical training in psychiatry, and his clinical and regulatory expertise.

Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D. has served as a director since January 2015. Dr. Kolchinsky is a founder and Managing Partner of RA Capital Management, L.P., a multi-stage investment manager which is dedicated to evidence-based investing in healthcare and life science companies that are developing drugs, medical devices, and diagnostics, where he has worked since 2001. RA Capital Management, L.P. is the investment manager of

 

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RA Capital Healthcare Fund, L.P. Dr. Kolchinsky also serves as the Chairman and CEO of Therapeutics Acquisition Corp. (AKA Research Alliance Corp. I) and Chairman and CEO of Research Alliance Corp. II. Dr. Kolchinsky plans to step down as Chairman and CEO of Therapeutics Acquisition Corp. and is not standing for re-election in connection with its previously announced business combination with an operating company. A special meeting of the shareholders of Therapeutics Acquisition Corp. is scheduled for June 29, 2021, at which the shareholders will be asked to approve the business combination. He serves as a member of the board of directors of Forma Therapeutics Holdings, Inc., Therapeutics Acquisition Corp, and Research Alliance Corp. II. Dr. Kolchinsky also leads RA Capital’s engagement and publishing efforts, which aim to make a positive social impact and spark collaboration among healthcare stakeholders, including patients, physicians, researchers, policymakers, and industry. He served on the Board of Global Science and Technology for the National Academy of Sciences from 2009 to 2012, is the author of “The Great American Drug Deal” and “The Entrepreneur’s Guide to a Biotech Startup”, and frequently writes and speaks on the future of biotechnology innovation. Dr. Kolchinsky earned his Ph.D. in virology from Harvard University and earned his bachelor’s degree in Biology from Cornell University. We believe he is qualified to serve on our Board because of his scientific acumen, strong reputation as a thought leader in the life sciences industry, his extensive experience investing in and forming, building and growing life sciences companies and mentoring their management teams, as well as his experience as an institutional investor and his experience serving as a board member, board committee member, and board observer of various publicly-traded and privately-held healthcare and life science companies.

Adrian Rawcliffe has served as a director since February 2017. Since September 2019, Mr. Rawcliffe has served as the Chief Executive Officer of Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc. From 2015 to September 2019, he served as Adaptimmune’s Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining Adaptimmune, Mr. Rawcliffe served in various roles at GlaxoSmithKline plc, including Senior Vice President Finance, North America Pharmaceuticals and Global Franchises from 2011 to 2015; Senior Vice President, Worldwide Business Development and R&D Finance from 2006 to 2011; Vice President, Worldwide Business Development Transactions and Ventures from 2003 to 2005; and Vice President, Deal Structuring from 2001 to 2003. From 2005 to 2006, Mr. Rawcliffe served as the President and Managing Partner of SR One Ltd. Mr. Rawcliffe began his career as a supervisor at Coopers & Lybrand (now PricewaterhouseCoopers) from 1993 to 1997. Mr. Rawcliffe received his B.Sc. in Natural Sciences from the University of Durham, England. Mr. Rawcliffe also received Chartered Accountancy training through The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW). We believe he is qualified to serve on our Board because of his global operating and business leadership experience working in the biopharmaceutical industry, his experience as a board member, board committee member, chief financial officer and chief executive officer of publicly traded biotechnology companies, and his extensive operating and corporate development experience working in various roles at one of the world’s largest global healthcare companies.

Ken Takanashi has served as a director since July 2012. Since 2002, Mr. Takanashi has served in various executive management and director roles at Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories Ltd. (“SNBL”) and its affiliates and currently serves as its Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Takanashi was the Chief Financial Officer of SNBL USA, Ltd., a subsidiary of Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, from 2012 to 2014. Mr. Takanashi also serves on the board of directors of Satsuma Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a publicly traded biopharmaceutical company. Mr. Takanashi earned an M.B.A. from the University of Warwick and received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Tokyo and is a Chartered Public Accountant. We believe he is qualified to serve on our Board because of his extensive experience leading global research and development organizations in the biopharmaceutical industry, his experience forming, building and taking life sciences companies public, his experience serving as a board member and board committee member of various publicly-traded life sciences companies, his long-standing history with Wave, his close familiarity with our Japanese operations, and his business, financial and accounting credentials.

Aik Na Tan has served as a director since August 2020. Ms. Tan currently serves as Senior Vice-President (Administration) at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU), a position she has held since January

 

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2020. From when she joined NTU in August 2016 to December 2017, she served as NTU’s Chief Financial Officer. She also served as NTU’s Chief Administrative Officer from April 2017 to December 2017 and as NTU’s Vice-President (Administration) from January 2018 to December 2019. Prior to joining NTU, Ms. Tan served as Global Finance Transformation Leader & Managing Director of the Chemours Company Singapore Pte Ltd, a spin-off from DuPont, from 2015 to 2016. From 1994 to 2015, Ms. Tan held numerous global and regional leadership roles at DuPont in accounting, corporate treasury, six sigma, financial systems, supply chain, operations, financial and strategic planning, including various positions at DuPont Company (Singapore) Pte Ltd, most recently serving as the Chief Financial Officer of DuPont Titanium Technologies from November 2011 to February 2015. Ms. Tan began her professional career as a tax assistant at Price Waterhouse. Ms. Tan holds a Bachelor of Accountancy degree from the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, and is a member of the Institute of Singapore Chartered Accountants. We believe she is qualified to serve on our Board because of her extensive experience as a chief financial officer and chief administrative officer, her broad operations experience working in Singapore corporations, her experience working on boards of directors and committees thereof, as well as her business, financial and accounting credentials.

Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D. is one of our founders and has served as a director since July 2013. He was our President, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Scientific Officer from our inception through December 2013 and served as Chairman of our Board from July 2013 through September 2017. Since 1989, Dr. Verdine has served as the Erving Professor of Chemistry in the Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology and the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard University and Harvard Medical School; he is now Erving Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus. Dr. Verdine co-founded the non-profit Gloucester Marine Genomics Institute and Gloucester Biotechnology Academy in 2013 and served as the Founding President until 2016. He is the co-founder of Fog Pharmaceuticals Inc. and currently serves as President and Chief Executive Officer for the company. He is also Chief Executive Officer and Chief Scientific Officer of LifeMine Therapeutics Inc. He is also the founder of Warp Drive Bio (merged with Revolution Medicines, Inc. (Nasdaq: RVMD)) and served in various roles, from Chief Scientific Officer to Chief Executive Officer, from the company’s inception in 2012 until April 2016. Dr. Verdine founded Enanta Pharmaceuticals and served as a member of its board of directors from 1990 through its initial public offering in 2013. He is a Venture Partner at WuXi Healthcare Ventures, and has previously served as Venture Partner at AppleTree Ventures, TPG Biotech and Third Rock Ventures. He has served on the Board of Scientific Counsellors of the National Cancer Institute, and is on the Board of Scientific Consultants of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and he is a Senior Advisor to Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories Ltd. Dr. Verdine is also the co-founder of Eleven Biotherapeutics, Tokai Therapeutics, Aileron Therapeutics, and Gloucester Pharmaceuticals (acquired by Celgene in 2010). He has also served as a director of the Chemical Biology Initiative and the Program in Cancer Chemical Biology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Dr. Verdine received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from Columbia University and completed postdoctoral work in Molecular Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard Medical School. We believe he is qualified to serve on our Board because of his expertise and deep knowledge of our technology as one of our co-founders, his vast expertise in unique protein chemistry, including as a leading expert in the field of stereochemistry, and his long track record of founding, advising and leading successful biopharmaceutical companies.

Heidi L. Wagner, J.D. has served as a director since September 2019. Ms. Wagner currently serves as Senior Vice President, Government Affairs and Policy at Global Blood Therapeutics, Inc., where she has worked since 2018. Prior to joining Global Blood Therapeutics, Ms. Wagner served as Senior Vice President, Global Governmental Affairs at Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. from 2012 to 2018, and as Vice President, Global Government Affairs from 2009 to 2012. Ms. Wagner held the role of Senior Director of Government Affairs at Genentech, Inc. from 2000 to 2009, and as Director, Government Affairs from 1998 to 1999. Prior to that time, she served as Health Policy Director and Consultant at Healthcare Leadership Council, and in various roles at Epstein Becker & Green and Groom & Nordberg, and the U.S. House of Representatives. Ms. Wagner currently serves as a member of the board of directors of the American Kidney Fund, as a Trustee of the University of Colorado Foundation, and as an advisory board member of the University of Colorado, College of Media, Communication and Information. From 2015 to 2018, she also served as a member of the board of directors of

 

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the European Confederation of Pharmaceutical Entrepreneurs. Ms. Wagner earned a J.D. from George Mason University School of Law and received a Bachelor of Science in Journalism and Mass Communication from the University of Colorado. We believe she is qualified to serve on our Board because of her extensive experience as a government affairs executive driving strategy for government policy, pricing, reimbursement and patient access for various biopharmaceutical companies, including leading the pricing and reimbursement strategy, and implementing the global compliance programs for leading rare disease biopharmaceutical organizations.

Director Independence

Our Board believes that independence is one important component of a high-functioning board capable of objective decision-making that represents the long-term interests of shareholders and the Company. Since the Company’s initial public offering in 2015, our Board has enhanced its independence by replacing two previous directors — a founder and a representative of an investor — with five directors who are independent and not affiliated with any of our principal shareholders. We further enhanced our Board’s independent leadership by appointing Christian Henry as its independent Chairman. Our Board is committed to ensuring that its members reflect an appropriate level of independence in conjunction with the combination of qualifications, qualities and skills required to exercise its duties and responsibilities and serve the best interests of the Company and its shareholders. In accordance with our Corporate Governance Guidelines and Nasdaq rules, we hold executive sessions of our independent directors in conjunction with our regularly scheduled board meetings and otherwise as appropriate. In addition, our Compensation Committee meets in executive session with no members of management present, as necessary or appropriate, to address various compensation matters, including deliberations regarding our Chief Executive Officer’s performance and compensation.

Our Board has reviewed the materiality of any relationship that each of our directors has with the Company, either directly or indirectly. Based upon this review, our Board has determined that the following members of the Board are “independent directors” as defined by the Nasdaq Stock Market: Mses. Tan and Wagner, Drs. Kolchinsky and Corrigan, and Messrs. Henry, Rawcliffe and Takanashi.

Committees of the Board of Directors and Meetings

Meeting Attendance. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, there were six meetings of our Board, and the various committees of the Board met a total of 14 times. No director attended fewer than 75% of the total number of meetings of the Board and of committees of the Board on which such director served during 2020. The Board has adopted a policy under which our directors are encouraged to attend our annual general meetings of shareholders. As a Singapore company, we are required to prepare annual Singapore statutory audited financial statements (our “second annual audit”) and to deliver them to our shareholders in connection with our annual general meetings of shareholders. Our second annual audit can only be conducted following our first annual audit, which requires our preparation and filing of annual U.S. GAAP audited consolidated financial statements with the SEC. As a result, these multiple audits do not allow us to schedule our quarterly board meetings at the same time as our annual general meetings of shareholders and we typically hold our annual general meetings during the summertime.

Audit Committee. Our Audit Committee held seven meetings during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. Our Audit Committee currently has four members: Mr. Henry (Chairman), Dr. Corrigan, Mr. Rawcliffe, and Ms. Tan. During the period of January 1, 2020 through August 18, 2020, our Audit Committee was comprised of Mr. Henry (Chairman), Dr. Corrigan, Mr. Rawcliffe and Koji Miura. On August 18, 2020, Mr. Miura retired from the Board and the Audit Committee upon the conclusion of our 2020 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders. During the period of August 18, 2020 through November 2, 2020, our Audit Committee was comprised of Mr. Henry (Chairman), Dr. Corrigan, and Mr. Rawcliffe. On November 2, 2020, Ms. Tan joined as a member of our Audit Committee. Our Audit Committee’s role and responsibilities are set forth in the Audit Committee’s written charter and include the responsibility to retain and terminate the services of our independent registered public accounting firm. In addition, the Audit Committee reviews annual financial

 

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statements, considers matters relating to accounting policy and internal controls, including oversight of data privacy and cyber security matters, and reviews the scope of annual audits.

Dr. Corrigan, Messrs. Henry and Rawcliffe, and Ms. Tan satisfy the current independence standards promulgated by the SEC and by the Nasdaq Stock Market, as such standards apply specifically to members of audit committees. The Board has determined that each member of the Audit Committee meets the financial literacy requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules and that each of Messrs. Henry and Rawcliffe and Ms. Tan qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert,” as the SEC has defined that term in Item 407 of Regulation S-K.

A copy of the Audit Committee’s written charter is publicly available on our website at www.wavelifesciences.com.

Compensation Committee. Our Compensation Committee met four times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. The Compensation Committee currently has three members: Mr. Henry (Chairman), Mr. Rawcliffe, and Ms. Wagner. During the period of January 1, 2020 through December 1, 2020, our Compensation Committee was comprised of Mr. Henry (Chairman), Dr. Kolchinsky and Ms. Pott. On December 1, 2020, Mr. Rawcliffe replaced Dr. Kolchinsky as a member of our Compensation Committee. On January 8, 2021, Ms. Pott resigned from the Board and the Compensation Committee. On April 15, 2021, Ms. Wagner joined as a member of our Compensation Committee. Our Compensation Committee’s role and responsibilities are set forth in the Compensation Committee’s written charter and include reviewing, approving and making recommendations regarding our compensation policies, practices and procedures to ensure that legal and fiduciary responsibilities of the Board are carried out and that such policies, practices and procedures contribute to our success. Our Compensation Committee also administers our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (the “2014 Equity Incentive Plan”), and our 2019 Employee Share Purchase Plan (the “2019 ESPP”). The Compensation Committee is responsible for determining the compensation of our executive officers.

Each member of the Compensation Committee qualifies as independent under the definition promulgated by the Nasdaq Stock Market.

A copy of the Compensation Committee’s written charter is publicly available on our website at www.wavelifesciences.com.

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. Our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee met three times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee currently has three members: Dr. Corrigan (Chairman), Mr. Takanashi and Ms. Wagner. During the period of January 1, 2020 through December 1, 2020 our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee was comprised of Mr. Henry (Chairman), Mr. Takanashi and Ms. Wagner. On December 1, 2020, Dr. Corrigan replaced Mr. Henry as the Chairman of our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee’s role and responsibilities are set forth in the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee’s written charter and include evaluating and making recommendations to the full Board as to the size and composition of the Board and its committees, evaluating and making recommendations as to potential candidates, and evaluating current Board members’ performance. In addition, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for overseeing the Company’s environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) strategy, initiatives and policies and overseeing the Company’s practices related to human capital management (“HCM”) and diversity, equity and inclusion (“DEI”).

Each member of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee qualifies as independent under the definition promulgated by the Nasdaq Stock Market.

The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for identifying individuals qualified to serve as directors on our Board, consistent with criteria approved by the Board, and recommending the persons

 

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to be nominated for election as directors, except where we are legally required by contract, law or otherwise to provide third parties with the right to nominate. The process followed by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee to identify and evaluate director candidates includes making requests to Board members and others for recommendations, holding meetings from time to time to evaluate biographical information and reviewing background material relating to potential candidates and interviews of selected candidates by members of the committee and the Board. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is also authorized by its charter to retain search firms to identify director candidates. The qualifications, qualities and skills that the committee believes must be met by a committee-recommended nominee for a director position on our Board are as follows:

 

   

Nominees should have a reputation for integrity, honesty and adherence to high ethical standards.

 

   

Nominees should have demonstrated business acumen, experience and ability to exercise sound judgments in matters that relate to the Company’s current and long-term objectives and should be willing and able to contribute positively to the Company’s decision-making process.

 

   

Nominees should have a commitment to understand the Company and its industry and to regularly attend and participate in meetings of the Board and its committees.

 

   

Nominees should have the interest and ability to understand the sometimes conflicting interests of our various constituencies, which include shareholders, employees, customers, governmental units, creditors and the general public, and to act in the interests of all shareholders.

 

   

Nominees should not have, nor appear to have, a conflict of interest that would impair the nominee’s ability to represent the interests of all of our shareholders and to fulfill the responsibilities of a director.

 

   

Nominees shall not be discriminated against on the basis of race, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, disability or any other basis proscribed by law. Diversity on our Board is highly valued and is actively considered in the nomination process as well as in the Board’s annual performance evaluation.

 

   

Nominees should generally be able to serve for at least five years before reaching the age of 70.

The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee considers issues of diversity among its members in identifying and considering nominees for director, and strives where appropriate to achieve a diverse balance of backgrounds, perspectives, experience, age, gender, ethnicity and country of citizenship on the Board and its committees. The value of many forms of diversity is reflected on our Board, and we believe that our current Board represents diversity of thought, background and experience, as well as diversity of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age. The Board continually seeks out highly qualified women and minority candidates, as well as candidates with diverse backgrounds, skills and experiences as part of each search for qualified directors the Company undertakes. The Board’s commitment to diversity was recently demonstrated by the appointments to our Board of two female directors in 2019 and an additional female director in 2020. Our Board currently includes two directors who identify as women and two directors who identify as racially diverse.

A copy of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee’s written charter and our Corporate Governance Guidelines, which set forth our nominee requirements are publicly available on our website at www.wavelifesciences.com.

Research and Development Committee. In September 2020, our Board established the Research and Development Committee. Our Research and Development Committee met two times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. The Research and Development Committee currently has three members: Dr. Corrigan (Chairman), and Drs. Kolchinsky and Verdine. Our Research and Development Committee’s role and responsibilities are set forth in the Research and Development Committee’s written charter and generally include assisting the Company in evaluating research, development and technology (“R&D”) issues and decisions; reviewing and providing feedback to the Company’s R&D management on the Company’s current and planned

 

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R&D programs and initiatives; serving as a sounding board for the Company’s R&D organization on research and development matters; and identifying and discussing with the Board significant emerging scientific and clinical issues and trends.

Procedures by which Shareholders may Nominate Directors

The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee shall review and evaluate information available to it regarding candidates proposed by shareholders and shall apply the same criteria, and shall follow substantially the same process in considering them, as it does in considering other candidates. The factors generally considered by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee are set out in our Corporate Governance Guidelines, which are publicly available on the “For Investors & Media” section of our website at http://ir.wavelifesciences.com/ under the heading “Corporate Governance.” If a shareholder wishes to nominate a candidate to be considered by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee for election as a director at our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, it must give timely notice of the nomination in writing to our General Counsel not less than 45 days prior to the date that is one year following the date on which we first mail our proxy statement relating to our 2021 AGM. All shareholder proposals should be marked for the attention of General Counsel, Wave Life Sciences Ltd., 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138.

Familial Relationships

There are no familial relationships between any of our executive officers and directors.

Board Leadership Structure and Role in Risk Oversight

The positions of Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Wave are presently separate. We believe that separating these positions allows our Chief Executive Officer to focus on our day-to-day business operations and strategy, while allowing our Chairman of the Board to lead the Board in its fundamental role of providing advice to, and independent oversight of, management. Our Board recognizes the time, effort and energy that the Chief Executive Officer is required to devote to his position in the current business environment, as well as the commitment required to serve as our Chairman, particularly as the Board’s oversight responsibilities continue to grow. Our Board also believes that this structure ensures a greater role for the independent directors in the oversight of our Company and active participation of the independent directors in setting agendas and establishing priorities and procedures for the work of our Board. The Board retains the authority to modify this leadership structure as and when appropriate to best address the Company’s unique circumstances at any given time and to serve the best interests of our shareholders.

Our Board oversees the risk management activities designed and implemented by our management. Our Board executes its oversight responsibility for risk management both directly and through its committees. Our Board also considers specific risk topics, including risks associated with our strategic plan, business operations, capital structure, information technology (“IT”), data privacy and cyber security. In addition, our Board receives detailed regular reports from members of our management team and other personnel that include assessments and potential mitigation of the risks and exposures involved with their respective areas of responsibility. Our Board receives regular updates on the evolving COVID-19 situation and engages regularly with our management team, including with regard to our operations, clinical trial enrollment, financial position and liquidity, corporate sustainability, communications strategy and employee matters, among other items. As part of its risk management oversight, our Board has been working with our management team to identify and monitor COVID-19 related risks to our Company, and is involved in strategy decisions and other actions we are taking to mitigate risks related to the impact of COVID-19 on our business.

Our Board may delegate to the Audit Committee oversight of our risk management process. Our other Board committees will also consider and address risk as they perform their respective committee responsibilities. Specifically, the Audit Committee receives regular reports from members of senior management on areas of

 

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material risk to the Company, including operational, financial, legal, regulatory, strategic and reputational risks, and risks related to IT, data privacy and cyber security. As part of its charter, our Audit Committee regularly discusses with management our major risk exposures, their potential financial impact on our Company and the steps we take to manage them. Our Compensation Committee assists the Board in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to the management and risks arising from our compensation policies and programs. Our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee assists the Board in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to the management of risks associated with Board organization, membership and structure, succession planning for our directors and executive officers, and corporate governance. All committees report to the full Board as appropriate, including when a matter rises to the level of a material or enterprise level risk.

Environmental, Social and Governance Practices

As we work to build a world-class organization to deliver life-changing treatments for people affected by genetically defined diseases, we are increasingly focused on providing transparency around our environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) practices and identifying risks related thereto. The Company is committed to human capital management, patient advocacy and community outreach efforts, corporate governance, and implementing environmental sustainability initiatives.

Environmental Stewardship: We recognize the importance of taking measures to reduce our environmental footprint. As we continue to expand our operations, we have initiated certain projects to begin tracking our environmental impact, and where feasible, have taken measures to increase our sustainability efforts. Some of our efforts include our commitment to reduce, reuse or recycle where possible or appropriate; energy efficient projects to lower energy use within our office areas and laboratories; and having processes in place that send over 95% of hazardous waste to an energy conversion center.

Social Factors and Human Capital Management: Our approach to human capital management is driven by our values statement: Making an impact through innovation, inclusion, and inspiration. Our values are at the core of who we are as an organization, and what drive us to envision a brighter future for the patients and families we serve. Critical to achieving our strategic imperatives is our ability to build and retain an exceptional team in which each member plays a unique and important role. We embrace a forward-thinking philosophy that extends beyond our work, to how we are building our culture and benefits.

We recognize that maintaining an engaged and top-notch workforce and a connection with the communities we serve is critical to our success. Comradery and cohesion are at the core of who we are as a company and are integral facets of our human capital management strategy. Whether it is coming together throughout the year to connect at our town halls or participating in a global fitness challenge to support the health and well-being of our employees, we take a team approach to our work. We are inspired by each other and the possibilities of what we can achieve together. We understand that in order to drive innovation, we must continuously improve our human capital management strategies and find ways to foster engagement and growth within our organization. To this end, below are some of our initiatives:

Employee Engagement: Having an engaged and dedicated workforce is essential for us to achieve our goals. Employee engagement ensures that our employees feel passionate about the work they are doing, and with this commitment, we recognize that this is when results happen. It is more apparent than ever that we are all in this together, and as a company, we need to set up our employees for success and continue to cultivate their engagement with our company. We regularly conduct employee engagement surveys as a means of measuring employee engagement and satisfaction, and as a tool for improving our human capital management strategies going forward. Engagement is also directly correlated to the interactions our employees have with each other and their teams. Our Wave Activities Committee is a cross-functional team dedicated to organizing activities, such as themed social gatherings, volunteer opportunities, and health and wellness events that enrich our culture and bring employees together. We also work to ensure that we are deeply aligned on our corporate goals as a

 

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company, that functional goals are clear and transparent, and employees understand how their work contributes to the company’s success.

Employee Health and Safety: Compliance with environmental, health and safety (“EH&S”) laws and regulations forms the basis of the EH&S policy and programs we have in place, which include occupational health and safety measures that apply to all our employees, contractors and visitors. These programs detail the proactive, risk-based approach to prevent workplace injuries and protect the health and safety of our employees and the communities around us. We have implemented an EH&S management system to monitor and track the effectiveness of our programs, ensure EH&S compliance, respond to incidents and manage corrective actions to reinforce safeguards. Our training program provides training to individuals that is commensurate with their level of risk exposure and are designed to ensure that employees have the knowledge and equipment available to mitigate risk. Our cross-functional Safety Committee meets monthly to discuss any concerns and ways to improve our EH&S programs. Employees are also required to report any incidents, no matter how small, and are encouraged to voice any health or safety concerns to management or a member of our EH&S team. As we continue to monitor the evolving COVID-19 situation, we have implemented and will continue to implement measures designed to safeguard the health and safety of our employees and our patients. We formed a COVID-19 response team, a business continuity planning team and a future of work team that is continuously evaluating the guidance from federal and local authorities and has created polices and guidelines that continue to ensure our employees’ health and safety come first.

Professional Development Programs and Opportunities: Our greatest asset is our employees and we aspire to provide them with opportunities so they can continue to grow and excel in their functions and our company. Professional growth of our employees leads to engagement, development and allows us to leverage opportunities so we can hire and promote key talent from within. We have also implemented a personal development plan program and leadership and management development programs. Through development planning, we strive for employees at all levels to focus on strengthening the skills required in their current role and potentially their next role. We conduct annual performance reviews for all employees, but as importantly, we are focused on building a culture of continuous coaching, feedback and open communication between managers and their direct reports throughout the entire year. We provide managers and employees with training on how to conduct effective forward-looking performance conversations and to set effective goals that are realistic, measurable, attainable, relevant and timebound (SMART). Another example where we provide company-wide leadership and development opportunities is through the Wave Learning Series, which was developed to build awareness of all functional areas, special areas of interest or importance, timely subject matter, and to expand knowledge of industry trends and other matters of interest and relevance within the biopharmaceutical industry. The Wave Learning Series is conducted through company-wide presentations by employees at various levels, providing opportunities for development and cross-functional exposure for our employees. To further assist our employees, we also offer all full-time employees the option to participate in our Education Assistance Program, where we reimburse employees for certain tuition and eligible expenses.

Health and Well-Being: We believe that the overall well-being of our employees and ensuring that their basic health and wellness needs are met is fundamental for us to achieve success as a company. We provide an Employee Assistance Program (“EAP”) as a cost-free benefit, which is available to help employees and their household members confidentially manage everyday life, work challenges, stress, and other personal issues by providing consultation, referrals and resources. In 2020, triggered by the COVID-19 global pandemic, we partnered with our EAP provider to provide a series of virtual meetings where employees could share with one another the challenges and successes they have had during the pandemic and discuss the importance of staying resilient in the face of uncertainty.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion: Our commitment to maintaining a top-performing company means investing in and creating ongoing opportunities for employee development in a diverse and inclusive workplace. We believe that a diverse workforce not only positively impacts our performance, fosters innovation, inspires us to achieve greater results, increases our collective capabilities and strengthens our culture, but it also cultivates an

 

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essential pipeline of experienced leaders for management. Hiring for diversity of thought, background and experience, and diversity of personal characteristics such as gender, race and ethnicity is intentional at Wave and continues to be an area of focus as we build and grow our workforce. Despite the historical lack of institutional emphasis on the importance of girls and women focusing on education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (“STEM”) and the resulting disproportionate occupation by men in the STEM-educated talent pool, we have prioritized and hired a gender diverse workforce. As of December 31, 2020, women made up approximately 51% of our global workforce and approximately 43% of management. We are also committed to building a racially and ethnically diverse workforce. As of December 31, 2020, racially diverse employees (those self-identifying as Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Asian, or being two or more races) made up approximately 42% of our global workforce and approximately 21% of management (12% of our employees did not provide us with this information).

Community Outreach and Engagement: Our community engagement activities are focused on seeking to better understand the lives of people living with rare disease and identifying opportunities to support the rare disease community. We believe that partnering with and understanding the lives of patients and their families differentiates us and enhances our ability to discover and develop potential therapies. Through collaboration with patients, families and advocacy organizations, face-to-face meetings, and participation in patient-focused conferences and community events, we aim to broaden our understanding of the needs of patients and families and incorporate those critical learnings into every aspect of our company. These insights inform the design and execution of our clinical trials, the enrichment of our corporate culture, and the development of programs and services that make a positive impact on people’s lives. Employee volunteerism is another important component of our community engagement initiatives. We partner with advocacy and service organizations to provide opportunities for employees to contribute directly to our local communities, including through our Wave Service Day. By participating in a broad range of volunteer activities our employees donate time and resources to support patients and families in the rare disease community.

Rewards and Recognition: We have multi-tiered awards programs, including peer-to-peer recognition, that our employees use to recognize and reward one another for their contributions and achievements, taking into consideration the combination of employees who best exemplify our values and the achievement of results. We believe that providing a rewards program not only increases engagement and performance, but meaningfully recognizes those employees who go above and beyond to positively impact our company and culture.

Compensation, Equity and Benefits: We have designed a broad-based compensation program that is designed attract, retain and motivate our employees to deliver sustainable long-term value. We seek to deliver performance-driven, market competitive reward opportunities commensurate with company and individual performance. All Wave employees receive base salaries, cash bonuses, new hire equity grants and annual long-term incentive grants, in addition to our generous benefits package. We believe that providing employees with an ownership interest in the Company further strengthens the level of employee engagement. Furthermore, equity awards help align the interests of our employees with the long-term interests of our shareholders. In addition, we have an Employee Share Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), which provides our employees with an opportunity to purchase shares of our Company at a 15% discount to the market price.

Offering a highly competitive, industry-leading, benefits package is another integral piece of our compensation program. Notably, we provide our employees with access to choice and offer employees a very progressive health insurance package, with no premiums. We also maintain a 401(k) plan with matching contributions that all of our employees are eligible to participate in.

Governance, Ethics, and Compliance: Our Board is committed to robust corporate governance practices, risk oversight, shareholder rights, diversity, equity and inclusion, corporate sustainability, ethics and compliance in order to protect the long-term interests of our company, shareholders and the patients we serve. Our Board adheres to our Corporate Governance Guidelines, which present a framework for good corporate governance practices, including responsible oversight and management of the Company, effective controls and processes,

 

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compliance with SEC and Nasdaq Stock Market rules and regulations, maintaining an engaged board of directors and a board structure that recognizes the importance of diversity, appropriate compensation practices, and succession planning, among other matters. In 2021, we updated our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee charter to reflect the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee’s oversight of the Company’s ESG strategy, initiatives and policies and oversight of the Company’s strategies and policies related to HCM and DEI. A copy of the Corporate Governance Guidelines is publicly available on our website at www.wavelifesciences.com.

We will continue to evolve and strengthen our human capital management strategies, increase our environmental efforts, maintain and continue to improve our corporate governance practices, and anticipate reporting on other corporate sustainability measures over time.

Hedging and Pledging Policies

We maintain a policy that, among other things, prohibits all officers, including our named executive officers, directors and employees from engaging in “hedging” transactions with respect to our ordinary shares. This includes short sales, hedging of share ownership positions, transactions in straddles, collars or other similar risk reduction or hedging devices, and transactions involving derivative securities relating to our ordinary shares. In addition, they are also prohibited from pledging the Company’s securities.

Shareholder Communications to the Board

Generally, shareholders who have questions or concerns or who wish to address questions regarding our business directly with the Board, or any individual director, should direct his or her questions in writing to IR@wavelifesci.com. Communications will be distributed to the Board, or to any individual director or directors as appropriate, depending on the facts and circumstances outlined in the communications. Items that are unrelated to the duties and responsibilities of the Board may be excluded, such as junk mail and mass mailings, resumes and other forms of job inquiries, surveys and solicitations or advertisements. In addition, any material that is unduly hostile, threatening, or illegal in nature may be excluded, provided that any communication that is filtered out will be made available to any outside director upon request.

Executive Officers

Set forth below is information as of June 15, 2021 regarding our executive officers who are not also directors. We have employment agreements with certain of our executive officers and all of our executive officers are at-will employees.

 

Name

   Age     

Title

Christopher Francis, Ph.D.

     43     

Senior Vice President, Corporate Development,

Head of Emerging Areas

Kyle Moran

     51      Chief Financial Officer

Michael Panzara, M.D., MPH

     54      Chief Medical Officer, Head of Therapeutics Discovery and Development

Chandra Vargeese, Ph.D.

     60      Chief Technology Officer

Christopher Francis, Ph.D. has served as our Senior Vice President, Corporate Development, Head of Emerging Areas since May 2017. During the period January 2017 to May 2017, Dr. Francis served as our Senior Vice President, Corporate Development & Portfolio Management. Prior to that, Dr. Francis served as our Vice President, Head of Business Development since April 2014. Prior to joining us, Dr. Francis held senior operational, strategic and business development roles within GlaxoSmithKline Oncology from 2009 to 2014 and was a member of the team that established GlaxoSmithKline’s Rare Disease Unit. Before GlaxoSmithKline, Dr. Francis was a health care private equity associate at Two River LLC from 2008 to 2009. He began his career

 

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in pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement consulting at IMS Health. Dr. Francis earned undergraduate and graduate degrees in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from the University of Melbourne and was a doctoral research associate at the University of Cambridge.

Kyle Moran has served as our Chief Financial Officer since December 2020. Prior to this appointment, Mr. Moran served as our Vice President, Head of Finance from July 2014 to August 2016; Vice President, Technical Operations from August 2016 to December 2017; Senior Vice President, Technical Operations, from December 2017 to November 2018; Senior Vice President, Operations and Business Analytics from November 2018 to January 2020; and most recently as Senior Vice President, Finance and Operations from January 2020 through his promotion to Chief Financial Officer in December 2020. Prior to joining us, Mr. Moran served as Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer of Veroha, Inc., an information assurance software company focused on electronic notary solutions, from 2010 to 2014. He was also a founding partner of Context Financial Services, LLC, a boutique consulting firm that provided interim CFO-services to start-up and middle market companies undergoing rapid expansion or needing expert financial counsel and worked there from 2006 to 2014. In addition, Mr. Moran held senior operational and financial roles at leading global financial services firms, including Zurich Scudder Investments, JPMorgan Chase and Putnam Investments. Mr. Moran holds a bachelor’s degree in Economics from Boston College and attended the Lemberg Master’s Program in International Economics and Finance at Brandeis University. Mr. Moran is a Chartered Financial Analyst.

Michael Panzara, M.D., MPH has served as our Chief Medical Officer, Head of Therapeutics Discovery and Development since May 2020. During the period of November 2018 through April 2020, Dr. Panzara served as our Chief Medical Officer. During the period of July 2016 to October 2018, Dr. Panzara served as our Franchise Lead, Neurology. Prior to joining us, Dr. Panzara served in various roles at Sanofi Genzyme (and Genzyme Corporation before its merger with Sanofi in 2011) from 2009 to July 2016, most recently serving as Head of the Multiple Sclerosis, Neurology and Ophthalmology Therapeutic Area for Global Development and prior to that, serving as Group Vice President, Therapeutic Area Head, Multiple Sclerosis and Neurology. Prior to joining Genzyme, Dr. Panzara served in roles of increasing responsibility at Biogen, including Vice President, Chief Medical Officer, Neurology from 2006 to 2009 and in various roles in the Medical Research group from 2001 to 2006. In addition, from 1999 to 2011, Dr. Panzara was an Instructor in Neurology at Harvard Medical School and an Assistant in Neurology at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). He trained in neurology at MGH from 1994 to 1998, and completed his post-doctoral training in immunology and rheumatology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Dr. Panzara holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania, a medical degree from Stanford University School of Medicine, and a master’s degree in public health from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Chandra Vargeese, Ph.D. has served as our Chief Technology Officer since May 2020. During the period of August 2014 to April 2020, Dr. Vargeese served as Senior Vice President, Head of Drug Discovery. Before joining us, Dr. Vargeese served as Novartis’ Executive Director and Head of RNA Chemistry and Delivery, a position she held from 2008 to 2014. Prior to joining Novartis, Dr. Vargeese led siRNA delivery in the RNA Therapeutics division at Merck & Co., where she served as Senior Director and Head of RNA Chemistry and Delivery. Dr. Vargeese joined Merck through its acquisition of Sirna Therapeutics, where she was Vice President of Chemistry. Before Sirna, Dr. Vargeese served as Associate Director of Chemistry at NeXstar Pharmaceuticals and is the co-inventor of Macugen (pegaptanib), an approved therapy for treating wet AMD. Dr. Vargeese earned a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India and completed post-doctoral work at the University of Rhode Island.

 

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EXECUTIVE OFFICER AND DIRECTOR COMPENSATION

Executive Officer Compensation

The Company is a “smaller reporting company” under Item 10 of Regulation S-K promulgated under the Exchange Act, and the following compensation disclosure is intended to comply with the requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies.

Summary Compensation Table

The following table shows the total compensation paid or accrued during the last two fiscal years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 for (i) our President and Chief Executive Officer; and (ii) our two next most highly compensated executive officers, who earned more than $100,000 during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 and were serving as executive officers as of such date. Collectively, these three individuals are our “named executive officers” or “NEOs” for purposes of this proxy statement.

 

Name and Principal Position

  Year     Salary
($)
    Share
Awards
($)(1)
    Option
Awards
($)(2)
    Non-Equity
Incentive Plan
Compensation
($)
    All Other
Compensation
($)(3)
    Total ($)  

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA

    2020       578,977       —         308,675       376,335       6,154       1,270,141  

President and Chief Executive

Officer

    2019       578,977       2,700,000       —         282,251       20,298       3,581,526  

Michael Panzara, M.D., MPH

    2020       460,860       —         176,386       184,344       9,792       831,382  

Chief Medical Officer, Head of

Therapeutics Discovery and

Development

    2019       451,815       675,000       —         135,545       9,642       1,272,002  

Chandra Vargeese, Ph.D.

    2020       434,520       —         176,386       173,808       10,872       795,586  

Chief Technology Officer

    2019       426,000       675,000       —         127,800       10,722       1,239,522  

 

(1)

Amount represents the aggregate grant date fair value for the share awards identified, computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. A discussion of the assumptions used in determining grant date fair value may be found in Note 7 to the financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. For the 2019 grants of performance-based restricted share units (“RSUs”), the value reported is the value of the award at the grant date based upon the probable outcome of the performance conditions, which was $0. The value of the 2019 grants of performance-based RSUs at the grant date, assuming that all performance conditions will be achieved, is $8,325,000 for Dr. Bolno, $4,500,000 for Dr. Panzara and $4,500,000 for Dr. Vargeese.

(2)

Amounts represent the aggregate grant date fair value for the option awards identified, computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. A discussion of the assumptions used in determining grant date fair value may be found in Note 7 to the financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

(3)

For 2020, amounts include 401(k) matching contributions of $5,344 made to Dr. Bolno and $8,550 made to Drs. Panzara and Vargeese, as well as the value of annual premiums paid by us with respect to a life insurance policy for the benefit of each of the named executive officers.

Narrative to Summary Compensation Table

Our Compensation Committee creates the policies that govern base salary, annual cash performance-based incentives, our long-term incentive program and other compensation and benefits for our named executive officers. Our Compensation Committee reviews and discusses our executive officers’ proposed compensation with the Chief Executive Officer for all executives other than the Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer’s compensation is determined by the Compensation Committee.

 

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In determining executive officer compensation, our Compensation Committee, with the assistance of its independent compensation consultant, Radford, a business unit of AON plc and an independent executive compensation consulting firm, evaluates the market competitiveness of compensation for each of our named executive officers in order to guide target compensation decisions for the coming year. Our Compensation Committee references a peer group of publicly traded companies in the biopharmaceutical industry for purposes of gathering data to compare with our existing executive compensation levels and practices and as context for future compensation decisions. Our Compensation Committee reviews and updates the compensation peer group each year, as appropriate, to include companies that the Compensation Committee believes are competitors for executive talent and that are similar to us in terms of their stage of development, therapeutic focus, market capitalization, number of employees, structure, financial profile and geographic proximity to the Cambridge biotech cluster, as applicable. We also recognize that it is unlikely for companies to align equally on all factors, so we consider companies that meet a majority of the criteria. Due to the nature of our business, we compete for executive talent with many companies much larger than we are. Our Compensation Committee considers peer group and other industry compensation data and the recommendations of our compensation consultant when making decisions related to executive compensation, ultimately giving consideration to the competitiveness of our compensation program, internal perceptions of equity and individual performance and role. Our Compensation Committee finds comparative data from our peer group to be useful in setting and adjusting executive compensation, but it does not target our programs or any particular element of compensation to be at or within a particular percentile or range compared to our peers. Our Compensation Committee uses the peer group data primarily to ensure that our executive compensation program and its constituent elements are and remain competitive in relation to our peers, and applies judgment and discretion in establishing targeted compensation levels taking into account not only competitive market data but also the experience of the executive, scope of responsibility, critical skill sets and expertise.

Employment Agreements with Our Named Executive Officers

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA In May 2020, we entered into an amended and restated employment agreement with Dr. Bolno, pursuant to which he serves as our President and Chief Executive Officer. The employment agreement amends and restates the prior employment arrangement between the Company and Dr. Bolno. As of January 1, 2020, Dr. Bolno’s annual base salary was $578,977, and his annual target bonus percentage is up to 65% of his annual base salary, subject to the achievement of annual performance milestones defined by our Board in its sole discretion. Effective January 1, 2021, Dr. Bolno’s annual base salary was increased to $597,000. In February 2021, in recognition of his 2020 performance supporting the achievement of our corporate goals discussed below, Dr. Bolno received a cash bonus of $376,335 that was equal to 100% of his 2020 target bonus, 65% of his annual base salary. In addition, in February 2021, he received an option to purchase 200,000 of our ordinary shares and 150,000 RSUs under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan as 2021 long-term incentive plan (“2021 LTIP”) awards, each award vests over a two-year period, 50% on the first and second anniversaries.

Pursuant to Dr. Bolno’s employment agreement, if we terminate his employment without cause or if he terminates his employment for good reason, Dr. Bolno will be entitled to receive continued payment of his then-current annual base salary for 18 months following termination; continued payment of health insurance premiums at the Company’s then normal rate of contribution until the earlier of 18 months following termination or until he commences new employment; and the payment of a separation bonus equal to his then annual target bonus opportunity prorated through the termination date. In addition, if a change of control occurs and within one year following the change of control Dr. Bolno is terminated without cause or if Dr. Bolno terminates his employment for good reason, he will be entitled to receive a lump sum cash payment equal to 18 months of his then-current annual base salary; continued payment of health insurance premiums at the Company’s then normal rate of contribution until the earlier of 18 months following termination or until he commences new employment; and the payment of a separation bonus equal to his then annual target bonus opportunity. Pursuant to applicable equity agreements with Dr. Bolno, all unvested shares underlying outstanding options and RSUs that were granted to him on or before December 31, 2017 will become fully vested upon a change of control; and any such equity compensation granted to him on or after January 1, 2018 will become fully vested upon his termination

 

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without cause or for good reason within 12 months following a change of control. Receipt of the severance and change of control benefits described above are subject to execution of a release of claims against the Company and compliance with certain restrictive covenants following the termination of his employment.

Michael Panzara, M.D., MPH In July 2016, we entered into an employment agreement with Dr. Panzara, pursuant to which he now serves as our Chief Medical Officer, Head of Therapeutics Discovery and Development. As of January 1, 2020, Dr. Panzara’s annual base salary was $460,860, and his annual target bonus percentage was up to 40% of his annual base salary, subject to the achievement of annual performance milestones defined by our Board in its sole discretion. Effective January 1, 2021, Dr. Panzara’s annual base salary was increased to $471,000, and his annual target bonus percentage was increased to 45% of his annual salary. In February 2021, in recognition of his 2020 performance supporting the achievement of our corporate goals discussed below, Dr. Panzara received a cash bonus of $184,344 that was equal to 100% of his 2020 target bonus, 40% of his base salary. In addition, he received an option to purchase 50,000 of our ordinary shares and 50,000 RSUs under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan as 2021 LTIP awards, each award vests over a two-year period, 50% on the first and second anniversaries.

Pursuant to Dr. Panzara’s employment agreement, if we terminate his employment without cause or if he terminates his employment for good reason, Dr. Panzara will be entitled to receive continued payment of his then-current annual base salary for 12 months following termination and continued payment of health insurance premiums at the Company’s then normal rate of contribution until the earlier of 12 months following termination or until he commences new employment. In addition, if a change of control occurs and within one year following the change of control Dr. Panzara is terminated without cause or Dr. Panzara terminates his employment for good reason, he will be entitled to receive a lump sum cash payment equal to 12 months of his then-current annual base salary; continued payment of health insurance premiums at the Company’s then normal rate of contribution until the earlier of 12 months following termination or until he commences new employment; and the payment of a separation bonus equal to his then annual target bonus opportunity prorated through his termination date. Pursuant to applicable equity agreements with Dr. Panzara, all unvested shares underlying outstanding options and RSUs that were granted to him on or before December 31, 2017 will become fully vested upon a change of control; and any such equity compensation granted to him on or after January 1, 2018 will become fully vested upon his termination without cause or for good reason within 12 months following a change of control. Receipt of the severance and change of control benefits described above are subject to execution of a release of claims against the Company and compliance with certain restrictive covenants following the termination of his employment.

Chandra Vargeese, Ph.D. In May 2020, we entered into an amended and restated employment agreement with Dr. Vargeese, pursuant to which she serves as our Chief Technology Officer. The employment agreement amends and restates the prior employment arrangement between the Company and Dr. Vargeese. As of January 1, 2020, Dr. Vargeese’s annual base salary was $434,520, and her annual target bonus percentage was up to 40% of her annual base salary, subject to the achievement of annual performance milestones defined by our Board in its sole discretion. Effective January 1, 2021, Dr. Vargeese’s annual base salary was increased to $444,000, and her annual target bonus percentage was increased to 45% of her annual base salary. In February 2021, in recognition of her 2020 performance supporting the achievement of our corporate goals discussed below, Dr. Vargeese received a cash bonus of $173,808 that was equal to 100% of her 2020 target bonus, 40% of her base salary. In addition, she received an option to purchase 50,000 of our ordinary shares and 50,000 RSUs under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan as 2021 LTIP awards, each award vests over a two-year period, 50% on the first and second anniversaries.

Pursuant to Dr. Vargeese’s employment agreement, if we terminate her employment without cause or if she terminates her employment for good reason, Dr. Vargeese will be entitled to receive continued payment of her then-current annual base salary for 12 months following termination; continued payment of health insurance premiums at the Company’s then normal rate of contribution until the earlier of 12 months following termination or until she commences new employment; and the payment of a separation bonus equal to her then annual target

 

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bonus opportunity prorated through the termination date. In addition, if a change of control occurs and within one year following the change of control Dr. Vargeese is terminated without cause or if Dr. Vargeese terminates her employment for good reason, she will be entitled to receive a lump sum cash payment equal to 12 months of her then-current annual base salary; continued payment of health insurance premiums at the Company’s then normal rate of contribution until the earlier of 12 months following termination or until she commences new employment; and the payment of a separation bonus equal to her then annual target bonus opportunity. Pursuant to applicable equity agreements with Dr. Vargeese, all unvested shares underlying outstanding options and RSUs that were granted to her on or before December 31, 2017 will become fully vested upon a change of control; and any such equity compensation granted to her on or after January 1, 2018 will become fully vested upon her termination without cause or for good reason within 12 months following a change of control. Receipt of the severance and change of control benefits described above are subject to execution of a release of claims against the Company and compliance with certain restrictive covenants following the termination of her employment.

Other Provisions Applicable to Named Executive Officers

In addition, as a condition of their employment, each of our named executive officers has entered into a non-competition and non-solicitation agreement pursuant to which he or she has agreed not to compete with us for a period of 12 months following the termination of his or her employment. All agreements generally provide for at-will employment and that our named executive officers are eligible to participate in employee benefit plans of general applicability to other senior executives, which we maintain from time to time.

For purposes of change of control benefits included in the Company’s employment agreements with its named executive officers, change of control is defined as follows: (A) a merger or consolidation of the Company whether or not approved by the Board, other than a merger or consolidation which would result in the voting securities of the Company outstanding immediately prior thereto continuing to represent (either by remaining outstanding or by being converted into voting securities of the surviving entity or the parent of such corporation) more than 50% of the total voting power represented by the voting securities of the Company or such surviving entity or parent of such corporation, as the case may be, outstanding immediately after such merger or consolidation; or (B) the sale or disposition by the Company of all or substantially all of the Company’s assets in a transaction requiring shareholder approval.

Base Salaries

Annual base salary is designed to provide a competitive fixed rate of pay, recognizing different levels of responsibility and performance. Actual salaries reflect the judgment and consideration of numerous factors by the Compensation Committee. These factors include the NEO’s experience, importance of position, performance, comparative survey data, internal pay equity, scope of responsibilities, expertise, the criticality of the NEO’s position within the Company, the other elements of compensation received by the NEO, and the NEO’s compensation in comparison to similarly situated executive officers at comparable companies in our peer group.

Annual Cash Incentive Program

Our executive officers are eligible to receive annual cash incentive awards, with the target bonus opportunity for 2020 determined as a percentage of their base salary. At the beginning of 2020, our Board approved ambitious corporate goals and objectives that our Compensation Committee then used to design our annual cash incentive program for 2020. Under this program, the Compensation Committee determined that the corporate goals would apply uniformly to all of our executive officers. Our 2020 corporate goals, plus additional obstacles that we overcame as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, that were assessed to determine our 2020 corporate performance are set forth below:

 

   

Submitted clinical trial applications for our first two new PN-containing programs: WVE-003 for Huntington’s disease and WVE-004 for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”) and frontotemporal dementia (“FTD”), in order to enable commencement of clinical trials in 2021 (achieved)

 

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Deliver PRECISION-HD data from all cohorts and the open-label extension (“OLE”) study (delayed; achieved in 1Q 2021)

 

   

Received positive regulatory feedback for adaptive trial designs for WVE-003 and WVE-004 in order to potentially expedite data readouts (achieved)

 

   

Created wtHTT (wild-type) assay for use in our allele-selective HD programs, with plans to make the assay widely available to the industry (achieved)

 

   

Met or exceeded internal milestones relating to Takeda Category 2 programs (achieved)

 

   

Prepared clinical trial application for our third new PN-containing program: WVE-N531 targeting exon-53 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (“DMD”) for filing in 1Q 2021 (achieved)

 

   

Delivered first in-vivo target engagement non-human primate (“NHP”) data for MAPT program (achieved)

 

   

Selected SERPINA1 as the target for our first ADAR RNA-editing program (achieved)

 

   

Expanded PRISM capabilities with two new modalities (ADAR, siRNA) (achieved)

 

   

Submitted two manuscripts covering ADAR and DMD to high-profile journals; and prepared C9 publication that was submitted in 1Q 2021 (achieved)

 

   

Developed a late-stage clinical / commercial manufacturing plan for WVE-120101 and WVE-120102 (achieved)

 

   

Developed proprietary human ADAR mouse model; crossed with SERPINA1 (achieved)

 

   

Secured approximately $200M in cash during 2020 (achieved)

 

   

In the midst of the COVID-19 global pandemic, maintained business continuity with more than 60% of workforce onsite and transitioned to virtual/remote environment for offsite employees with no loss of productivity (achieved)

 

   

Added key talent broadly throughout the organization (achieved)

 

   

Redesigned our performance management program (achieved)

 

   

Refreshed our corporate values and prepared living the values initiatives to commence in 2021 (achieved)

 

   

Delivered our 2020 corporate goals within our 2020 budget (achieved)

Based on our Board’s assessment and consideration of the relative weighting and importance of our goals, our Board determined that we achieved 100% of our 2020 corporate goals. The Compensation Committee then determined that bonuses for 2020 performance be paid to our named executive officers based on these results.

Long-Term Incentive Compensation

2020 Long-Term Incentive Program (“2020 LTIP”)

In 2020, the long-term incentive component of the compensation of our NEOs consisted solely of share options. These share options were granted to each of our named executive officers by our Compensation Committee at a regularly scheduled meeting on March 3, 2020, at an exercise price of $8.17 per share, and vest over a two-year term, with 50% vesting on February 1, 2021 and the remainder vesting on February 1, 2022. The Compensation Committee chose this two-year vesting schedule over our standard four-year vesting schedule as a means of retention and because the 2019 Performance-Based RSUs became less likely to vest in the near-term due to the discontinuation of our suvodirsen program in December 2019, but the performance criteria remain relevant to our primary strategic imperative to deliver life-changing treatments for people battling devastating

 

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diseases and will continue to incentivize performance albeit over a longer period of time. In lieu of a cash salary increase for the 2020 calendar year, Dr. Bolno opted to receive an additional 3,000 share options with the same vesting schedule and exercise price as his other 2020 LTIP option grant.

2019 Performance-Based RSUs and 2021 Amended and Restated Performance-Based RSUs

In March 2019, the Compensation Committee approved the grant of performance-based RSUs to our employees, including our NEOs, that vest based on two separate performance milestones: 80% of the award will vest upon receipt of the first regulatory approval of a Wave drug product by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or European Medicines Agency (the “Regulatory Approval Milestone”); and 20% of the award will vest upon the first commercial sale of a Wave drug product (the “Commercial Sale Milestone”), in each case, occurring by March 7, 2029, subject to continuous service (the “2019 Performance-Based RSUs”).

In order to address concerns raised regarding the long-dated nature of the 2019 Performance-Based RSUs and their ability to deliver real retentive value, the Compensation Committee decided to enhance the retentive impact of the awards by incorporating an additional milestone focused on driving nearer term execution of key strategic goals to build shareholder value in the nearer term. Accordingly, in March 2021, the Compensation Committee approved an amendment and restatement of all outstanding 2019 Performance-Based RSUs to add a third performance milestone to the two existing performance milestones. If the new performance milestone, the PN Chemistry Milestone (as defined below), is achieved prior to either of the Regulatory Approval Milestone or the Commercial Sale Milestone, then 50% of the award will be earned upon public disclosure of the achievement of clinical proof of concept of a molecule containing Wave’s PN backbone chemistry modifications (the “PN Chemistry Milestone”) and the percentages applicable to the Regulatory Approval Milestone or the Commercial Sale Milestone shall be reduced to 40% and 10%, respectively. This modification did not result in any incremental accounting expense, as the grant date fair value of the award on the modification date (similar to the original grant date fair value) remained at $0 based on the probable outcome of the performance conditions as of the modification date.

401(k) Plan

We maintain a 401(k) plan that is intended to qualify under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). In general, all of our employees, including our named executive officers, are eligible to participate in the 401(k) plan. Under the 401(k) plan, employees may elect to reduce their current compensation by up to the statutorily prescribed annual limit, which was equal to $19,500 in 2020, and to have the amount of such reduction contributed to the 401(k) plan. We currently match 50% of an employee’s 401(k) contributions up to a maximum of 6% of the participant’s compensation. Matching contributions are 100% vested upon completion of one year of service with the Company. In addition, employees who turn age 50 before the end of any calendar year may also defer up to an additional $6,500, and these catch-up contributions are eligible for matching contributions. Matching contributions made to each of our named executive officers are included in the “Summary Compensation Table” above.

2014 Equity Incentive Plan

Our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan was amended on August 10, 2017, following receipt of shareholder approval at our 2017 Annual General Meeting. Accordingly, based on approval at our 2017 Annual General Meeting, our Board and shareholders authorized 6,064,544 ordinary shares for the granting of incentive options, non-qualified options (“NQSOs”), share appreciation rights and restricted share unit awards, plus annual increases on the first day of July 2018, 2019 and 2020 equal to the lesser of (A) 3% of the ordinary shares outstanding on the day prior to the increase; and (B) such lesser number of ordinary shares as determined by the Board; provided that no more than 10,000,000 ordinary shares may be issued upon the exercise of incentive share options. On July 1, 2018, 2019 and 2020, the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan was increased by 878,800, 1,027,987, and 1,071,964 ordinary shares, respectively. The maximum number of ordinary shares with respect to awards which may be granted to

 

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any participant in any fiscal year under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan is 600,000 shares. In the event of a share dividend, split, recapitalization or reorganization or other change in capital structure, our Board will make appropriate adjustments to these amounts.

Any shares subject to an award that is canceled, forfeited or expires prior to exercise or realization, either in full or in part, will again become available for issuance under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan. However, shares subject to an award under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan will not again be made available for issuance or delivery under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan if such shares are (a) shares tendered in payment of an option; (b) shares delivered or withheld by us to satisfy any tax withholding obligation; or (c) shares covered by a share-settled share appreciation right or other awards that were not issued upon the settlement of the award.

If we are acquired, our Board (or Compensation Committee) will with respect to options and share appreciation rights: (i) make appropriate provision for the continuation of the option or share appreciation right by substituting on an equitable basis for the ordinary shares then subject to such option or share appreciation right either the consideration payable with respect to the outstanding ordinary shares in connection with the corporate transaction or securities of any successor or acquiring entity; (ii) cancel or arrange for the cancellation of the options or share appreciation rights, to the extent not vested or exercised prior to the effective time of the transaction, in exchange for a payment in cash or ordinary shares as determined by the Board, in an amount equal to the amount by which the then-fair market value of the ordinary shares subject to such vested option or share appreciation right exceeds the exercise price; or (iii) after giving holders an opportunity to exercise to the extent vested their outstanding options or share appreciation rights, terminate any or all unexercised options and share appreciation rights at such time as the Board deems appropriate. If we are acquired, our Board (or Compensation Committee) will with respect to outstanding restricted awards make appropriate provision for the continuation of such restricted awards on the same terms and conditions by substituting on an equitable basis for the ordinary shares then subject to such restricted awards either the consideration payable with respect to the outstanding ordinary shares in connection with the transaction or securities of any successor or acquiring entity. In lieu of the foregoing, if we are acquired, the Board may provide that, upon consummation of the acquisition, each outstanding restricted award shall be terminated in exchange for payment of an amount equal to the consideration payable upon consummation of such transaction to a holder of the number of ordinary shares comprising such restricted award to the extent then vested.

 

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Outstanding Equity Awards at 2020 Fiscal Year-End

The following table shows grants of options and grants of unvested restricted share unit awards outstanding on the last day of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 to each of the executive officers named in the Summary Compensation Table.

 

    Option Awards     Share Awards  

Name

  Number of
Securities
Underlying
Unexercised
Options (#)
Exercisable
    Number of
Securities
Underlying
Unexercised
Options (#)
Unexercisable
    Option
Exercise
Price ($)
    Option
Expiration
Date
    Number of
Shares or
Share
Units

That Have
Not Vested
(#)
    Market
Value of
Shares or
Share
Units
That
Have

Not
Vested

($)(8)
    Equity
Incentive
Plan
Awards:
Number of
Unearned
Shares,
Units or
Other
Rights
That Have
Not
Vested

(#)
    Equity
Incentive
Plan
Awards:
Market or
Payout
Value of
Unearned
Shares,
Units or
Other
Rights
That
Have Not
Vested
($)(8)
 

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA

    219,025       —       $ 2.48       3/10/2025          
    236,400       —       $ 18.79       6/16/2026          
    69,478       3,022 (1)    $ 29.05       1/25/2027          
    74,937       34,063 (2)    $ 40.05       1/23/2028          
    —         63,000 (3)    $ 8.17       3/3/2030          
            9,075 (4)    $ 71,420      
            27,250 (5)    $ 214,458      
            45,000 (6)    $ 354,150      
                185,000 (7)    $ 1,455,950  

Michael Panzara, M.D., MPH

    131,250       —       $ 21.69       7/11/2026          
    13,224       576 (1)    $ 29.05       1/25/2027          
    24,062       10,938 (2)    $ 40.05       1/23/2028          
    —         36,000 (3)    $ 8.17       3/3/2030          
            1,725 (4)    $ 13,576      
            8,750 (5)    $ 68,863      
            11,250 (6)    $ 88,538      
                100,000 (7)    $ 787,000  

Chandra Vargeese, Ph.D.

    205,964       —       $ 2.48       3/10/2025          
    49,600       —       $ 18.79       6/16/2026          
    18,687       813 (1)    $ 29.05       1/25/2027          
    24,062       10,938 (2)    $ 40.05       1/23/2028          
    —         36,000 (3)    $ 8.17       3/3/2030          
            2,450 (4)    $ 19,282      
            8,750 (5)    $ 68,863      
            11,250 (6)    $ 88,538      
                100,000 (7)    $ 787,000  

 

(1)

25% vested on February 15, 2018 and the reminder vests in equal monthly installments over the following 36 months, subject to such officer’s continued service with us on each such vesting date. The option shall become fully vested upon a change of control.

(2)

25% vested on February 15, 2019 and the remainder vests in equal quarterly installments over the following 12 quarters, subject to such officer’s continued service with us on each such vesting date. The award shall become fully vested upon termination without cause or for good reason within 12 months following a change of control.

(3)

50% vested on February 15, 2021 and the remaining 50% vests on February 15, 2022 subject to such officer’s continued service with us on each such vesting date. The award shall become fully vested upon termination without cause or for good reason within 12 months following a change of control.

 

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(4)

25% vested on February 15, 2018 and the remainder vests in equal annual installments over the following three years, subject to such officer’s continued service with us on each such vesting date. The award shall become fully vested upon a change of control.

(5)

25% vested on February 15, 2019 and the remainder vests in equal annual installments over the following three years, subject to such officer’s continued service with us on each such vesting date. The award shall become fully vested upon termination without cause or for good reason within 12 months following a change of control.

(6)

25% vested on February 15, 2020 and the remainder vests in equal monthly installments over the following 36 months, subject to such officer’s continued service with us on each such vesting date. The award shall become fully vested upon termination without cause or for good reason within 12 months following a change of control.

(7)

These performance-based RSUs were granted on March 7, 2019 and were amended on March 17, 2021. A description of the vesting criteria of the performance-based-RSUs is set forth under the sub-headingLong-Term Incentive Compensation2019 Performance-Based RSUs and 2021 Amended and Restated Performance-Based RSUs” above. The award shall become fully vested upon termination without cause or for good reason within 12 months following a change of control.

(8)

The market value of the RSU awards and performance-based RSUs is based on the closing price of our ordinary shares of $7.87 per share at December 31, 2020.

Director Compensation

The following table shows the total compensation paid or accrued during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 to each of our non-employee directors. Directors who are also employees are not compensated for their service on our Board.

 

Name

   Fees Earned or
Paid in Cash ($)(1)
     Option Awards ($)(2)      All Other
Compensation ($)
    Total ($)  

Christian Henry

     110,500        44,758        —         155,258  

Mark H. N. Corrigan, M.D.

     48,000        44,758        —         92,758  

Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D.

     46,000        44,758        —         90,758  

Koji Miura

     30,164        —          —         30,164  

Amy Pott

     46,000        44,758        —         90,758  

Adrian Rawcliffe

     48,000        44,758        —         92,758  

Ken Takanashi

     45,000        44,758        —         89,758  

Aik Na Tan

     16,175        101,071        —         117,246  

Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D.

     40,000        44,758        150,000 (4)      234,758  

Heidi L. Wagner, J.D.

     45,000        44,758        —         89,758  

 

(1)

Amounts represent fees earned during 2020 under our Non-Employee Director Compensation Policy. Mr. Miura retired as a director of the Company on August 18, 2020 and Ms. Pott resigned as a director of the Company on January 8, 2021. Ms. Tan was appointed as a director of the Company on August 18, 2020.

(2)

Amount represents the aggregate grant date fair value for the option awards identified, computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. Ms. Tan was granted 21,000 share options upon her appointment as a director of the Company on August 18, 2020. A discussion of the assumptions used in determining grant date fair value may be found in Note 7 to the financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

(3)

Amount paid pursuant to a consulting agreement between the Company and Dr. Verdine.

 

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The following table shows the aggregate number of shares subject to options held by each of our non-employee directors as of December 31, 2020.

 

Name

   Aggregate
Number of
Shares
Subject to
Options
 

Christian Henry

     57,000  

Mark H. N. Corrigan, M.D.

     31,500  

Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D.

     48,000  

Amy Pott

     31,500  

Adrian Rawcliffe

     57,000  

Ken Takanashi

     48,000  

Aik Na Tan

     21,000  

Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D.

     314,402  

Heidi L. Wagner, J.D.

     31,500  

At our 2020 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, our shareholders overwhelmingly approved our 2020 Non-Employee Director Compensation Policy, under which our directors were compensated for their service as directors, including as members of the various committees of our Board on which they serve, for the Board service period that commenced on the date of our 2020 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders and runs through the date of our 2021 AGM. The terms of the 2020 Non-Employee Director Compensation Policy were as follows:

 

   

Annual cash compensation of $40,000 to each non-employee director, other than the Chairman of the Board, and cash compensation of $72,500 to the non-employee Chairman of the Board.

 

   

Additional annual cash compensation of $16,000 to the Chairman of the Audit Committee and $8,000 to each member of the Audit Committee other than the Chairman.

 

   

Additional annual cash compensation of $12,000 to the Chairman of the Compensation Committee and $6,000 to each member of the Compensation Committee other than the Chairman.

 

   

Additional annual cash compensation of $10,000 to the Chairman of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and $5,000 to each member of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee other than the Chairman.

 

   

One-time equity grant upon initial appointment or election to the Board of an option to purchase 21,000 ordinary shares, 25% of which shall vest on the first anniversary of the grant and the remaining 75% of which shall vest quarterly thereafter for three years.

 

   

Annual equity grant of an option to purchase 10,500 ordinary shares, all of which shall vest on the earlier of the 2021 AGM or the first anniversary of the grant date.

Additional pro rata cash compensation of the annual cash compensation amounts set forth above shall be made, as applicable, to (i) any director who ceases to be a director, Chairman of the Board or member or chairman of any committee of the Board and (ii) any new non-employee director who is appointed by the Board, any independent director who is appointed to the position of Chairman of the Board or chairman of any such committee of the Board or any independent director who is appointed to serve on any such committee of the Board, for their services rendered as a director and/or committee member, for the portion of the year in which such director so served. In Proposal 3, as required by Singapore law, we are now asking our shareholders to approve the terms of a 2021 non-employee director compensation policy and related compensation matters. Please see Proposal 3 below.

 

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EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION

The following table provides certain information with respect to our equity compensation plans in effect as of December 31, 2020.

 

Plan Category

  Number of Securities
to be Issued upon
Exercise of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants and Rights 
    Weighted-Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding
Options, Warrants
and Rights
    Number of
Securities
Remaining
Available for Future
Issuance under
Equity
Compensation Plans 
 

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders

    4,923,610 (1)    $ 15.83 (2)      3,298,989 (3) 

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders

    130,000 (4)    $ 9.64 (5)      —    

Total

    5,053,610     $ 15.67       3,298,989  

 

(1)

Consists of options to purchase 3,770,395 of our ordinary shares outstanding under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, 728,021 of our ordinary shares subject to performance-based RSUs outstanding under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, and 425,194 of our ordinary shares subject to time-based RSUs outstanding under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, in each case as of December 31, 2020.

(2)

Reflects the weighted average exercise price of the options to purchase 3,770,395 of our ordinary shares outstanding under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, as of December 31, 2020.

(3)

Consists of 2,324,228 of our ordinary shares available for future grants under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, and 974,761 of our ordinary shares that remain available for sale under the 2019 Employee Share Purchase Plan effective August 15, 2019, in each case as of December 31, 2020.

(4)

Consists of options to purchase 103,000 of our ordinary shares granted outside of the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan in accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635(c)(4) and 27,000 of our ordinary shares subject to time-based RSUs granted outside of the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan in accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635(c)(4), in each case as of December 31, 2020.

(5)

Reflects the weighted average exercise price of the options to purchase 103,000 of our ordinary shares granted in accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635(c)(4), as of December 31, 2020.

 

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REPORT OF AUDIT COMMITTEE

The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors has furnished the following report:

The Audit Committee assists the Board in overseeing and monitoring the integrity of our financial reporting process, compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, the quality of internal and external audit processes, and related person transaction policies and procedures. The committee’s role and responsibilities are set forth in the Audit Committee charter adopted by the Board, which is available on our website at www.wavelifesciences.com. The Audit Committee reviews and reassesses its charter annually and recommends any changes to the Board for approval. The Audit Committee is responsible for overseeing our overall financial reporting process, for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, and for the appointment, compensation, retention and oversight of the work of KPMG LLP. In fulfilling its responsibilities for the financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, the Audit Committee took the following actions:

 

   

Reviewed and discussed the audited financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 with management and KPMG LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor;

 

   

Discussed with KPMG LLP the matters required to be discussed by the applicable requirements of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) and the SEC; and

 

   

Received written disclosures and the letter from KPMG LLP regarding its independence as required by applicable requirements of the PCAOB regarding KPMG LLP communications with the Audit Committee and the Audit Committee further discussed with KPMG LLP their independence. The Audit Committee also considered the status of pending litigation, taxation matters and other areas of oversight relating to the financial reporting and audit process that the committee determined appropriate.

Based on the Audit Committee’s review of the audited financial statements and discussions with management and KPMG LLP, the Audit Committee recommended to the Board that the audited financial statements be included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 for filing with the SEC.

Members of the Audit Committee

Christian Henry, Chair

Mark H.N. Corrigan, M.D.

Adrian Rawcliffe

Aik Na Tan

 

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CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PERSON TRANSACTIONS

The following includes a summary of transactions since January 1, 2019 to which we have been a party, in which the amount involved in the transaction exceeded the lesser of $120,000 or one percent of the average of our total assets at December 31, 2020 and 2019, and in which any of our directors, executive officers or beneficial owners of more than 5% of our ordinary shares, or any member of the immediate family of any of the foregoing persons had or will have a direct or indirect material interest, other than equity and other compensation, termination, change in control and other arrangements, which are described under, “Executive Officer and Director Compensation.” We refer to such transactions as “related party transactions” or “related person transactions” and such persons as “related parties” or “related persons.” With the approval of our Board, we have engaged in the related party transactions described below.

Related Person Transaction Policy

Our Board has adopted a written related person transaction policy that requires future transactions between us and any director, executive officer, holder of 5% or more of any class of our capital stock or any member of the immediate family of, or entities affiliated with, any of them, or any other related persons, as defined in Item 404 of Regulation S-K, or their affiliates, in which the amount involved is equal to or greater than $120,000, be approved in advance by our Audit Committee, or if Audit Committee approval would be inappropriate, by another independent body of our Board. In approving or rejecting such proposed related person transaction, the committee is to consider all available information deemed relevant by the committee, including, but not limited to, the extent of the related person’s interest in the transaction and whether the transaction is on terms no less favorable to us than terms we could have generally obtained from an unaffiliated third party under the same or similar circumstances. The committee approves only those transactions that, in light of known circumstances, are deemed to be in our best interests. In the event that any member of the committee is not a disinterested person with respect to the related person transaction under review, that member is excluded from the review and approval or rejection of such related person transaction; provided, however, that such committee member may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at the meeting of the committee at which such transaction is considered. If we become aware of an existing related person transaction which has not been approved under the policy, the matter will be referred to the committee. The committee evaluates all options available, including ratification, revision or termination of such transaction. In the event that management determines that it is impractical or undesirable to wait until a meeting of the committee to consummate a related person transaction, the chair of the committee may approve such transaction in accordance with the related person transaction approval policy. Any such approval must be reported to the committee at the next regularly scheduled meeting.

Indemnification Agreements with Officers and Directors

We have entered into deeds of indemnity with our directors and our executive officers. These agreements will require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Singapore law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. These indemnification rights shall not be exclusive of any other right which an indemnified person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of our Constitution, agreement, vote of shareholders or disinterested directors or otherwise if he or she is subsequently found to have been negligent or otherwise have breached his or her trust or fiduciary duties or to be in default thereof, or where the Singapore courts have declined to grant relief.

Participation in Our Public Offering

On January 28, 2019, we closed a follow-on underwritten public offering of 3,950,000 ordinary shares for gross proceeds of $150.1 million, and on February 26, 2019, we closed on the sale of an additional 592,500 ordinary shares pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional ordinary shares (on the same terms and conditions as the initial closing) for gross proceeds of an additional $22.5 million. Affiliates of RA Capital

 

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Management, L.P. (“RA Capital”) purchased 263,158 ordinary shares in the public offering at the public offering price of $38.00 per share. RA Capital is the investment manager of RA Capital Healthcare Fund, L.P., one of our principal shareholders. Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D., a member of our Board, is the Managing Partner of RA Capital.

Consulting Agreement with Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D.

Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D., a member of our Board, entered into a consulting agreement with Wave Life Sciences USA, Inc. (“Wave USA”), our wholly owned subsidiary, dated as of April 1, 2012, pursuant to which Dr. Verdine serves as a scientific advisor. The consulting agreement does not have a specified term and may be terminated by either party upon 14 days’ prior written notice. Wave USA pays Dr. Verdine $12,500 per month and, in each of 2019 and 2020, Dr. Verdine was paid an aggregate of $150,000 under this agreement.

Agreements with Pfizer and its Affiliate

On May 5, 2016, we entered into a Research, License and Option Agreement with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”), which we refer to herein as the “Pfizer Collaboration Agreement.” Simultaneously with the entry into the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, on May 5, 2016, we entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (the “Pfizer Equity Agreement”) with C.P. Pharmaceuticals International C.V., an affiliate of Pfizer (the “Pfizer Affiliate”). We refer to the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement and the Pfizer Equity Agreement herein collectively as the “Pfizer Agreements.” Pursuant to the terms of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, we and Pfizer agreed to collaborate on the discovery, development and commercialization of stereopure oligonucleotide therapeutics for up to five programs (each, a “Pfizer Program”), each directed at a genetically-defined hepatic target selected by Pfizer. Under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the parties agreed to collaborate during a four-year research term. The research term for the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement ended in May 2020. Under the terms of the Pfizer Agreements, Pfizer paid us $40.0 million upfront, $30.0 million of which was in the form of an equity investment in our ordinary shares. Under the Pfizer Equity Agreement, we issued 1,875,000 ordinary shares (the “Pfizer Shares”) to the Pfizer Affiliate at a purchase price of $16.00 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $30.0 million. Under the terms of the Pfizer Equity Agreement, the Pfizer Shares were subject to a lock-up restriction, such that the Pfizer Affiliate agreed not to, nor cause its affiliates to, without our prior approval, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of the Pfizer Shares until certain specified periods of time after the effective date of the Pfizer Equity Agreement. We also agreed to provide the Pfizer Affiliate with registration rights, as described under “Registration Rights under our Share Purchase Agreement with Pfizer” below.

Registration Rights under our Share Purchase Agreement with Pfizer

Under the terms of our Pfizer Equity Agreement, the Pfizer Affiliate agreed that the Pfizer Shares were subject to a lock-up restriction, such that the Pfizer Affiliate agreed not to, nor cause its affiliates to, without our prior approval, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of the Pfizer Shares until certain specified periods of time after the effective date of the Pfizer Equity Agreement. For a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, we agreed to provide certain demand registration rights to the Pfizer Affiliate in order to register all or a portion of the Pfizer Shares purchased by the Pfizer Affiliate. We also provided the Pfizer Affiliate with certain “piggyback” registration rights for a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, such that when we propose to register our ordinary shares for our account, the Pfizer Affiliate will have the right to include some or all of the Pfizer Shares in such registration. The Pfizer Equity Agreement also contains other customary terms and conditions of the parties with respect to the registration of the Pfizer Shares.

 

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PROPOSAL 1: ELECTION OF DIRECTORS

Our Constitution requires that each of our directors retire at each annual general meeting of our shareholders, and each retiring director is then eligible for re-election. The Board of Directors, acting on the recommendation of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, has nominated each of Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA, Mark H.N. Corrigan, M.D., Christian Henry, Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D., Adrian Rawcliffe, Ken Takanashi, Aik Na Tan, Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D. and Heidi L. Wagner, J.D. for election at the 2021 AGM. Voting on the election of each nominee will be done separately. If each such nominee is elected, he or she will serve on our Board until our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders and until his or her successor has been elected and qualified.

Pursuant to the Singapore Companies Act and our Constitution, our Board must have at least one director who is ordinarily resident in Singapore. Ms. Tan is our Singapore resident director. Due to the Singapore Companies Act requirement that we have at least one director who is ordinarily resident in Singapore in office at all times, the sole resident director cannot resign or step down unless there is at least one other resident director. In the event that Ms. Tan is not elected at the 2021 AGM, she will continue in office after the 2021 AGM as a member of our Board until her qualifying successor (i.e., a Singapore resident director) is appointed.

Each of the nominees has indicated a willingness to continue to serve as director, if elected. We have no reason to believe that any nominee will be unable or unwilling to serve as a director.

Each nominee for director who receives the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by the holders of ordinary shares voting either in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM will be elected (meaning the number of shares voted “for” a nominee must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such nominee).

THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS RECOMMENDS A VOTE “FOR” THE ELECTION OF PAUL B. BOLNO, M.D., MBA, MARK H.N. CORRIGAN, M.D., CHRISTIAN HENRY, PETER KOLCHINSKY, PH.D., ADRIAN RAWCLIFFE, KEN TAKANASHI, AIK NA TAN, GREGORY L. VERDINE, PH.D. AND HEIDI L. WAGNER, J.D. AS DIRECTORS, AND PROXIES SOLICITED BY THE BOARD WILL BE VOTED IN FAVOR THEREOF UNLESS A SHAREHOLDER HAS INDICATED OTHERWISE ON THE PROXY CARD.

 

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PROPOSAL 2: INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM AND

INDEPENDENT SINGAPORE AUDITOR AND

AUDITOR REMUNERATION

The Audit Committee has appointed KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor to audit our financial statements for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021.

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, KPMG LLP was our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor of our Singapore Statutory Financial Statements. Pursuant to Section 205(2) and 205(4) of the Singapore Companies Act, any re-appointment after the initial appointment of our independent Singapore auditor, or its subsequent removal, requires the approval of our shareholders. The Board proposes that the shareholders approve the re-appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor of our Singapore Statutory Financial Statements.

We expect that representatives of KPMG LLP will be present at the 2021 AGM, will be able to make a statement if they so desire, and will be available to respond to appropriate questions.

Pursuant to Section 205(16) of the Singapore Companies Act, the remuneration of a company’s auditor shall be fixed by the shareholders in a general meeting or the shareholders may authorize directors to fix the remuneration. Our Board believes that it is appropriate for the Audit Committee, as part of its oversight responsibilities, to fix the auditor’s remuneration. Our Board therefore also proposes that the shareholders authorize the Audit Committee to fix KPMG LLP’s remuneration for services rendered as our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor through the date of our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders.

In deciding to re-appoint KPMG LLP, the Audit Committee reviewed auditor independence issues and existing commercial relationships with KPMG LLP and concluded that KPMG LLP has no commercial relationship with the Company that would impair its independence for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021.

Principal Accounting Firm Fees and Services

The following table presents fees for professional audit services rendered by KPMG LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, for the services described in the table. Fees disclosed below include fees actually billed or expected to be billed for services pertaining to the applicable fiscal year.

 

     2020      2019  

Audit fees(1)

   $ 1,110,833      $ 1,567,215  

Audit-related fees(2)

     —          —    

Tax fees(2)

     —          —    

All other fees(2)

     —          —    

 

(1)

Audit fees consisted of audit work performed in the preparation of financial statements, as well as work generally only the independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor can reasonably be expected to provide, such as statutory audits and the provision of consents in connection with the filing of registration statements and related amendments, as well as other filings.

(2)

There were no audit-related, tax or other fees in 2019 or 2020.

Policy on Audit Committee Pre-Approval of Audit and Permissible Non-Audit Services of Independent Public Accounting Firm

In connection with our initial public offering, we adopted a policy under which the Audit Committee must pre-approve all audit and permissible non-audit services to be provided by the independent registered public

 

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accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor. As part of its review, the Audit Committee also considers whether the categories of pre-approved services are consistent with the rules on accountant independence of the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. The Audit Committee pre-approved all services performed since the pre-approval policy was adopted.

Prior to engagement of an independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor for the next year’s audit, management will submit an aggregate of services expected to be rendered during that year for each of four categories of services to the Audit Committee for approval.

1. Audit services include audit work performed in the preparation of financial statements, as well as work that generally only an independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor can reasonably be expected to provide, including comfort letters, statutory audits, and attest services and consultation regarding financial accounting and/or reporting standards.

2. Audit-related services are for assurance and related services that are traditionally performed by an independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor, including due diligence related to mergers and acquisitions, employee benefit plan audits, and special procedures required to meet certain regulatory requirements.

3. Tax services include all services performed by an independent registered public accounting firm’s tax personnel except those services specifically related to the audit of the financial statements, and include fees in the areas of tax compliance, tax planning, and tax advice.

4. Other fees are those associated with services not captured in the other categories. The Company generally does not request such services from our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor.

Prior to engagement, the Audit Committee pre-approves these services by category of service. During the year, circumstances may arise when it may become necessary to engage our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor for additional services not contemplated in the original pre-approval. In those instances, the Audit Committee requires specific pre-approval before engaging our independent registered public accounting firm and independent Singapore auditor. The Audit Committee may delegate pre-approval authority to one or more of its members. The member to whom such authority is delegated must report, for informational purposes only, any pre-approval decisions to the Audit Committee at its next scheduled meeting.

The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to approve the re-appointment of KPMG LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm and our independent Singapore auditor and to authorize the Audit Committee to fix the auditor’s remuneration (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).

THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS RECOMMENDS A VOTE FOR THE APPROVAL OF THE RE-APPOINTMENT OF KPMG LLP AS OUR INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM AND INDEPENDENT SINGAPORE AUDITOR FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 2021 AND THE AUTHORIZATION OF THE AUDIT COMMITTEE TO FIX KPMG LLP’S REMUNERATION FOR SUCH SERVICES, AND PROXIES SOLICITED BY THE BOARD WILL BE VOTED IN FAVOR OF SUCH APPROVAL AND AUTHORIZATION UNLESS A SHAREHOLDER INDICATES OTHERWISE ON THE PROXY CARD.

 

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PROPOSAL 3: NON-EMPLOYEE DIRECTORS’ COMPENSATION

Under the laws of Singapore, our shareholders must approve all cash and equity-based compensation paid by us to our directors for services rendered in their capacity as directors. Directors who are employed by us are not eligible to receive compensation from us for services rendered in their capacity as directors.

Part 1: 2021 Non-Employee Director Compensation Policy. At our 2020 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, our shareholders overwhelmingly approved our 2020 non-employee director compensation policy, under which our directors were compensated for their service as directors, including as members of the various committees of our Board on which they serve, for the Board service period that commenced on the date of our 2020 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders and runs through our 2021 AGM.

We are now asking our shareholders to approve the terms of our 2021 non-employee director compensation policy, which would take effect on the date of shareholder approval of this Proposal 3 and enable us to provide payment of the compensation described under (A) Cash Compensation and (B) Equity Compensation below to our non-employee directors for their service on our Board and its committees for the Board service period commencing on the date of our 2021 AGM and running through the date on which our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders is held.

(A) Cash Compensation:

 

   

Board of Directors: Annual cash compensation of $40,000 to each non-employee director, other than the Chairman of the Board, and cash compensation of $75,000 to the non-employee Chairman of the Board.

 

   

Audit Committee: Additional annual cash compensation of $18,000 to the Chairman of the Audit Committee and $9,000 to each member of the Audit Committee other than the Chairman.

 

   

Compensation Committee: Additional annual cash compensation of $15,000 to the Chairman of the Compensation Committee and $7,500 to each member of the Compensation Committee other than the Chairman.

 

   

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee: Additional annual cash compensation of $15,000 to the Chairman of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and $7,500 to each member of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee other than the Chairman.

 

   

Research and Development Committee: Additional annual cash compensation of $15,000 to the Chairman of the Research and Development Committee and $7,500 to each member of the Research and Development Committee other than the Chairman.

 

   

Proration: Additional pro rata cash compensation of the annual cash compensation amounts set forth above shall be made, as applicable, to (i) any director who ceases to be a director, Chairman of the Board or member or chairman of any committee of the Board and (ii) any new non-employee director who is appointed by the Board, any independent director who is appointed to the position of Chairman of the Board or chairman of any such committee of the Board or any independent director who is appointed to serve on any such committee of the Board, for their services rendered as a director and/or committee member, for the portion of the year in which such director so served.

(B) Equity Compensation:

 

   

Initial Equity Grant: One-time equity grant upon initial appointment or election to the Board of an option to purchase 42,000 ordinary shares, which shall vest as to 12.5% of the shares on a quarterly basis during the two-year period following the grant date.

 

   

Refresh Equity Grant: Each non-employee director whose initial equity grant has an expiration date within twelve months following the 2021 AGM shall be granted an option to purchase 42,000 ordinary shares, which shall vest as to 12.5% of the shares on a quarterly basis during the two-year period following the grant date.

 

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Annual Equity Grant: Annual equity grant of an option to purchase 21,000 ordinary shares, which shall vest as to 100% of the shares on the earlier of the 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders or the first anniversary of the grant date.

 

   

Limitation on Equity Grants: A non-employee director shall be eligible to receive only one type of option grant at the 2021 AGM, which shall be an initial equity grant, a refresh equity grant, or an annual equity grant, in each case as described above.

Part 2: Research and Development Committee Compensation in Arrears. Our Research and Development Committee was formed after our 2020 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, and therefore, shareholder approval for such committee compensation has not been sought previously. We are now seeking shareholder approval for the Research and Development Committee to receive cash compensation in arrears for their service on the Research and Development Committee for the period of January 1, 2021 through the date of 2021 AGM, which shall include cash compensation of $15,000 to the Chairman of the Research and Development Committee and $7,500 to each member of the Research and Development Committee other than the Chairman.

Part 3: Tax Withholding Gross-up. We are also seeking shareholder approval for a one-time, additional amount of $22,125 (which amount includes a tax gross-up) plus any applicable interest related to withholding taxes required to be paid to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “U.S. IRS”) on behalf of one of our ex-U.S. directors (the “Foreign Director”). By way of background, since 2017, we had withheld and remitted 22% of the Foreign Director’s board service compensation to the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (“IRAS”) based on advice received from our external tax advisor. In 2020, it was determined that the Foreign Director had a tax obligation in the United States for 30% of the Foreign Director’s board service compensation. We then sought, on behalf of the Foreign Director, and received a refund of the previously remitted amounts from IRAS for the Foreign Director, that we, in turn, remitted to the U.S. IRS on his behalf in partial satisfaction of his U.S. tax obligation. Subject to receipt of shareholder approval, we intend to pay the Foreign Director $22,125 (which amount includes a tax gross up) in satisfaction of the additional tax withholding to the U.S. IRS, plus any applicable interest he may incur for the inadvertent late payment.

*            *             *

We believe the authorizations requested in this Proposal 3 will benefit our shareholders by enabling us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve as members of our Board and to continue to provide advice to, and independent oversight of, management.

The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to approve the non-employee directors’ compensation (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).

THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS RECOMMENDS A VOTE “FOR” THE APPROVAL OF THE NON-EMPLOYEE DIRECTORS’ COMPENSATION AND PROXIES SOLICITED BY THE BOARD WILL BE VOTED IN FAVOR THEREOF UNLESS A SHAREHOLDER HAS INDICATED OTHERWISE ON THE PROXY CARD.

 

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PROPOSAL 4: APPROVAL OF THE 2021 EQUITY INCENTIVE PLAN

General

Our Board is requesting that our shareholders approve the adoption of the Wave Life Sciences Ltd. 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”), as recommended by the Compensation Committee and approved by our Board on June 15, 2021, to be effective upon approval by our shareholders at the 2021 AGM. We are submitting the 2021 Plan to our shareholders at this time to replace our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (the “2014 Plan”). If the 2021 Plan is not approved by our shareholders, it will not be adopted, and we will continue to operate under the 2014 Plan until the earlier of its expiration or until the issuance of all authorized shares under the 2014 Plan. Subject to receipt of shareholder approval, the 2021 Plan will serve as the successor to the 2014 Plan such that outstanding awards granted under the 2014 Plan will continue to be governed by the terms of the 2014 Plan, but no awards may be made under the 2014 Plan after the effective date of the 2021 Plan.

The purpose of the 2021 Plan is to assist the Company and its subsidiaries in attracting, motivating, retaining and rewarding high-quality executives and other employees, officers, directors, and consultants who provide services to the Company or its subsidiaries, by enabling such persons to acquire or increase a proprietary interest in the Company to align the interests between such persons and the Company’s shareholders, and providing such persons with incentives to expend their maximum efforts in the creation of shareholder value. The aggregate number of ordinary shares authorized for issuance of awards under the 2021 Plan will be 5,450,000 ordinary shares (of which 2,324,228 were available for issuance under the 2014 Plan as of December 31, 2020), plus the number of ordinary shares underlying any awards under the 2014 Plan that are forfeited, canceled or otherwise terminated (other than by exercise or withheld by the Company to satisfy any tax withholding obligation) on or after the date the 2021 Plan is approved by our shareholders; provided that no more than 5,450,000 ordinary shares may be issued upon the exercise of incentive share options. After careful consideration, our Compensation Committee decided not to incorporate an evergreen provision into the 2021 Plan.

As of December 31, 2020, a total of 2,324,228 ordinary shares remained available for issuance under the 2014 Plan and options to purchase 3,873,395 ordinary shares and restricted share units (with both time and performance vesting) for the issuance of 1,180,215 ordinary shares were outstanding. As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s equity overhang, represented by (a) the sum of all outstanding share options and other awards, plus the number of shares available for issuance pursuant to future awards under the 2021 Plan, as a percentage of (b) the sum of (i) the number of ordinary shares outstanding as of December 31, 2020, plus (ii) the number of shares described in clause (a) above, was 13.1%. If the 2021 Plan is approved by our shareholders, the equity overhang would be 19.2%.

As of June 17, 2021, 80% of our outstanding share options were underwater, with such underwater options having a weighted-average exercise price of $18.25 per share, a weighted average term of 7.57 years and individual option exercise prices ranging up to $50.00 per share as compared to the $7.17 per share closing price of our ordinary shares as reported by the Nasdaq Stock Market. As of June 17, 2021, all outstanding share options had a weighted-average exercise price of $15.11 per share and weighted average term of 6.81 years.

Reasons for the 2021 Plan

 

   

The Board believes that the number of ordinary shares currently remaining available for issuance pursuant to future awards under the 2014 Plan (as of June 17, 2021) is not sufficient for the Company’s future granting needs. As of June 17, 2021, there were approximately 231 employees and consultants, and eight directors who will be eligible to participate in the 2021 Plan. Our Board, the Compensation Committee and management believe that the effective use of share-based long-term incentive compensation is vital to our ability to achieve strong performance in the future.

 

   

The 2021 Plan will maintain and enhance the key policies and practices adopted by our management and Board to align employee and shareholder interests and to link compensation to Company

 

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performance. The Company believes maintaining and enhancing the broad-based equity program is essential to aligning shareholder and employees’ interests while providing high motivation, retention, and potential upside value over the long term.

 

   

In addition, our future success depends, in large part, upon our ability to maintain a competitive position in attracting, retaining, and motivating key personnel. We believe that the number of ordinary shares available for issuance under our 2021 Plan is essential to permit us to continue to provide long-term, equity-based incentives to present and future employees, directors, and consultants.

The 2021 Plan authorizes the Board or a committee of the Board to grant incentive share options, non-qualified share options, share appreciation rights and restricted share and share unit awards to eligible employees, non-employee directors and consultants of the Company. By its terms, the 2021 Plan may be amended by the Board provided that any amendment that the Board determines requires shareholder approval is subject to receiving such shareholder approval. Approval by our shareholders is required by the listing rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market. In addition, shareholder approval is required in order to ensure favorable federal income tax treatment for grants of incentive share options under Section 422 of the Code.

Promotion of Good Corporate Governance Practices

The 2021 Plan, includes the following provisions:

 

   

No Liberal Share Recycling — ordinary shares that are withheld to satisfy any tax withholding obligation related to any share award, for payment of the exercise price or purchase price of any share award, and ordinary shares repurchased by the Company on the open market with the proceeds of the exercise price of an option or share appreciation right will not become available again for issuance under the 2021 Plan;

 

   

No Discounted Share Options or Share Appreciation Rights share options and share appreciation rights may not be granted with exercise prices lower than the fair market value of the underlying ordinary shares on the grant date except to replace equity awards due to a corporate transaction;

 

   

No Repricing without Shareholder Approval we may not, without shareholder approval reprice the purchase price or the exercise price of any outstanding award;

 

   

No Evergreen Provision — the number of authorized shares under the 2021 Plan is fixed at 5,450,000 ordinary shares. The 2021 Plan does not include an “evergreen” feature that would cause the number of authorized shares to automatically increase in future years under the 2021 Plan;

 

   

No Transferability awards generally may not be transferred, except by will or the laws of descent and distribution, unless approved by the Compensation Committee;

 

   

Clawback Policy awards will be subject to recoupment in accordance with any clawback policy that the Company is required to adopt pursuant to the listing standards of any national securities exchange or association on which its securities are listed or as is otherwise required by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act or other applicable law. In addition, the Company may impose other clawback, recovery or recoupment provisions allowing the Company to recover from a participant any compensation received from any award (whether or not vested or settled) or cause a participant to forfeit any award (whether or not vested); and

 

   

No Dividends or Dividend Equivalents — we may not pay dividends or dividend equivalents before the vesting of the underlying award.

The following is a brief summary of the 2021 Plan. This summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the text of the 2021 Plan, a copy of which is attached as Appendix B to this proxy statement.

 

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Summary of Material Features of our 2021 Plan.

Eligibility. The 2021 Plan allows us, under the direction of our Compensation Committee, to make grants of incentive share options, non-qualified share options, share appreciation rights and restricted share and share unit awards to employees, consultants and directors who, in the opinion of the Compensation Committee, are in a position to make a significant contribution to our long-term success. All employees, directors and consultants of the Company and its affiliates are eligible to participate in the 2021 Plan.

Shares Available for Issuance. The 2021 Plan provides for the issuance of up to 5,450,000 ordinary shares plus the number of ordinary shares underlying any awards under the 2014 Plan that are forfeited, canceled or otherwise terminated (other than by exercise or withheld by the Company to satisfy any tax withholding obligation) on or after the date the 2021 Plan is approved by our shareholders; provided that no more than 5,450,000 ordinary shares may be issued upon the exercise of incentive share options. Generally, ordinary shares that are reserved for awards under the 2021 Plan that lapse or are canceled (other than by exercise) will be added back to the share reserve available for future awards. However, ordinary shares tendered in payment for an award, ordinary shares withheld for taxes, ordinary shares covered by a share-settled share appreciation right or other award that was not issued upon the settlement of the award, and ordinary shares repurchased by the Company on the open market with the proceeds of the exercise price of an option or share appreciation right are not available again for future awards.

Share Options. Share options granted under the 2021 Plan may either be incentive share options, which are intended to satisfy the requirements of Section 422 of the Code, or non-qualified share options, which are not intended to meet those requirements. Incentive share options may be granted to U.S. employees of the Company and its affiliates. Non-qualified share options may be granted to employees, directors and consultants of the Company and its affiliates. The exercise price of a share option may not be less than 100% of the fair market value of our ordinary shares on the date of grant and the term of the option may not be longer than ten years, except for non-qualified share options granted to non-employee directors and consultants which will have a maximum term of five years. If an incentive share option is granted to an individual who owns more than 10% of the combined voting power of all classes of our capital share, the exercise price may not be less than 110% of the fair market value of our ordinary shares on the date of grant and the term of the option may not be longer than five years.

Award agreements for share options include rules for exercise of the share options after termination of service. Share options may not be exercised unless they are vested, and no share option may be exercised after the end of the term set forth in the award agreement. Generally, share options will be exercisable for three months after termination of service for any reason other than death or total and permanent disability, and for 12 months after termination of service on account of death or total and permanent disability but will not be exercisable if the termination of service was due to cause.

Restricted Shares. Restricted shares are ordinary shares that are subject to restrictions, including a prohibition against transfer and a substantial risk of forfeiture, until the end of a “restricted period” during which the recipient must satisfy certain vesting conditions. If the recipient does not satisfy the vesting conditions by the end of the restricted period, the restricted shares are forfeited.

During the restricted period, the holder of restricted shares has the rights and privileges of a regular shareholder, except that the holder of such restricted shares is not entitled to receive dividends during the restricted period and the restrictions set forth in the applicable award agreement apply. For example, the holder of restricted shares may vote and accrue dividends on the restricted shares; but he or she may not sell the shares until the restrictions are lifted and dividends will be forfeited if the restricted shares are forfeited.

Restricted Share Units. A restricted share unit is an award entitling the recipient to receive ordinary shares to be delivered at the time such award vests pursuant to the terms and conditions established in the award

 

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agreement. The award agreement may provide the recipient with the right to receive dividends or other distributions declared and paid on an equal number of outstanding ordinary shares, which we refer to as dividend equivalents. Dividend equivalents must be subject to the same restrictions on transfer and forfeitability as the restricted share units with respect to which they are paid. A recipient will have no voting rights with respect to any restricted share units unless and until ordinary shares are issued.

Restricted awards may be granted at the sole discretion of the Compensation Committee, with vesting conditions based on the attainment of written performance goals. The Compensation Committee shall determine the performance period and whether, with respect to a performance period, the applicable performance goals have been met.

Share Appreciation Rights. A share appreciation right is an award entitling the recipient, upon exercise, to receive an amount payable in cash or ordinary shares equal to the number of ordinary shares subject to the share appreciation right that is being exercised multiplied by the excess of (a) the fair market value of an ordinary share on the date the award is exercised, over (b) the exercise price. The exercise price may not be less than 100% of the fair market value on the date the share appreciation right is granted and may not be granted with a term in excess of ten years.

Plan Administration. In accordance with the terms of the 2021 Plan, our Board has authorized our Compensation Committee to administer the 2021 Plan. The Compensation Committee may delegate part of its authority and powers under the 2021 Plan to one or more of our directors and/or officers, but only the Compensation Committee can make awards to participants who are subject to the reporting and other requirements of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In accordance with the provisions of the 2021 Plan, our Compensation Committee determines the terms of awards, including:

 

   

which employees, directors and consultants will be granted awards;

 

   

the number of ordinary shares subject to each award;

 

   

the vesting provisions of each award;

 

   

the termination or cancellation provisions applicable to awards; and

 

   

all other terms and conditions upon which each award may be granted in accordance with the 2021 Plan.

In addition, our Compensation Committee may, in its discretion, amend any term or condition of an outstanding award provided (i) such term or condition as amended is permitted by our 2021 Plan, and (ii) any such amendment shall be made only with the consent of the participant to whom such award was made, if the amendment is adverse to the participant; and provided, further, that, without the prior approval of our shareholders, awards will not be repriced, replaced or regranted through cancellation or by lowering the exercise price of a previously granted award.

Share Dividends and Share Splits. If our ordinary shares shall be subdivided or combined into a greater or smaller number of ordinary shares or if we issue any ordinary shares as a share dividend, the number of ordinary shares deliverable upon exercise of an option issued or upon issuance of an award shall be appropriately increased or decreased proportionately, and appropriate adjustments shall be made in the purchase price per share and performance goals applicable to performance awards, if any, to reflect such subdivision, combination or share dividend.

Corporate Transactions. If we are acquired, our Board or Compensation Committee will with respect to share options and share appreciation rights: (i) make appropriate provision for the continuation of the share option or share appreciation right by substituting on an equitable basis for the ordinary shares then subject to such share option or share appreciation right either the consideration payable with respect to the outstanding

 

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ordinary shares in connection with the corporate transaction or securities of any successor or acquiring entity; (ii) cancel or arrange for the cancellation of the share options or share appreciation rights, to the extent not vested or exercised prior to the effective time of the transaction, in exchange for a payment in cash or ordinary shares as determined by our Board, in an amount equal to the amount by which the then fair market value of the ordinary shares subject to such vested share option or share appreciation right exceeds the exercise price; or (iii) after giving holders an opportunity to exercise to the extent vested their outstanding share options or share appreciation rights, terminate any or all unexercised share options and share appreciation rights at such time as the Board deems appropriate. With respect to outstanding restricted awards, our Board or Compensation Committee shall make appropriate provision for the continuation of such restricted awards on the same terms and conditions by substituting on an equitable basis for the ordinary shares then subject to such restricted awards either the consideration payable with respect to the outstanding ordinary shares in connection with the transaction or securities of any successor or acquiring entity. In lieu of the foregoing, if we are acquired, our Board may provide that, upon consummation of the acquisition, each outstanding restricted award shall be terminated in exchange for payment of an amount equal to the consideration payable upon consummation of such transaction to a holder of the number of ordinary shares comprising such restricted award to the extent then vested.

Amendment and Termination. The 2021 Plan may be amended by our shareholders. It may also be amended by our Board, provided that any amendment approved by our Board which is of a scope that requires shareholder approval as required by (i) the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, (ii) in order to ensure favorable federal income tax treatment for any incentive share options under Code Section 422, or (iii) for any other reason, is subject to obtaining such shareholder approval. In addition, other than in connection with share dividends, share splits, recapitalizations or reorganizations, the Compensation Committee may not without shareholder approval reduce the exercise price or cancel any outstanding option in exchange for a replacement option having a lower exercise price. In addition, we may not take any other action that is considered a direct or indirect “repricing” for purposes of the shareholder approval rules of the applicable securities exchange or inter-dealer quotation system on which the ordinary shares are listed, including any other action that is treated as a repricing under generally accepted accounting principles. However, no such action may adversely affect any rights under any outstanding award without the holder’s consent.

Duration of 2021 Plan. The 2021 Plan will expire by its terms on August 10, 2031.

Federal Income Tax Considerations

The material federal income tax consequences of the issuance and exercise of share options and other awards under the 2021 Plan, based on the current provisions of the Code and regulations, are as follows. Changes to these laws could alter the tax consequences described below. This summary assumes that all awards granted under the 2021 Plan are exempt from or comply with, the rules under Section 409A of the Code related to nonqualified deferred compensation. This summary is not intended to be exhaustive and does not discuss the income tax laws of any local, state or foreign jurisdiction in which a participant may reside. The information is based upon current federal income tax rules and therefore is subject to change when those rules change. Because the tax consequences to any participant may depend on his or her particular situation, each participant should consult the participant’s tax adviser regarding the federal, state, local and other tax consequences of the grant or exercise of an award or the disposition of ordinary shares acquired under the 2021 Plan.

 

Incentive Share Options:

   Incentive share options are intended to qualify for treatment under Section 422 of the Code. An incentive share option does not result in taxable income to the optionee or deduction to us at the time it is granted or exercised, provided that no disposition is made by the optionee of the ordinary shares acquired pursuant to the incentive share option within two years after the date of grant of the incentive share option nor within one year after the date of

 

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   issuance of ordinary shares to the optionee (referred to as the “ISO holding period”). However, the difference between the fair market value of the ordinary shares on the date of exercise and the incentive share option exercise price will be an item of tax preference includible in “alternative minimum taxable income” of the optionee. Upon disposition of the ordinary shares after the expiration of the ISO holding period, the optionee will generally recognize long term capital gain or loss based on the difference between the disposition proceeds and the incentive share option exercise price paid for the ordinary shares. If the ordinary shares are disposed of prior to the expiration of the ISO holding period, the optionee generally will recognize taxable compensation, and we will have a corresponding deduction, in the year of the disposition, equal to the excess of the fair market value of the ordinary shares on the date of exercise of the incentive share option over the incentive share option exercise price. Any additional gain realized on the disposition will normally constitute capital gain. If the amount realized upon such a disqualifying disposition is less than fair market value of the ordinary shares on the date of exercise, the amount of compensation income will be limited to the excess of the amount realized over the optionee’s adjusted basis in the ordinary shares.

Non-Qualified Share Options:

   Options otherwise qualifying as incentive share options, to the extent the aggregate fair market value of ordinary shares with respect to which such options are first exercisable by an individual in any calendar year exceeds $100,000, and share options designated as non-qualified share options will be treated as options that are not incentive share options.
   A non-qualified share option ordinarily will not result in income to the optionee or deduction to us at the time of grant. The optionee will recognize compensation income at the time of exercise of such non-qualified share option in an amount equal to the excess of the then value of the ordinary shares over the option exercise price per share. Such compensation income of optionees may be subject to withholding taxes, and a deduction may then be allowable to us in an amount equal to the optionee’s compensation income.
   An optionee’s initial basis in ordinary shares so acquired will be the amount paid on exercise of the non-qualified share option plus the amount of any corresponding compensation income. Any gain or loss as a result of a subsequent disposition of the ordinary shares so acquired will be capital gain or loss.

Share Grants:

   With respect to share grants under our 2021 Plan that result in the issuance of ordinary shares that are either not

 

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   restricted as to transferability or not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, the grantee must generally recognize ordinary income equal to the fair market value of ordinary shares received. Thus, deferral of the time of issuance will generally result in the deferral of the time the grantee will be liable for income taxes with respect to such issuance. We generally will be entitled to a deduction in an amount equal to the ordinary income recognized by the grantee.
   With respect to share grants involving the issuance of ordinary shares that are restricted as to transferability and subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, the grantee must generally recognize ordinary income equal to the fair market value of the ordinary shares received at the first time the ordinary shares become transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, whichever occurs earlier. A grantee may elect to be taxed at the time of receipt of ordinary shares rather than upon lapse of restrictions on transferability or substantial risk of forfeiture, but if the grantee subsequently forfeits such ordinary shares, the grantee would not be entitled to any tax deduction, including as a capital loss, for the value of the ordinary shares on which he previously paid tax. The grantee must file such election with the Internal Revenue Service within 30 days of the receipt of the ordinary shares. We generally will be entitled to a deduction in an amount equal to the ordinary income recognized by the grantee.

Restricted Share Units:

   The grantee recognizes no income until the issuance of the ordinary shares. At that time, the grantee must generally recognize ordinary income equal to the fair market value of the ordinary shares received. We generally will be entitled to a deduction in an amount equal to the ordinary income recognized by the grantee.

Share Appreciation Rights:

   Generally, if a share appreciation right is granted with an exercise price equal to the fair market value of the underlying ordinary shares on the grant date, the grantee will recognize ordinary income equal to the fair market value of the ordinary shares received upon such exercise. We generally will be entitled to a deduction in an amount equal to the ordinary income recognized by the grantee.

Limitation on Our Deductions As a general rule, the Company will be entitled to a deduction in the same amount and at the same time as the compensation income is received by a participant, except to the extent the deduction limits of Section 162(m) of the Code apply. Section 162(m) of the Code denies a deduction to any publicly held corporation for compensation paid to any “covered employee” in a taxable year to the extent that compensation to such covered employee exceeds $1,000,000. It is possible that compensation attributable to awards under the 2021 Plan may cause this limitation to be exceeded in any particular year.

 

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New Plan Benefits

Other than as discussed above in our director compensation policy in the section entitled “Executive Officer and Director Compensation,” the amounts of future grants under the 2021 Plan are not determinable as awards under the 2021 Plan and will be granted at the sole discretion of the Compensation Committee, or other delegated persons and we cannot determine at this time either the persons who will receive awards under the 2021 Plan or the amount or types of any such awards.

On June 17, 2021, the closing market price per share of our ordinary shares was $7.17, as reported by the Nasdaq Stock Market.

Accordingly, our Board seeks shareholder approval of Ordinary Resolution 4 as set out in the Notice.

The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to approve the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).

THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS RECOMMENDS A VOTE “FOR” THE 2021 EQUITY INCENTIVE PLAN AND PROXIES SOLICITED BY THE BOARD WILL BE VOTED IN FAVOR THEREOF UNLESS A SHAREHOLDER HAS INDICATED OTHERWISE ON THE PROXY CARD.

 

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PROPOSAL 5: ORDINARY SHARE ALLOTMENTS AND ISSUANCES

We are incorporated in the Republic of Singapore. Under the laws of Singapore, our directors may issue ordinary shares and make offers or agreements or grant options that might or would require the issuance of ordinary shares only with the prior approval of our shareholders. We are submitting this proposal to authorize our Board (or a committee thereof) to allot and issue our ordinary shares from time to time, as set forth below, because we are required to do so under the laws of Singapore before we can issue any ordinary shares in connection with our equity compensation plans, possible future strategic transactions, or public and private equity offerings.

If this proposal is approved, the authorization would be effective from the date of the 2021 AGM and continue until the earlier of (i) the conclusion of our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders; or (ii) the expiration of the period within which our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders is required by the laws of Singapore to be held. Our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders is required to be held no later than 15 months after the date of the 2021 AGM or within six months after the 2021 financial year end, whichever is earlier. The laws of Singapore allow for an application to be made to the Singapore Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority to extend the deadline for holding an annual general meeting for an additional sixty days, which may be granted in the discretion of that authority.

Our Board believes that it is advisable and in the best interests of our shareholders for our shareholders to authorize the directors to issue ordinary shares and to make, enter into or grant offers, agreements or options that might or would require the issuance of ordinary shares. In the future, the directors may need to issue ordinary shares or make agreements that would require the allotment and issuance of new ordinary shares. For example, we may issue ordinary shares:

 

   

in connection with strategic transactions and acquisitions;

 

   

pursuant to public and private offerings of our ordinary shares, as well as instruments (including debt instruments) convertible into our ordinary shares; or

 

   

in connection with our equity compensation plans and arrangements.

Notwithstanding this general authorization to allot and issue our ordinary shares, we will be required to seek shareholder approval with respect to future issuances of ordinary shares, where required under the Nasdaq Stock Market rules, such as if we were to propose an issuance of ordinary shares that would result in a change in control of the Company or in connection with certain transactions involving the issuance of ordinary shares representing 20% or more of our outstanding ordinary shares.

We expect that we will continue to issue ordinary shares and grant share options and other equity-based awards in the future under circumstances similar to those in the past. As of the date of this proxy statement, other than issuances of ordinary shares or agreements that would require the issuance of new ordinary shares in connection with our equity compensation plans and arrangements (such as the 2021 Plan, if approved), including any equity compensation plans and awards we have assumed or may assume as a result of any acquisitions we may make, we have no specific plans, agreements or commitments to issue any ordinary shares for which approval of this proposal is required. Nevertheless, our Board believes that it is advisable and in the best interests of our shareholders for our shareholders to provide this general authorization in order to avoid the delay and expense of obtaining shareholder approval at a later date, and to provide us with greater flexibility to pursue strategic transactions and acquisitions and raise additional capital through public and private offerings of our ordinary shares, as well as instruments convertible into our ordinary shares.

If this proposal is approved, our directors would be authorized to allot and issue ordinary shares, during the period described above, subject to our Constitution, applicable Singapore laws and the Nasdaq Stock Market rules. The issuance of a large number of ordinary shares (or instruments convertible into ordinary shares) could

 

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be dilutive to existing shareholders or reduce the trading price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market. If this proposal is not approved, we would not be permitted to issue ordinary shares (other than shares issuable on exercise or settlement of outstanding options and other instruments convertible into or exercisable for ordinary shares or the like, which were previously granted). If we are unable to rely upon equity as a component of compensation, we would have to review our compensation practices, and would likely have to substantially increase cash compensation to retain key personnel.

Accordingly, our Board seeks shareholder approval of Ordinary Resolution 5 as set out in the Notice. The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to authorize the Board to allot and issue ordinary shares of the Company (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal).

THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS RECOMMENDS A VOTE “FOR” THE AUTHORIZATION OF ORDINARY SHARE ALLOTMENTS AND ISSUANCES AND PROXIES SOLICITED BY THE BOARD WILL BE VOTED IN FAVOR THEREOF UNLESS A SHAREHOLDER HAS INDICATED OTHERWISE ON THE PROXY CARD.

 

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PROPOSAL 6: NON-BINDING ADVISORY RESOLUTION ON APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION AS DISCLOSED IN THIS PROXY STATEMENT

We are seeking your advisory vote (on a non-binding, advisory basis only) as required by Section 14A of the Exchange Act on the approval of the compensation of our named executive officers as described in the compensation tables and related material contained in this proxy statement. Because your vote is advisory, it will not be binding on our Compensation Committee or our Board. However, our Compensation Committee and our Board will review the voting results and take them into consideration when making future decisions regarding executive compensation. We have determined to hold an advisory vote to approve the compensation of our named executive officers annually, and the next such advisory vote will occur at our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders.

Our compensation philosophy is designed to align each executive’s compensation with our short-term and long-term performance and to provide the compensation and incentives needed to attract, motivate and retain key executives who are crucial to our long-term success. Our Compensation Committee and our Board believe that our compensation policies and procedures are effective in implementing our compensation philosophy and in achieving its goals. Therefore, we are asking our shareholders to indicate their support for our named executive officer compensation as described in this proxy statement. This proposal, commonly known as a “say on pay” proposal, gives our shareholders the opportunity to express their views on our named executive officers’ compensation. This vote is not intended to address any specific item of compensation, but rather the overall compensation of our named executive officers and the compensation philosophy, policies and practices described in this proxy statement.

In accordance with the rules of the SEC, the following proposal is being submitted for a non-binding, advisory shareholder vote at the 2021 AGM:

“RESOLVED, on a non-binding, advisory basis only, that the compensation paid to the named executive officers of the Company, as disclosed pursuant to the compensation disclosure rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission, including the compensation tables and the related material disclosed in this proxy statement, is hereby APPROVED.”

This non-binding advisory resolution is being proposed to shareholders as required pursuant to the requirements of Section 14A of the Exchange Act. The shareholders’ vote on this proposal is solely advisory and non-binding in nature, will have no legal effect for purposes of Singapore law, and will not be enforceable against our Company or our Board. For the avoidance of doubt, this is not an Ordinary Resolution.

The affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by holders of ordinary shares voting in person or by proxy at the 2021 AGM is required to approve, on a non-binding, advisory basis only, the compensation of our named executive officers, as described in this proxy statement (meaning the number of shares voted “for” the proposal must exceed the number of shares voted “against” the proposal). Although the advisory resolution is non-binding, our Compensation Committee and our Board will review the voting results and take them into consideration when making future decisions regarding executive compensation.

THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS RECOMMENDS A VOTE “FOR” THE APPROVAL (ON A NON-BINDING, ADVISORY BASIS ONLY) OF THE COMPENSATION OF OUR NAMED EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND PROXIES SOLICITED BY THE BOARD WILL BE VOTED IN FAVOR THEREOF UNLESS A SHAREHOLDER HAS INDICATED OTHERWISE ON THE PROXY CARD.

 

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DELINQUENT SECTION 16(A) REPORTS

With the exception of a Form 4 to report two transactions: (i) the receipt of an option to purchase our ordinary shares granted on February 1, 2021; and (ii) the receipt of restricted share units granted on February 1, 2021; that were required to be filed on February 3, 2021 for each of our executive officers: Drs. Bolno, Francis, Panzara and Vargeese, and Mr. Moran, but were actually filed on February 18, 2021, our records reflect that all reports that were required to be filed pursuant to Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act were filed on a timely basis during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

CODE OF BUSINESS CONDUCT AND ETHICS

We have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics that applies to all of our employees, including our principal executive officer and principal financial and accounting officer. The text of the code of conduct and ethics is posted on our website at www.wavelifesciences.com. Disclosure regarding any amendments to, or waivers from, provisions of the code of conduct and ethics that apply to our directors, principal executive officer or principal financial officer will be included in a Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC within four business days following the date of the amendment or waiver, unless website posting or the issuance of a press release of such amendments or waivers is then permitted by the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market.

OTHER MATTERS

The Board of Directors knows of no other business which will be presented at the 2021 AGM. If any other business is properly brought before the 2021 AGM, proxies will be voted in accordance with the judgment of the persons named therein.

SHAREHOLDER PROPOSALS AND NOMINATIONS FOR DIRECTOR

To be considered for inclusion in the proxy statement relating to our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, we must receive shareholder proposals (other than for director nominations) no later than March 2, 2022. To be considered for presentation at our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, although not included in the proxy statement, proposals (including director nominations that are not requested to be included in our proxy statement) must be received no later than May 16, 2022. Shareholder proposals are also subject to the requirements of the Singapore Companies Act as described in the paragraph below. Proposals that are not received in a timely manner will not be voted on at our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders. If a proposal is received on time, the proxies that management solicits for the meeting may still exercise discretionary voting authority on the proposal under circumstances consistent with the proxy rules of the SEC. All shareholder proposals should be marked for the attention of General Counsel, Wave Life Sciences Ltd., 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138.

In addition, under Section 183 of the Singapore Companies Act, only registered shareholders representing not less than 5% of the total voting rights or registered shareholders representing not fewer than 100 registered shareholders having an average paid up sum of at least S$500 (Singapore dollars) each may, at their expense, request that we include and give notice of their proposal for our 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders. Subject to satisfaction of the requirements of Section 183 of the Singapore Companies Act, any such requisition must be signed by all the shareholders making the request and be deposited at our registered office in Singapore, 7 Straits View #12-00, Marina One East Tower, Singapore 018936, at least six weeks prior to the date of our 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders in the case of a request requiring notice of a resolution, or at least one week prior to the date of our 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders in the case of any other request.

Cambridge, Massachusetts

June 28, 2021

 

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Appendix A

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Registration Number: 201218209G

Singapore Statutory Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Singapore Statutory Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

Index

 

     Page  

Directors’ Statements

     3  

Independent Auditors’ Report to the Members of Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     7  

Consolidated Financial Statements of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

     F-1  

Supplementary Financial Information of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (Parent Company)

     F-32  

 

2


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Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Directors’ Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

Directors’ Statements

The directors are pleased to submit this annual report to the members of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (“the Parent”), together with these directors’ statements, the audited financial statements for the financial year ended December 31, 2020 and the auditors’ report thereon.

In our opinion:

 

  a)

other than as discussed in the Investment in Subsidiaries paragraph in Note 2 to the supplementary financial information, the consolidated financial statements of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its subsidiaries (together “the Company”) and the supplementary financial information of the Parent set out on pages F-1 to F-47 are drawn up so as to give a true and fair view of the financial position of the Company and of the Parent as at December 31, 2020, the financial performance, changes in equity and cash flows of the Company for the year ended on that date in accordance with the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, Chapter 50 and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America; and

 

  b)

at the date of this statement, there are reasonable grounds to believe that Wave Life Sciences Ltd. will be able to pay its debts as and when they fall due.

The board of directors has, on the date of this statement, authorized these financial statements for issue.

Directors

The directors in office at the date of this statement are as follows:

 

Paul B. Bolno

                           Chief Executive Officer

Mark H. N. Corrigan

  

Christian O. Henry

  

Peter Kolchinsky

  

Koji Miura

                           (Retired on August 18, 2020)

Aik Na Tan

                           (Appointed on August 18, 2020)

Amy Pott

                           (Resigned on January 8, 2021)

Adrian Rawcliffe

  

Ken Takanashi

  

Gregory L. Verdine

  

Heidi L. Wagner

  

 

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Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Directors’ Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Directors’ Interests

According to the register kept by Wave Life Sciences Ltd. for the purposes of Section 164 of the Companies Act, Chapter 50 (“the Act”) and the Wave Life Sciences Ltd. option ledger, particulars of interests of directors who held office at the end of the financial year (including those held by their spouses and infant children) in shares, debentures, warrants and share options of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. or in related corporations (other than wholly-owned subsidiaries) are as follows:

 

Name of director and corporation in which interests are held

   Holdings as of
January 1,
2020

or date of
appointment,
if later
     Holdings as of
December 31,
2020
 

Paul B. Bolno

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Ordinary shares

     212,184        190,856  

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$2.48 between March 10, 2015 and March 10, 2025

     444,025        219,025  

- US$18.79 between June 16, 2016 and June 16, 2026

     236,400        236,400  

- US$29.05 between January 25, 2017 and January 25, 2027

     72,500        72,500  

- US$40.05 between January 23, 2018 and January 23, 2028

     109,000        109,000  

- US$8.17 between March 3, 2020 and March 3, 2030

     —          63,000  

- Time-based restricted share units

     119,025        81,325  

- Performance-based restricted share units

     185,000        185,000  

Mark H. N. Corrigan

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$21.03 between September 4, 2019 and September 4, 2024

     21,000        21,000  

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          10,500  

Christian O. Henry

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$36.43 between November 10, 2016 and November 10, 2021

     18,000        18,000  

- US$18.10 between August 10, 2017 and August 10, 2022

     9,000        9,000  

- US$46.70 between August 13, 2018 and August 13, 2023

     9,000        9,000  

- US$20.34 between August 15, 2019 and August 15, 2024

     10,500        10,500  

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          10,500  

Peter Kolchinsky

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$36.43 between November 10, 2016 and November 10, 2021

     9,000        9,000  

- US$18.10 between August 10, 2017 and August 10, 2022

     9,000        9,000  

- US$46.70 between August 13, 2018 and August 13, 2023

     9,000        9,000  

- US$20.34 between August 15, 2019 and August 15, 2024

     10,500        10,500  

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          10,500  

Aik Na Tan

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          21,000  

 

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Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Directors’ Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Name of director and corporation in which interests are held

   Holdings as of
January 1,
2020

or date of
appointment,
if later
     Holdings as of
December 31,
2020
 

Amy Pott

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$21.03 between September 4, 2019 and September 4, 2024

     21,000        21,000  

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          10,500  

Adrian Rawcliffe

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$28.80 between February 1, 2017 and February 1, 2022

     18,000        18,000  

- US$18.10 between August 10, 2017 and August 10, 2022

     9,000        9,000  

- US$46.70 between August 13, 2018 and August 13, 2023

     9,000        9,000  

- US$20.34 between August 15, 2019 and August 15, 2024

     10,500        10,500  

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          10,500  

Ken Takanashi

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$36.43 between November 10, 2016 and November 10, 2021

     9,000        9,000  

- US$18.10 between August 10, 2017 and August 10, 2022

     9,000        9,000  

- US$46.70 between August 13, 2018 and August 13, 2023

     9,000        9,000  

- US$20.34 between August 15, 2019 and August 15, 2024

     10,500        10,500  

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          10,500  

Gregory L. Verdine

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Ordinary shares

     30,000        30,000  

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$2.48 between March 10, 2015 and March 10, 2025

     266,402        266,402  

- US$36.43 between November 10, 2016 and November 10, 2021

     9,000        9,000  

- US$18.10 between August 10, 2017 and August 10, 2022

     9,000        9,000  

- US$46.70 between August 13, 2018 and August 13, 2023

     9,000        9,000  

- US$20.34 between August 15, 2019 and August 15, 2024

     10,500        10,500  

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          10,500  

Heidi L. Wagner

     

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

     

- Options to purchase ordinary shares at:

     

- US$21.03 between September 4, 2019 and September 4, 2024

     21,000        21,000  

- US$9.13 between August 18, 2020 and August 18, 2025

     —          10,500  

Except as disclosed in this statement, no director who held office at the end of the financial year had interests in shares, debentures, warrants or share options of Wave Life Sciences Ltd., or of its related corporations, either at the beginning of the financial year, or date of his/her appointment to this board of directors, if later.

Except as disclosed in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements, there were no unissued shares of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. or its subsidiaries under options granted by Wave Life Sciences Ltd. or its subsidiaries as of the end of the financial year.

 

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Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Directors’ Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Auditors

KPMG LLP were re-appointed as auditors of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. on August 12, 2020. The auditors, KPMG LLP, have indicated their willingness to accept re-appointment.

On behalf of the board of directors,

 

/s/ Christian O. Henry

  Christian O. Henry
  Director

 

/s/ Paul B. Bolno, M.D.

  Paul B. Bolno, M.D.
  Director

 

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LOGO

 

 

KPMG LLP

16 Raffles Quay #22-00

Hong Leong Building

Singapore 048581

  

Telephone +65 6213 3388

Fax +65 6225 0984

Internet www.kpmg.com.sg

Independent auditors’ report

Members of the Company

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its subsidiaries

Report on the audit of the financial statements

Qualified opinion

We have audited the accompanying consolidated financial statements of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) and the supplementary financial information of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (the “Parent”), which comprise the balance sheets of the Company and Parent as at December 31, 2020, consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, consolidated statements of series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity, and consolidated statements of cash flows of the Company for the year then ended, and notes to the financial statements, including a summary of significant accounting policies, as set out on pages F-1 to F-47 (collectively, the “financial statements”).

In our opinion, except for the effects of the matter described in the “Basis for qualified opinion” section of our report, the consolidated financial statements of the Company and the balance sheet of the Parent are properly drawn up in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, Chapter 50 (the “Act”) and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) (the use of which is approved by the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority of Singapore) so as to give a true and fair view of the financial position of the Company and of the Parent as at December 31, 2020 and of the financial performance, changes in equity and cash flows of the Company for the year ended on that date.

Basis for qualified opinion

U.S. GAAP requires that the Parent prepare consolidated financial statements. The Act requires that supplementary financial information is provided as a part of the Singapore Statutory Financial Statements. In order to comply with the Act’s requirement to present a separate standalone balance sheet of the Parent, the Parent did not consolidate the investments in subsidiaries and instead reported these investments and the balances with subsidiaries as separate lines on the Parent’s standalone balance sheet. Our audit opinion on the financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019 dated April 28, 2020 also included a modification on the same matter.

We conducted our audit in accordance with Singapore Standards on Auditing (“SSAs”). Our responsibilities under those standards are further described in the “Auditors’ responsibilities for the audit of the financial statements” section of our report. We are independent of the Company in accordance with the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority Code of Professional Conduct and Ethics for Public Accountants and Accounting Entities (“ACRA Code”) together with the ethical requirements that are relevant to our audit of the financial statements in Singapore, and we have fulfilled our other ethical responsibilities in accordance with these requirements and the ACRA Code. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our qualified opinion.

 

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LOGO  

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Independent Auditors’ Report

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Key audit matters

Key audit matters are those matters that, in our professional judgement, were of most significance in our audit of the financial statements of the current period. These matters were addressed in the context of our audit of the financial statements as a whole, and in forming our opinion thereon, and we do not provide a separate opinion on these matters. In addition to the matter described in the “Basis for qualified opinion” section, we have determined the matter described below to be the key audit matter to be communicated in our report.

 

Revenue recognition under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement and the Takeda Collaboration Agreement

 

Refer to Note 5 Collaboration Agreements and the accounting policy note on revenue recognition in the consolidated financial statements.

The key audit matter    How the matter was addressed in our audit

As discussed in Notes 2 and 5 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company is party to collaboration agreements which have various obligations, including the requirement to provide research and development (“R&D”) services. The Company recognizes R&D services revenue over time based on a measure of proportional performance using estimated costs or hours. Amounts received by the Company in advance of performance are recorded as a deferred revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recognized revenue of $20.1 million, which related to R&D services performed. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, a portion of the Company’s current and long-term deferred revenue relates to R&D services.

 

We identified the evaluation of revenue recognition for certain R&D services as a key audit matter. Specifically, the estimate of costs to be incurred in satisfying R&D performance obligations was subjective and required significant auditor judgment. Evaluating the estimated effort required to complete R&D services, including the assessment of the nature and complexity of the work to be performed, involved a high degree of auditor judgment.

  

We evaluated the design and implementation of certain internal controls over the Company’s estimation of the costs to be incurred in satisfying certain R&D performance obligations.

 

We selected certain R&D performance obligations and read the underlying contract with the customer, evaluated the determination of the method for measuring progress, and tested the Company’s estimate of total contract costs to be incurred by (1) comparing the Company’s prior period estimates to subsequent actual information to assess the Company’s ability to estimate accurately; and (2) corroborating the estimate of remaining costs to be incurred made by financial management with R&D personnel of the Company.

The above key audit matter applies to both the consolidated financial statements and the supplementary balance sheet.

Other information

Management is responsible for the other information contained in the Singapore Statutory Financial Statements. Other information is defined as all information in the Singapore Statutory Financial Statements other than the

 

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LOGO  

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Independent Auditors’ Report

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

financial statements and our auditors’ report thereon. We have obtained all other information prior to the date of this auditors’ report.

Our opinion on the financial statements does not cover the other information and we do not express any form of assurance conclusion thereon.

In connection with our audit of the financial statements, our responsibility is to read the other information and, in doing so, consider whether the other information is materially inconsistent with the financial statements or our knowledge obtained in the audit or otherwise appears to be materially misstated. If, based on the work we have performed, we conclude that there is a material misstatement of this other information, we are required to report that fact. We have nothing to report in this regard.

Responsibilities of management and directors for the financial statements

Management is responsible for the preparation of financial statements that give a true and fair view in accordance with the provisions of the Act and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and for devising and maintaining a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide a reasonable assurance that assets are safeguarded against loss from unauthorised use or disposition; and transactions are properly authorised and that they are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of true and fair financial statements and to maintain accountability of assets.

In preparing the financial statements, management is responsible for evaluating whether there are conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date the financial statements are issued.

The directors’ responsibilities include overseeing the Company’s financial reporting process.

Auditors’ responsibilities for the audit of the financial statements

Our objectives are to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, and to issue an auditors’ report that includes our opinion. Reasonable assurance is a high level of assurance, but is not a guarantee that an audit conducted in accordance with SSAs will always detect a material misstatement when it exists. Misstatements can arise from fraud or error and are considered material if, individually or in the aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of these financial statements.

As part of an audit in accordance with SSAs, we exercise professional judgement and maintain professional skepticism throughout the audit. We also:

 

   

Identify and assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error, design and perform audit procedures responsive to those risks, and obtain audit evidence that is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our opinion. The risk of not detecting a material misstatement resulting from fraud is higher than for one resulting from error, as fraud may involve collusion, forgery, intentional omissions, misrepresentations, or the override of internal controls.

 

   

Obtain an understanding of internal controls relevant to the audit in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls.

 

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LOGO  

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Independent Auditors’ Report

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

   

Evaluate the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of accounting estimates and related disclosures made by management.

 

   

Conclude on the appropriateness of management’s use of the going concern basis of accounting and, based on the audit evidence obtained, whether a material uncertainty exists related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt on the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. If we conclude that a material uncertainty exists, we are required to draw attention in our auditors’ report to the related disclosures in the financial statements or, if such disclosures are inadequate, to modify our opinion. Our conclusions are based on the audit evidence obtained up to the date of our auditors’ report. However, future events or conditions may cause the Company to cease to continue as a going concern.

 

   

Evaluate the overall presentation, structure and content of the financial statements, including the disclosures, and whether the financial statements represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieves fair presentation.

 

   

Obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence regarding the financial information of the entities or business activities within the Company to express an opinion on the consolidated financial statements. We are responsible for the direction, supervision and performance of the company audit. We remain solely responsible for our audit opinion.

We communicate with the directors regarding, among other matters, the planned scope and timing of the audit and significant audit findings, including any significant deficiencies in internal controls that we identify during our audit.

We also provide the directors with a statement that we have complied with relevant ethical requirements regarding independence, and communicate with them all relationships and other matters that may reasonably be thought to bear on our independence, and where applicable, related safeguards.

From the matters communicated with the directors, we determine those matters that were of most significance in the audit of the financial statements of the current period and are therefore the key audit matters. We describe these matters in our auditors’ report unless the law or regulations preclude public disclosure about the matter or when, in extremely rare circumstances, we determine that a matter should not be communicated in our report because the adverse consequences of doing so would reasonably be expected to outweigh the public interest benefits of such communication.

Report on other legal and regulatory requirements

In our opinion, the accounting and other records required by the Act to be kept by the Parent have been properly kept in accordance with the provisions of the Act.

The engagement partner on the audit resulting in this independent auditors’ report is Malcolm Ramsay.

/s/ KPMG LLP

KPMG LLP

Public Accountants and

Chartered Accountants

Singapore

June 25, 2021

 

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Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

     December 31,
2020
    December 31,
2019
 

Assets

    

Current assets:

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 184,497     $ 147,161  

Current portion of accounts receivable

     30,000       20,000  

Prepaid expenses

     10,434       9,626  

Other current assets

     5,111       8,689  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current assets

     230,042       185,476  

Long-term assets:

    

Accounts receivable, net of current portion

     —         30,000  

Property and equipment, net

     29,198       36,368  

Operating lease right-of-use assets

     16,232       18,101  

Restricted cash

     3,651       3,647  

Other assets

     115       10,658  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total long-term assets

     49,196       98,774  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total assets

   $ 279,238     $ 284,250  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Liabilities, Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity

    

Current liabilities:

    

Accounts payable

   $ 13,795     $ 9,073  

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

     11,971       16,185  

Current portion of deferred revenue

     91,560       89,652  

Current portion of operating lease liability

     3,714       3,243  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

     121,040       118,153  

Long-term liabilities:

    

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

     41,481       63,466  

Operating lease liability, net of current portion

     25,591       29,304  

Other liabilities

     474       1,721  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total long-term liabilities

     67,546       94,491  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities

   $ 188,586     $ 212,644  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Series A preferred shares, no par value; 3,901,348 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019

   $ 7,874     $ 7,874  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Shareholders’ equity:

    

Ordinary shares, no par value; 48,778,678 and 34,340,690 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively

     694,085       539,547  

Additional paid-in capital

     71,573       57,277  

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     389       267  

Accumulated deficit

     (683,269     (533,359
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total shareholders’ equity

     82,778       63,732  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities, Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity

   $ 279,238     $ 284,250  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

F-1


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
               2020                         2019            

Revenue

   $ 20,077     $ 15,983  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

    

Research and development

     130,944       175,431  

General and administrative

     42,510       48,869  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     173,454       224,300  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (153,377     (208,317

Other income, net:

    

Dividend income

     584       4,912  

Interest income (expense), net

     (16     29  

Other income, net

     2,058       9,738  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income, net

     2,626       14,679  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

     (150,751     (193,638

Income tax benefit (provision), net

     841       —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (149,910   $ (193,638
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders—basic and diluted

   $ (3.82   $ (5.72
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average ordinary shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders—basic and diluted

     39,227,618       33,866,487  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other comprehensive income (loss):

    

Net loss

   $ (149,910   $ (193,638

Foreign currency translation

     122       114  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive loss

     (149,788     (193,524
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SERIES A PREFERRED SHARES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

    Series A
Preferred Shares
          Ordinary Shares     Additional
Paid-In-
Capital
    Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
    Accumulated
Deficit
    Total
Shareholders’
Equity
 
  Shares      Amount           Shares     Amount  

Balance at December 31, 2018

    3,901,348      $ 7,874           29,472,197     $ 375,148     $ 37,768     $ 153     $ (339,721   $ 73,348  

Issuance of ordinary shares

    —          —             4,542,500       161,792       —         —         —         161,792  

Share-based compensation

    —          —             —         —         19,509       —         —         19,509  

Vesting of RSUs

    —          —             112,437       —         —         —         —         —    

Option exercises

    —          —             213,556       2,607       —         —         —         2,607  

Other comprehensive income

    —          —             —         —         —         114       —         114  

Net loss

    —          —             —         —         —         —         (193,638     (193,638
 

 

 

    

 

 

       

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2019

    3,901,348      $ 7,874           34,340,690     $ 539,547     $ 57,277     $ 267     $ (533,359   $ 63,732  
 

 

 

    

 

 

       

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Issuance of ordinary shares, net of offering costs

    —          —             8,333,334       93,744       —         —         —         93,744  

Issuance of ordinary shares pursuant to the at-the-market equity program, net

             5,583,022       59,882       —         —         —         59,882  

Share-based compensation

    —          —             —         —         14,296       —         —         14,296  

Vesting of RSUs

    —          —             208,123       —         —         —         —         —    

Option exercises

    —          —             288,270       741       —         —         —         741  

Issuance of ordinary shares under the ESPP

             25,239       171       —         —         —         171  

Other comprehensive income

    —          —             —         —         —         122       —         122  

Net loss

    —          —             —         —         —         —         (149,910     (149,910
 

 

 

    

 

 

       

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2020

    3,901,348      $ 7,874           48,778,678     $ 694,085     $ 71,573     $ 389     $ (683,269   $ 82,778  
 

 

 

    

 

 

       

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
               2020                         2019            

Cash flows from operating activities

    

Net loss

   $ (149,910   $ (193,638

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

    

Amortization of right-of-use assets

     1,869       1,613  

Depreciation of property and equipment

     8,114       7,588  

Share-based compensation expense

     14,296       19,509  

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

    

Accounts receivable

     20,000       10,000  

Prepaid expenses

     (808     (3,665

Other assets

     14,121       (8,369

Accounts payable

     5,117       (3,497

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

     (4,214     1,448  

Deferred revenue

     (20,077     (15,983

Operating lease liabilities

     (3,243     (2,816

Other non-current liabilities

     (1,247     (421
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash used in operating activities

     (115,982     (188,231
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash flows from investing activities

    

Purchases of property and equipment

     (1,338     (3,918
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash used in investing activities

     (1,338     (3,918
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash flows from financing activities

    

Proceeds from issuance of ordinary shares, net of offering costs

     93,744       161,792  

Proceeds from issuance of ordinary shares pursuant to the at-the-market equity program, net

     59,882       —    

Proceeds from the exercise of share options

     741       2,607  

Proceeds from the employee share purchase program

     171       —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

     154,538       164,399  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash

     122       114  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

     37,340       (27,636

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period

     150,808       178,444  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period

   $ 188,148     $ 150,808  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

F-4


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

1. THE COMPANY

Organization

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (together with its subsidiaries, “Wave” or the “Company”) is a clinical-stage genetic medicines company committed to delivering life-changing treatments for people battling devastating diseases. PRISM, Wave’s proprietary discovery and drug development platform, enables Wave to target genetically defined diseases with stereopure oligonucleotides across multiple therapeutic modalities.

The Company was incorporated in Singapore on July 23, 2012 and has its principal U.S. office in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Company was incorporated with the purpose of combining two commonly held companies, Wave Life Sciences USA, Inc. (“Wave USA”), a Delaware corporation (formerly Ontorii, Inc.), and Wave Life Sciences Japan, Inc. (“Wave Japan”), a company organized under the laws of Japan (formerly Chiralgen., Ltd.), which occurred on September 13, 2012. On May 31, 2016, Wave Life Sciences Ireland Limited (“Wave Ireland”) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. On April 3, 2017, Wave Life Sciences UK Limited (“Wave UK”) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

The Company’s primary activities since inception have been developing and evolving PRISM to design, develop and commercialize oligonucleotide therapeutics, advancing the Company’s differentiated neurology portfolio, as well as exploring other therapeutic areas of interest, building the Company’s research and development capabilities, advancing programs into the clinic, furthering clinical development of such clinical-stage programs, building the Company’s intellectual property, and assuring adequate capital to support these activities.

Liquidity

Since its inception, the Company has not generated any product revenue and has incurred recurring net losses. To date, the Company has primarily funded its operations through private placements of debt and equity securities, public offerings of its ordinary shares and collaborations with third parties. Until the Company can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, the Company expects to continue to finance operations through a combination of public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, which may include collaborations with third parties. Adequate additional financing may not be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. The inability to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on the Company’s financial condition and ability to pursue its business strategy.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $184.5 million. The Company expects that its existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund its operations for at least the next twelve months. The Company has based this expectation on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect, and the Company may use its available capital resources sooner than it currently expects. If the Company’s anticipated operating results are not achieved in future periods, planned expenditures may need to be further reduced in order to extend the time period over which the then-available resources would be able to fund the Company’s operations. In addition, the Company may elect to raise additional funds before it needs them if the conditions for raising capital are favorable due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if the Company expects it has sufficient funds for its current or future operating plans.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Risks and Uncertainties

The Company is subject to risks common to companies in the biotechnology industry including, but not limited to, new technological innovations, protection of proprietary technology, maintaining internal manufacturing capabilities, dependence on key personnel, compliance with government regulations and the need to obtain additional financing. The Company’s therapeutic programs will require significant additional research and development efforts, including extensive preclinical and clinical testing and regulatory approval, prior to commercialization of any product candidates. These efforts require significant amounts of additional capital, adequate personnel infrastructure and extensive compliance-reporting capabilities. There can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development efforts will be successful, that adequate protection for the Company’s intellectual property will be obtained, that any products developed will obtain necessary government regulatory approval or that any approved products will be commercially viable. Even if the Company’s product development efforts are successful, it is uncertain when, if ever, the Company will generate significant revenue from product sales. The Company operates in an environment of rapid change in technology and substantial competition from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.

Basis of Presentation

The Company has prepared the accompanying consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and in U.S. dollars.

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid securities with original final maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are comprised of funds in money market accounts.

Principles of Consolidation

The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these consolidated financial statements include the assumptions used to determine the fair value of share-based awards, the Company’s revenue recognition policy, particularly, (a) assessing the number of performance obligations; (b) determining the transaction price; (c) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (d) determining the pattern over which performance obligations are satisfied, including estimates to complete performance obligations, the evaluation of progress to completion of external research and development costs which can result in prepaid or accrued expenses related to the Company’s contract research organizations (“CROs”) and contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), the valuation allowance required for the Company’s deferred tax assets, determining uncertain tax positions and the related liabilities, and estimating refundable tax credits. Estimates are periodically reviewed in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Actual results could differ from the Company’s estimates.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Segment Data

The Company manages its operations as a single segment for the purposes of assessing performance and making operating decisions. The Company’s singular focus is on developing its proprietary discovery and drug development platform, PRISM, to develop and commercialize a broad pipeline of nucleic acid-based therapeutics, or oligonucleotides.

Going Concern

At each reporting period, the Company evaluates whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. The Company is required to make certain additional disclosures if it concludes substantial doubt exists and it is not alleviated by the Company’s plans or when its plans alleviate substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The Company’s evaluation entails analyzing prospective operating budgets and forecasts for expectations of the Company’s cash needs and comparing those needs to the current cash and cash equivalent balance.

Foreign Currency Translation

The functional currency is the U.S. dollar for all of the Company’s entities aside from Wave Japan, which has the Japanese Yen as its functional currency. Assets and liabilities of Wave Japan are translated at period end exchange rates while revenues and expenses of Wave Japan are translated at average exchange rates for the period. Net unrealized gains and losses from foreign currency translation are reflected as other comprehensive income (loss) within the consolidated statements of Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity and the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Gains and losses on foreign currency transactions are included in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss within other income, net.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company is required to disclose information on all assets and liabilities reported at fair value that enables an assessment of the inputs used in determining the reported fair values. The fair value hierarchy is a hierarchy of inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the financial instrument based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the financial instrument and are developed based on the information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy applies only to the valuation inputs used in determining the reported fair value of the investments and is not a measure of the investment credit quality. The hierarchy defines three levels of valuation inputs:

Level 1—Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date of identical, unrestricted assets.

Level 2—Quoted prices for similar assets, or inputs that are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term through corroboration with observable market data. Level 2 includes investments valued at quoted prices adjusted for legal or contractual restrictions specific to the security.

Level 3—Pricing inputs are unobservable for the asset, that is, inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset. Level 3 includes private investments that are supported by little or no market activity.

 

F-7


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash are Level 1 assets which are comprised of funds held in checking and money market accounts. Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash were recorded at fair value as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, totaling $188.1 million and $150.8 million, respectively. The carrying amounts of accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to their short-term maturities. Accounts receivable relate to the Company’s collaboration agreements.

Concentration of Credit Risk

Cash and cash equivalents are financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk. The Company uses several financial institutions to maintain its cash and cash equivalents, all of which are high quality, accredited financial institutions and, accordingly, such funds are subject to minimal credit risk. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which those deposits are held. The Company has no financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk of loss.

Restricted Cash

Restricted cash consists primarily of cash placed in separate restricted bank accounts as required under the terms of the Company’s lease agreements for its Cambridge, Massachusetts and Lexington, Massachusetts facilities (refer to Note 8). As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had $3.7 million and $3.6 million of restricted cash, respectively, of which $1.0 million related to the Cambridge facility and the remainder related to the Lexington facility.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment, which consists primarily of equipment, furniture, software and leasehold improvements, are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the following estimated useful lives of the assets:

 

Equipment, Furniture and Software

  

3-7 years

Leasehold Improvements

  

Shorter of asset life or lease term

Depreciation begins at the time the asset is placed in service. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred. Upon retirement or sale, the cost of the disposed asset and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets consist of property and equipment. Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or other changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Certain factors may exist or events may occur that indicate that impairment exists including, but not limited to, the following: significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results; significant changes in the manner of use of the underlying assets; and significant adverse industry or market economic trends.

When performing the impairment assessment for long-lived assets, the Company compares the carrying value of such assets to the estimated undiscounted future net cash flows expected from the use of the assets and their

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

eventual disposition. In the event that the carrying value of the assets is determined to be unrecoverable, the Company would estimate the fair value of the assets and record an impairment charge for the excess of the carrying value over the fair value.

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”).

This standard applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, and financial instruments. Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration that the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the entity performs the following five-step analysis: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step analysis to contracts when it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration to which it is entitled in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract, determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.

The Company has entered into collaboration agreements for research, development, and commercial services, under which the Company licenses certain rights to its product candidates to third parties. The terms of these arrangements typically include payment to the Company of one or more of the following: non-refundable, upfront license fees; reimbursement of certain costs; customer option exercise fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; and royalties on net sales of licensed products. Any variable consideration is constrained and, therefore, the cumulative revenue associated with this consideration is not recognized until it is deemed not to be at significant risk of reversal.

In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as the Company fulfills its obligations under each of its agreements for which the collaboration partner is also a customer, the Company performs the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. As part of the accounting for these arrangements, the Company must use significant judgment to determine: (a) the number of performance obligations based on the determination under step (ii) above; (b) the transaction price under step (iii) above; and (c) the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations as a measure of progress in step (v) above. The Company uses significant judgment to determine whether milestones or other variable consideration, except for royalties, should be included in the transaction price as described further below. The transaction price is allocated to the optional goods and services the Company expects to provide. The Company uses estimates to determine the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Amounts received prior to being recognized as revenue are recorded as deferred revenue. Amounts expected to be recognized as revenue within the 12 months following the balance sheet date are classified as current portion of deferred revenue in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Amounts not expected to be recognized as revenue within the 12 months following the balance sheet date are classified as deferred revenue, net of current portion.

Licenses of intellectual property: In assessing whether a promise or performance obligation is distinct from the other promises, the Company considers factors such as the research, development, manufacturing and commercialization capabilities of the customer and the availability of the associated expertise in the general marketplace. In addition, the Company considers whether the customer can benefit from a promise for its intended purpose without the receipt of the remaining promise, whether the value of the promise is dependent on the unsatisfied promise, whether there are other vendors that could provide the remaining promise, and whether it is separately identifiable from the remaining promise. For licenses that are combined with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue. The Company evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

Research and development services: If an arrangement is determined to contain a promise or obligation for the Company to perform research and development services, the Company must determine whether these services are distinct from other promises in the arrangement. In assessing whether the services are distinct from the other promises, the Company considers the capabilities of the customer to perform these same services. In addition, the Company considers whether the customer can benefit from a promise for its intended purpose without the receipt of the remaining promise, whether the value of the promise is dependent on the unsatisfied promise, whether there are other vendors that could provide the remaining promise, and whether it is separately identifiable from the remaining promise. For research and development services that are combined with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue. The Company evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

Customer options: If an arrangement is determined to contain customer options that allow the customer to acquire additional goods or services, the goods and services underlying the customer options are not considered to be performance obligations at the outset of the arrangement, as they are contingent upon option exercise. The Company evaluates the customer options for material rights, that is, the option to acquire additional goods or services for free or at a discount. If the customer options are determined to represent a material right, the material right is recognized as a separate performance obligation at the outset of the arrangement. The Company allocates the transaction price to material rights based on the standalone selling price. As a practical alternative to estimating the standalone selling price when the goods or services are both (i) similar to the original goods and services in the contract and (ii) provided in accordance with the terms of the original contract, the Company allocates the total amount of consideration expected to be received from the customer to the total goods or services expected to be provided to the customer. Amounts allocated to any material right are not recognized as revenue until the option is exercised and the performance obligation is satisfied.

Milestone payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether a significant reversal of cumulative revenue provided in conjunction with achieving the milestones is probable, and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

amount method. If it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. For other milestones, the Company evaluates factors such as the scientific, clinical, regulatory, commercial, and other risks that must be overcome to achieve the particular milestone in making this assessment. There is considerable judgment involved in determining whether it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company reevaluates the probability of achievement of all milestones subject to constraint and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on a level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date, the Company has not recognized any royalty revenue resulting from any of its licensing arrangements.

Contract costs: The Company recognizes as an asset the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if the costs are expected to be recovered. As a practical expedient, the Company recognizes the incremental costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the asset that it otherwise would have recognized is one year or less. To date, the Company has not incurred any incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer.

For additional discussion of accounting for collaboration revenues, see Note 5.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses are expensed as incurred. External development costs are recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual agreements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets as prepaid or accrued expenses.

License Agreements and Patent Costs

Costs associated with licenses of technology and patent costs are expensed as incurred and are generally included in research and development expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Refundable Tax Credits

The Company is eligible for refundable tax credits with tax authorities for certain qualified operating expenses. The Company recognizes refundable tax credits when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the requirements of the refundable tax credit and that the refundable tax credit will be received.

Refundable tax credits are recorded as income and classified in other income, net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Net Loss per Share

Basic net loss per share is computed using the weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed using the sum of the weighted-average number of ordinary

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

shares outstanding during the period and, if dilutive, the weighted-average number of potential ordinary shares, including the assumed exercise of share options.

The Company applies the two-class method to calculate its basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, as its Series A preferred shares are participating securities. The two-class method is an earnings allocation formula that treats a participating security as having rights to earnings that otherwise would have been available to ordinary shareholders. However, for the periods presented, the two-class method does not impact the net loss per ordinary share as the Company was in a net loss position for each of the periods presented and holders of Series A preferred shares do not participate in losses.

The Company’s Series A preferred shares contractually entitle the holders of such shares to participate in dividends but do not contractually require the holders of such shares to participate in losses of the Company. Accordingly, for periods in which the Company reports a net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders, diluted net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders is the same as basic net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, since dilutive ordinary shares are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive.

Share-Based Compensation

The Company measures and recognizes share-based compensation expense, for both employee and director option awards, based on the grant date fair value of the awards. The Company calculates the fair value of restricted share unit awards based on the grant date fair value of the underlying ordinary shares. The Company recognizes share-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting period.

The Company determines the fair value of share-based awards granted to non-employees as either the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. All equity instruments issued to non-employees as consideration for goods or services received by the Company are accounted for based on the fair value of the equity instruments issued. These awards are recorded in expense and additional paid-in capital in shareholders’ equity over the applicable service periods based on the fair value of the options at the end of each period. The Company accounts for the expense from share-based awards to non-employees by re-measuring the awards at fair value over the vesting period.

The Company classifies share-based compensation expense in its consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss in the same manner in which the award recipient’s compensation costs are classified or in which the award recipient’s service payments are classified.

The fair value of each share option grant was determined using the methods and assumptions discussed below. These inputs are generally subjective and require significant judgment and estimation by management.

 

   

Fair Value of Ordinary Shares The fair value of the ordinary shares underlying the Company’s share-based awards is based on the closing price of the Company’s ordinary shares as reported by the Nasdaq Global Market on the date of grant.

 

   

Expected Term The expected term of share options represents the weighted-average period that the share options are expected to remain outstanding. The Company estimated the expected term using the simplified method, which is an average of the contractual term of the option and the vesting period.

 

   

Expected Volatility Since there is limited historical data for the Company’s ordinary shares and limited company-specific historical volatility, it has determined the share price volatility for options granted

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

 

based on an analysis of the volatility used by a peer group of publicly traded companies. In evaluating similarity, the Company considers factors such as industry, stage of life cycle and size.

 

   

Risk-free Interest Rate The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield in effect at the time of the grant for zero-coupon U.S. Treasury notes with remaining terms similar to the expected term of the options.

 

   

Dividend Rate The expected dividend was assumed to be zero as the Company has never paid dividends and has no current plans to do so.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using an asset and liability approach, which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the consolidated financial statements but have not been reflected in taxable income. A valuation allowance is established to reduce deferred tax assets to their estimated realizable value. Therefore, the Company provides a valuation allowance to the extent that it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized in the future.

The Company accounts for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements by applying a two-step process to determine the amount of tax benefit to be recognized. First, the tax position must be evaluated to determine the likelihood that it will be sustained upon external examination by the tax authorities. If the tax position is deemed more-likely-than-not to be sustained, the tax position is then assessed to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The amount of the benefit that may be recognized is the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The provision for income taxes includes the effects of any resulting tax reserves, or unrecognized tax benefits, that are considered appropriate as well as the related net interest and penalties.

The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in the income tax provision on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

The Company has certain service arrangements in place between its U.S., Japan, U.K. and Singapore entities, which include transfer pricing assumptions. The determination of the appropriate level of transfer pricing requires judgment based on transfer pricing analyses of comparable companies. The Company monitors the nature of its service arrangements for changes in its operations as well as economic conditions. The Company also periodically reviews the transfer pricing analyses for changes in the composition in the pool of comparable companies as well as the related ongoing results of the comparable companies.

Leases

Effective January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”), using the modified retrospective approach and utilizing the effective date as its date of initial application, for which prior periods are presented in accordance with the previous guidance in ASC 840, Leases (“ASC 840”). In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”), which was further clarified when the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases (“ASU 2018-10”), ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842)—Targeted Improvements (“ASU 2018-11”), and ASU No. 2019-01, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases (“ASU 2019-01”). The adoption of ASC 842, in accordance with ASU 2016-02, ASU 2018-10, ASU 2018-11, and ASU 2019-01, requires a lessee to recognize assets and liabilities on the balance sheet for operating leases and changes many key definitions, including the definition of a lease. ASC 842 includes a short-term lease exception for leases with a term of 12 months or less, in which a lessee can make

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

an accounting policy election not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. Lessees will continue to differentiate between finance leases (previously referred to as capital leases) and operating leases, using classification criteria that are substantially similar to the previous guidance. For lessees, the recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease have not significantly changed from previous U.S. GAAP. Lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. The modified retrospective approach includes a number of optional practical expedients that entities may elect to apply, as well as transition guidance specific to nonstandard leasing transactions. As further described above, the Company adopted ASC 842 on January 1, 2019 using a cumulative-effect adjustment on the effective date of the standard, for which comparative periods are presented in accordance with the previous guidance in ASC 840.

In adopting ASC 842, the Company elected to utilize the available package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which does not require the reassessment of the following: i) whether existing or expired arrangements are or contain a lease, ii) the lease classification of existing or expired leases, and iii) whether previous initial direct costs would qualify for capitalization under the new lease standard. Additionally, the Company made an accounting policy election to not recognize on the balance sheet leases with a term of 12 months or less.

At the inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease based on the unique facts and circumstances present in the arrangement. Most leases with a term greater than one year are recognized on the balance sheet as right-of-use assets and short-term and long-term lease liabilities, as applicable. The Company typically only includes an initial lease term in its assessment of a lease arrangement. Options to renew a lease are not included in the Company’s assessment unless there is reasonable certainty that the Company will renew the lease. The Company monitors its plans to renew its leases on a quarterly basis.

Operating lease liabilities and their corresponding right-of-use assets are recorded based on the present value of lease payments over the expected remaining lease term. Certain adjustments to the right-of-use asset may be required for items such as incentives received. The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable. As a result, the Company utilizes its incremental borrowing rate, which reflects the fixed rate at which the Company could borrow on a collateralized basis the amount of the lease payments in the same currency, for a similar term, in a similar economic environment. In transition to ASC 842, the Company utilized the remaining lease term of its leases in determining the appropriate incremental borrowing rates.

In accordance with ASC 842, components of a lease should be split into three categories: lease components (e.g., land, building, etc.), non-lease components (e.g., common area maintenance, consumables, etc.), and non-components (e.g., property taxes, insurance, etc.). The fixed and in-substance fixed contract consideration (including any consideration related to non-components) must be allocated based on the respective relative fair values to the lease components and non-lease components.

Although separation of lease and non-lease components is required, certain expedients are available. Entities may elect the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components by class of underlying asset. Rather, entities would account for each lease component and the related non-lease component together as a single component. For new and amended leases beginning in 2019 and after, the Company has elected to account for the lease and non-lease components for leases for classes of all underlying assets and allocate all of the contract consideration to the lease component only.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In December 2019, the FASB finalized Accounting Standards Update No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”). ASU 2019-12 eliminates certain exceptions in ASC 740 and generally simplifies existing guidance. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years, but may be adopted earlier by entities. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that the adoption of ASU 2019-12 may have on its consolidated financial statements.

3. PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT, NET

Property and equipment, net, consists of the following:

 

     December 31,  
     2020      2019  
     (in thousands)  

Furniture and equipment

   $ 25,418      $ 24,531  

Software

     684        524  

Leasehold improvements

     27,912        27,830  

Fixed assets in progress

     78        486  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     54,092        53,371  

Less accumulated depreciation

     (24,894      (17,003
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Property and equipment, net

   $ 29,198      $ 36,368  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Substantially all of the Company’s long-lived assets were located in the United States as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.

Depreciation expense was $8.1 million and $7.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

4. ACCRUED EXPENSES AND OTHER CURRENT LIABILITIES

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consist of the following:

 

     December 31,  
     2020      2019  
     (in thousands)  

Accrued compensation

   $ 9,003      $ 8,662  

Accrued expenses related to CROs and CMOs

     2,143        5,030  

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

     825        2,493  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total accrued expenses and other current liabilities

   $ 11,971      $ 16,185  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

5. COLLABORATION AGREEMENTS

Pfizer Collaboration and Equity Agreements

In May 2016, the Company entered into a Research, License and Option Agreement (as amended in November 2017, the “Pfizer Collaboration Agreement”) with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”). Pursuant to the terms of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the Company and Pfizer agreed to collaborate on the discovery, development and

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

commercialization of stereopure oligonucleotide therapeutics for up to five programs (the “Pfizer Programs”), each directed at a genetically-defined hepatic target selected by Pfizer (the “Pfizer Collaboration”). The Company received $10.0 million as an upfront license fee under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. Subject to option exercises by Pfizer, the Company was entitled to earn potential research, development and commercial milestone payments, plus royalties, tiered up to low double-digits, on sales of any products that may result from the Pfizer Collaboration. None of the payments under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement are refundable.

Simultaneously with the entry into the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the Company entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (the “Pfizer Equity Agreement,” and together with the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the “Pfizer Agreements”) with C.P. Pharmaceuticals International C.V., an affiliate of Pfizer (the “Pfizer Affiliate”). Pursuant to the terms of the Pfizer Equity Agreement, the Pfizer Affiliate purchased 1,875,000 of the Company’s ordinary shares (the “Shares”) at a purchase price of $16.00 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $30.0 million. The Company did not incur any material costs in connection with the issuance of the Shares.

Under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the parties agreed to collaborate during a four-year research term. During the research term, the Company was responsible to use its commercially reasonable efforts to advance up to five programs through to the selection of clinical candidates. At that stage, Pfizer was entitled to elect to license any of these Pfizer Programs exclusively and obtain exclusive rights to undertake the clinical development of the resulting clinical candidates into products and the potential commercialization of any such products thereafter. In addition, the Company received a non-exclusive, royalty-bearing sublicensable license to use Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology in any of the Company’s own hepatic programs that are outside the scope of the Pfizer Collaboration (the “Wave Programs”). If the Company uses this technology on the Wave Programs, Pfizer is eligible to receive potential development and commercial milestone payments from the Company. Pfizer is also eligible to receive tiered royalties on sales of any products that include Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology. The Company is not currently utilizing Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology in any of its own hepatic programs that are outside of the scope of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement.

The stated term of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement commenced on May 5, 2016 and terminates on the date of the last to expire payment obligation with respect to each Pfizer Program and, with respect to each Wave Program, expires on a program-by-program basis accordingly. Pfizer may terminate its rights related to a Pfizer Program under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement at its own convenience upon 90 days’ notice to the Company. The Company may also terminate its rights related to a Wave Program at its own convenience upon 90 days’ notice to Pfizer. The Pfizer Collaboration Agreement may also be terminated by either party in the event of an uncured material breach of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement by the other party.

Pfizer nominated two hepatic targets upon entry into the Pfizer Collaboration in May 2016. The Pfizer Collaboration Agreement provided Pfizer with options to nominate up to three additional programs by making nomination milestone payments. Pfizer nominated the third, fourth and fifth hepatic targets in August 2016, March 2018 and April 2018, respectively.

The Pfizer Collaboration is managed by a joint steering committee in which both parties are represented equally, which will oversee the scientific progression of each Pfizer Program up to the clinical candidate stage. During the four-year research term and for a period of two years thereafter, the Company has agreed to work exclusively with Pfizer with respect to using any of the Company’s stereopure oligonucleotide technology that is specific for the applicable hepatic target which is the basis of any Pfizer Program. Within a specified period after receiving a data package for a candidate under each nominated program, Pfizer may exercise an option to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize the program candidate by paying an exercise price per program.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

The Company assessed this arrangement in accordance with ASC 606 and concluded that the contract counterparty, Pfizer, is a customer. The Company identified the following promises under the arrangement: (1) the non-exclusive, royalty-free research and development license; (2) the research and development services for Programs 1 and 2; (3) the program nomination options for Programs 3, 4 and 5; (4) the research and development services associated with Programs 3, 4 and 5; (5) the options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 1 and 2; and (6) the options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 3, 4 and 5. The research and development services for each of Programs 1 and 2 were determined to not be distinct from the research and development license and should be combined into a single performance obligation for each program. The promises under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement relate primarily to the research and development required by the Company for each of the programs nominated by Pfizer.

Additionally, the Company determined that the program nomination options for Programs 3, 4 and 5 were priced at a discount and, as such, provide material rights to Pfizer, representing three separate performance obligations. The research and development services associated with Programs 3, 4 and 5 and the options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 3, 4 and 5 are subject to Pfizer’s exercise of the program nomination options for such programs and therefore do not represent performance obligations at the outset of the arrangement. The options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 1 and 2 do not represent material rights; as such, they are not representative of performance obligations at the outset of the arrangement. Based on these assessments, the Company identified five performance obligations in the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement: (1) research and development services and license for Program 1; (2) research and development services and license for Program 2; (3) material right provided for the option to nominate Program 3; (4) material right provided for the option to nominate Program 4; and (5) material right provided for the option to nominate Program 5.

At the outset of the arrangement, the transaction price included only the $10.0 million up-front consideration received. The Company determined that the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement did not contain a significant financing component. The program nomination option exercise fees for research and development services associated with Programs 3, 4 and 5 that may be received are excluded from the transaction price until each customer option is exercised. The potential milestone payments were excluded from the transaction price, as all milestone amounts were fully constrained at the inception of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. The exercise fees for the options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 3, 4 and 5 that may be received are excluded from the transaction price until each customer option is exercised. The Company will reevaluate the transaction price at the end of each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur, and, if necessary, will adjust its estimate of the transaction price.

During the year ended December 31, 2017, it became probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur for a developmental milestone under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. At such time, the associated consideration was added to the estimated transaction price and allocated to the existing performance obligations, and the Company recognized a cumulative catch-up to revenue for this developmental milestone, representing the amount that would have been recognized had the milestone payment been included in the transaction price from the outset of the arrangement. The remainder will be recognized in the same manner as the remaining, unrecognized transaction price over the remaining period until each performance obligation is satisfied.

Revenue associated with the performance obligations relating to Programs 1 and 2 is being recognized as revenue as the research and development services are provided using an input method, according to the full-time employee (“FTE”) hours incurred on each program and the FTE hours expected to be incurred in the future to satisfy the performance obligation. The transfer of control occurs over time and, in management’s judgment, this

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

input method is the best measure of progress towards satisfying the performance obligation. The amount allocated to the three material rights will be recognized as the underlying research and development services are provided commencing from the date that Pfizer exercises each respective option, or immediately as each option expires unexercised. The amounts received that have not yet been recognized as revenue are recorded in deferred revenue on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.

Pfizer nominated the third, fourth and fifth hepatic targets in August 2016, March 2018 and April 2018, respectively. Upon each exercise, the Company allocated the transaction price amount allocated to the material right at inception of the arrangement plus the program nomination option exercise fee paid by Pfizer at the time of exercising the option to a new performance obligation, which will be recognized as revenue as the research and development services are provided using the same method as the performance obligations relating to Programs 1 and 2.

The research term for the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement ended by its original terms in May 2020. Through December 31, 2020, the Company had recognized revenue of $18.5 million as collaboration revenue in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company recognized revenue of $1.5 million and $7.1 million, respectively, under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement.

Takeda Collaboration and Equity Agreements

In February 2018, Wave USA and Wave UK entered into a global strategic collaboration (the “Takeda Collaboration”) with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”), pursuant to which Wave USA, Wave UK and Takeda agreed to collaborate on the research, development and commercialization of oligonucleotide therapeutics for disorders of the Central Nervous System (“CNS”). The Takeda Collaboration provides Wave with at least $230.0 million in committed cash and Takeda with the option to co-develop and co-commercialize Wave’s CNS development programs in (1) Huntington’s disease (“HD”); (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”) and frontotemporal dementia (“FTD”); and (3) Wave’s discovery-stage program targeting ATXN3 for the treatment of spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (“SCA3”) (collectively, “Category 1 Programs”). In addition, Takeda will have the right to exclusively license multiple preclinical programs for CNS disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease (collectively, “Category 2 Programs”). In April 2018, the Takeda Collaboration became effective and Takeda paid Wave $110.0 million as an upfront payment. Takeda also agreed to fund Wave’s research and preclinical activities in the amount of $60.0 million during the four-year research term and to reimburse Wave for any collaboration-budgeted research and preclinical expenses incurred by Wave that exceed that amount.

Simultaneously with Wave USA and Wave UK’s entry into the collaboration and license agreement with Takeda (the “Takeda Collaboration Agreement”), the Company entered into a share purchase agreement with Takeda (the “Takeda Equity Agreement,” and together with the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, the “Takeda Agreements”) pursuant to which it agreed to sell to Takeda 1,096,892 of its ordinary shares at a purchase price of $54.70 per share. In April 2018, the Company closed the Takeda Equity Agreement and received aggregate cash proceeds of $60.0 million. The Company did not incur any material costs in connection with the issuance of shares.

With respect to Category 1 Programs, Wave will be responsible for researching and developing products and companion diagnostics for Category 1 Programs through completion of the first proof of mechanism study for such products. Takeda will have an exclusive option for each target and all associated products and companion diagnostics for such target, which it may exercise at any time through completion of the proof of mechanism study. If Takeda exercises this option, Wave will receive an opt-in payment and will lead manufacturing and

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

joint clinical co-development activities and Takeda will lead joint co-commercial activities in the United States and all commercial activities outside of the United States. Global costs and potential profits will be shared 50:50 and Wave will be eligible to receive development and commercial milestone payments. In addition to its 50% profit share, Wave is eligible to receive option exercise fees and development and commercial milestone payments for each of the Category 1 Programs.

With respect to Category 2 Programs, Wave has granted Takeda the right to exclusively license multiple preclinical programs during a four-year research term (subject to limited extension for programs that were initiated prior to the expiration of the research term, in accordance with the Takeda Collaboration Agreement) (“Category 2 Research Term”). During that term, the parties may collaborate on preclinical programs for up to six targets at any one time. Wave will be responsible for researching and preclinically developing products and companion diagnostics directed to the agreed upon targets through completion of Investigational New Drug application (“IND”)-enabling studies in the first major market country. Thereafter, Takeda will have an exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize products and companion diagnostics directed to such targets, subject to Wave’s retained rights to lead manufacturing activities for products directed to such targets. Takeda will fund Wave’s research and preclinical activities in the amount of $60.0 million during the research term and will reimburse Wave for any collaboration-budgeted research and preclinical expenses incurred by Wave that exceed that amount. Wave is also eligible to receive tiered high single-digit to mid-teen royalties on Takeda’s global commercial sales of products from each Category 2 Program.

Under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, each party grants to the other party specific intellectual property licenses to enable the other party to perform its obligations and exercise its rights under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, including license grants to enable each party to conduct research, development and commercialization activities pursuant to the terms of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement.

The term of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement commenced on April 2, 2018 and, unless terminated earlier, will continue until the date on which: (i) with respect to each Category 1 Program target for which Takeda does not exercise its option, the expiration or termination of the development program with respect to such target; (ii) with respect to each Category 1 Program target for which Takeda exercises its option, the date on which neither party is researching, developing or manufacturing any products or companion diagnostics directed to such target; or (iii) with respect to each Category 2 Program target, the date on which royalties are no longer payable with respect to products directed to such target.

Takeda may terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement for convenience on 180 days’ notice, in its entirety or on a target-by-target basis. Subject to certain exceptions, each party has the right to terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement on a target-by-target basis if the other party, or a third party related to such party, challenges the patentability, enforceability or validity of any patents within the licensed technology that cover any product or companion diagnostic that is subject to the Takeda Collaboration Agreement. In the event of any material breach of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement by a party, subject to cure rights, the other party may terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement in its entirety if the breach relates to all targets or on a target-by-target basis if the breach relates to a specific target. In the event that Takeda and its affiliates cease development, manufacturing and commercialization activities with respect to compounds or products subject to the Takeda Collaboration Agreement and directed to a particular target, Wave may terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement with respect to such target. Either party may terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement for the other party’s insolvency. In certain termination circumstances, Wave would receive a license from Takeda to continue researching, developing and manufacturing certain products, and companion diagnostics.

 

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Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

The Takeda Collaboration is managed by a joint steering committee in which both parties are represented equally. The joint steering committee is tasked with overseeing the scientific progression of each Category 1 Program and the Category 2 Programs.

The Company assessed this arrangement in accordance with ASC 606 and concluded that the contract counterparty, Takeda, is a customer for Category 1 Programs prior to Takeda exercising its option, and for Category 2 Programs during the Category 2 Research Term. The Company identified the following material promises under the arrangement: (1) the non-exclusive, royalty-free research and development license for each Category 1 Program; (2) the research and development services for each Category 1 Program through completion of the first proof of mechanism study; (3) the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize each Category 1 Program; (4) the right to exclusively license the Category 2 Programs; and (5) the research and preclinical development services of the Category 2 Programs through completion of IND-enabling studies. The research and development services for each Category 1 Program were determined to not be distinct from the research and development license and should therefore be combined into a single performance obligation for each Category 1 Program. The research and preclinical development services for the Category 2 Programs were determined to not be distinct from the exclusive licenses for the Category 2 Programs and should therefore be combined into a single performance obligation.

Additionally, the Company determined that the exclusive option for each Category 1 Program was priced at a discount and, as such, provide material rights to Takeda, representing three separate performance obligations. Based on these assessments, the Company identified seven performance obligations in the Takeda Collaboration Agreement: (1) research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for HD; (2) research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for ALS and FTD; (3) research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for SCA3; (4) the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize HD; (5) the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize ALS and FTD; (6) the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize SCA3; and (7) the research and preclinical development services and right to exclusively license the Category 2 Programs.

At the outset of the arrangement, the transaction price included the $110.0 million upfront consideration received and the $60.0 million of committed research and preclinical funding for the Category 2 Programs. The Company determined that the Takeda Collaboration Agreement did not contain a significant financing component. The option exercise fees to license, co-develop and co-commercialize each Category 1 Program that may be received are excluded from the transaction price until each customer option is exercised. The potential milestone payments were excluded from the transaction price, as all milestone amounts were fully constrained at the inception of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement. The Company will reevaluate the transaction price at the end of each reporting period and, as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur, if necessary, will adjust its estimate of the transaction price.

The Company allocated the transaction price to the performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. For the performance obligations associated with the research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for HD; the research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for ALS and FTD; the research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for SCA3; and the research and preclinical development services and right to exclusively license the Category 2 Programs, the Company determined the standalone selling price using estimates of the costs to perform the research and development

 

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Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

services, including expected internal and external costs for services and supplies, adjusted to reflect a profit margin. The total estimated cost of the research and development services reflected the nature of the services to be performed and the Company’s best estimate of the length of time required to perform the services. For the performance obligations associated with the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize HD; the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize ALS and FTD; and the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize SCA3, the Company estimated the standalone fair value of the option to license each Category 1 Program utilizing an adjusted market assessment approach, and determined that any standalone fair value in excess of the amounts to be paid by Takeda associated with each option represented a material right.

Revenue associated with the research and development services for each Category 1 Program performance obligation is being recognized as the research and development services are provided using an input method, according to the costs incurred on each Category 1 Program and the total costs expected to be incurred to satisfy each Category 1 Program performance obligation. Revenue associated with the research and preclinical development services for the Category 2 Programs performance obligation is being recognized as the research and preclinical development services are provided using an input method, according to the costs incurred on Category 2 Programs and the total costs expected to be incurred to satisfy the performance obligation. The transfer of control for these performance obligations occurs over time and, in management’s judgment, this input method is the best measure of progress towards satisfying the performance obligations. The amount allocated to the material right for each Category 1 Program option will be recognized on the date that Takeda exercises each respective option, or immediately as each option expires unexercised. The amounts received that have not yet been recognized as revenue are recorded in deferred revenue on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.

Through December 31, 2020, the Company had recognized revenue of $37.0 million under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement as collaboration revenue in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company recognized revenue of $18.6 million and $8.8 million, respectively, under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the Company’s unsatisfied and partially unsatisfied performance obligations and recorded in deferred revenue at December 31, 2020 is $133.0 million, of which $91.6 million is included in current liabilities. The Company expects to recognize revenue for the portion of the deferred revenue that relates to the research and development services for each Category 1 Program and the Category 2 Programs as costs are incurred over the remaining research term. The Company expects to recognize revenue for the portion of the deferred revenue that relates to the material right for each Category 1 Program option upon Takeda’s exercise of such option, or immediately as each option expires unexercised. The aggregate amount of the transaction price included in accounts receivable at December 31, 2020 is $30.0 million, all of which is included in current assets.

6. SHARE CAPITAL

The following represents the historical ordinary share transactions of the Company from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2020:

 

   

In January 2019, the Company closed a follow-on underwritten public offering of 3,950,000 ordinary shares at a purchase price of $38.00 per share for gross proceeds of $150.1 million, and in February 2019 the Company closed the sale of an additional 592,500 ordinary shares (collectively, the “January 2019 Offering”) for gross proceeds of an additional $22.5 million. The net proceeds to the Company from the January 2019 Offering were $161.8 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

   

In September 2020, the Company closed a follow-on underwritten public offering of 8,333,334 ordinary shares at a purchase price of $12.00 per share for gross proceeds of $100.0 million (the “September 2020 Offering”). The net proceeds to the Company from the September 2020 Offering were $93.7 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses.

 

   

The Company entered into an open market sales agreement with Jefferies LLC in May 2019, as amended in March 2020, for its at-the-market equity program. The Company first sold shares under the at-the-market equity program in 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company sold 5,583,022 ordinary shares under its at-the-market equity program for aggregate net proceeds of $59.9 million, after deducting commissions and offering expenses.

Features of the Series A Preferred Shares and Ordinary Shares

The Series A preferred shares and ordinary shares have no par value and there is no concept of authorized share capital under Singapore law. The Series A preferred shares are not redeemable.

Voting

The holders of Series A preferred shares are not entitled to vote on any of the matters proposed to shareholders, other than as specified in the Company’s Constitution. The holders of ordinary shares are entitled to one vote for each ordinary share held at all meetings of shareholders and written actions in lieu of meetings.

Dividends

All dividends, if any, shall be declared and paid pro rata according to the number of shares held by each member entitled to receive dividends. The Company’s board of directors may deduct from any dividend all sums of money presently payable by the member to the Company on account of calls.

Liquidation

In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of, or a return of capital by the Company, the ordinary shares will rank equally with the Series A preferred shares after the payment of the liquidation preference of an aggregate of approximately $10 thousand for Series A preferred shares.

7. SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION

In December 2014, the Company’s board of directors adopted the Wave Life Sciences Ltd. 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”). The 2014 Plan authorizes the board of directors or a committee of the board to grant incentive share options, non-qualified share options, share appreciation rights, restricted awards, which include restricted shares and restricted share units (“RSUs”), and performance awards to eligible employees, consultants and directors of the Company. The Company accounts for grants to its board of directors as grants to employees.

As of December 31, 2020, 2,324,228 ordinary shares remained available for future grant under the 2014 Plan. In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635(c)(4), the board of directors or a committee of the board may also issue inducement grants outside of the 2014 Plan, material to an individual’s entering into employment with the Company.

 

F-22


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Share option activity under the 2014 Plan is summarized as follows:

 

     Number of
Shares
    Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
     Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term
(in years)
     Aggregate
Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)(1)
 

Outstanding as of January 1, 2020

     3,838,549     $ 19.54        

Granted

     1,024,010       8.55        

Exercised

     (288,270     2.57        

Forfeited or cancelled

     (700,894     31.91        
  

 

 

         

Outstanding as of December 31, 2020

     3,873,395     $ 15.67        5.63      $ 5,794  
  

 

 

         

Options exercisable as of December 31, 2020

     2,783,041     $ 16.37        4.58      $ 5,792  
  

 

 

         

 

(1) 

The aggregate intrinsic value of options is calculated as the difference between the exercise price of the share options and the fair value of the Company’s ordinary shares for those share options that had exercise prices lower than the fair value of the ordinary shares as of the end of the period.

Options generally vest over periods of one to four years, and options that are forfeited or cancelled are available to be granted again. The contractual life of options is generally five or ten years from the grant date. Of the options granted in 2020, 103,000 options were granted outside of the 2014 Plan, as inducement grants material to certain individuals entering into employment with the Company.

The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of share options granted to employees during the period were as follows:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
     2020      2019  

Risk-free interest rate

     0.19% - 0.84%        1.34% - 2.62%  

Expected term (in years)

     3.0 - 6.1        3.0 - 6.1  

Expected volatility

     69% - 74%        68% - 74%  

Expected dividend yield

     0%        0%  

There were no options granted to non-employees during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.

RSU activity for the year ended December 31, 2020 is summarized as follows:

 

     RSUs      Average Grant
Date Fair
Value (in
dollars per
share)
 

Outstanding as of January 1, 2020

     1,751,862      $ 41.81  

Granted

     77,125        9.17  

Vested

     (208,123      39.98  

Forfeited

     (440,649      37.59  
  

 

 

    

RSUs Outstanding at December 31, 2020

     1,180,215      $ 41.57  
  

 

 

    

RSUs that are forfeited are available to be granted again. Of the RSUs outstanding at December 31, 2020, 452,194 are time-based RSUs and 728,021 are performance-based RSUs. Time-based RSUs generally vest over

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

periods of one to four years. Vesting of the performance-based RSUs is contingent on the occurrence of certain regulatory or commercial milestones. The Company did not recognize expense in 2020 or 2019 related to the performance-based RSUs as the related milestones were not considered probable of achievement. Of the RSUs granted in 2020, 27,000 were granted outside of the 2014 Plan, as inducement grants material to certain individuals entering into employment with the Company.

As of December 31, 2020, the unrecognized compensation cost related to outstanding options was $7.2 million. The unrecognized compensation cost related to outstanding options is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.5 years. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the weighted-average grant date fair value per granted option was $5.07 and $11.95, respectively. The aggregate fair value of options that vested during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $9.6 million and $15.2 million, respectively. The unrecognized compensation costs related to outstanding time-based RSUs was $10.7 million as of December 31, 2020, and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.0 years. The total fair value of RSUs vested during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $1.6 million and $4.2 million, respectively.

Employee Share Purchase Plan

The Wave Life Sciences Ltd. Employee Share Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) allows all full-time and certain part-time employees to purchase the Company’s ordinary shares at a discount to fair market value. Eligible employees may enroll in a six-month offering period beginning every January 15th and July 15th. Shares are purchased at a price equal to 85% of the lower of the fair market value of the Company’s ordinary shares on the first business day or the last business day of an offering period. Eligible employees who elected to participate in the ESPP were able to participate in the ESPP for the first time beginning on January 15, 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2020, 25,239 ordinary shares were issued under the ESPP. As of December 31, 2020, there were 974,761 ordinary shares available for issuance under the ESPP.

Share-based compensation expense for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is classified as operating expenses in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss as follows:

 

     For the Year Ended
December 31,
 
     2020      2019  
     (in thousands)  

Research and development expenses

   $ 6,779      $ 9,479  

General and administrative expenses

     7,517        10,030  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total share-based compensation expense

   $ 14,296      $ 19,509  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

8. LEASES

Lease Arrangements

The Company enters into lease arrangements for its facilities. A summary of the arrangements is as follows:

Operating Leases

On September 26, 2016, and as amended on December 31, 2016, the Company entered into a 10 year and 9 month lease, which includes two successive five-year renewal options, for its facility in Lexington, Massachusetts, which the Company uses primarily for its current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”) manufacturing, as well as for additional laboratory and office space. Throughout the term of the lease, the

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Company is responsible for paying certain costs and expenses, in addition to the rent, as specified in the lease, including a proportionate share of applicable taxes, operating expenses and utilities. As required under the terms of the lease agreement, the Company has placed restricted cash of approximately $2.7 million and $2.6 million in a separate bank account as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

As of December 31, 2018, the Company had received $11.4 million of tenant improvement allowances, which was the maximum amount allowed per the lease for the Lexington, Massachusetts facility. In applying the ASC 842 transition guidance, the Company utilized the operating lease classification and recorded a lease liability and a right-of-use asset on the ASC 842 effective date, with the lease incentive obligation being de-recognized and serving to reduce the right-of-use asset.

In April 2015, the Company entered into a lease agreement for an office and laboratory facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts (the “Cambridge Lease”), which commenced in October 2015 with a term of 7.5 years with a five-year renewal option to extend the lease. As required under the terms of the lease agreement, the Company has placed restricted cash of $1.0 million in a separate bank account as of December 31, 2020 and 2019. In applying the ASC 842 transition guidance, the Company utilized the operating lease classification and recorded lease liability and a right-of-use asset on the ASC 842 effective date.

In December 2020, the Company exercised its option under the Cambridge Lease to lease the additional office and laboratory space at the existing facility. The combined space will constitute the entire building. The lease for the additional space is expected to commence on October 1, 2021 with a term of five years. Future minimum lease payments related to this non-cancelable operating lease for the additional space total $5.4 million, of which $0.3 million is related to payments in 2021 and $5.1 million is related to payments beyond 2021. As the lease term for the additional space has not yet commenced, the Company has not yet recognized rent expense for the additional space and the future minimum lease payments are not included in the table below. On the commencement date of the lease of the additional space in 2021, the Company will record a right-of-use asset and corresponding operating lease liability on its consolidated balance sheets and begin recognizing straight-line rent expense under ASC 842. The Company has not made any payments to date related to this lease of the additional space.

The following table contains a summary of the lease costs recognized under ASC 842 and other information pertaining to the Company’s operating leases for the year ended December 31, 2020:

 

     For the Year Ended December 31,  
             2020                     2019          
     (in thousands)  

Lease cost

    

Operating lease cost

   $ 4,472     $ 4,472  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total lease cost

   $ 4,472     $ 4,472  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other information

    

Operating cash flows used for operating leases

   $ 5,846     $ 5,675  

Operating lease liabilities arising from obtaining right-of-use assets

   $ —       $ —    

Weighted average remaining lease term

     6.4 years       7.3 years  

Weighted average discount rate

     8.5     8.5

 

F-25


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

Future minimum lease payments under the Company’s non-cancelable operating leases as of December 31, 2020, are as follows:

 

     As of
December 31,
2020
 
     (in thousands)  

2021

     6,021  

2022

     6,201  

2023

     5,236  

2024

     5,002  

2025

     5,152  

Thereafter

     10,773  
  

 

 

 

Total lease payments

   $ 38,385  

Less: imputed interest

     (9,080
  

 

 

 

Total operating lease liabilities

   $ 29,305  
  

 

 

 

9. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES

Unasserted Claims

In the ordinary course of business, the Company may be subject to legal proceedings, claims and litigation as the Company operates in an industry susceptible to patent and other legal claims. The Company accounts for estimated losses with respect to legal proceedings and claims when such losses are probable and estimable. Legal costs associated with these matters are expensed when incurred. The Company is not currently a party to any material legal proceedings.

10. NET LOSS PER ORDINARY SHARE

Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
             2020                     2019          
     (in thousands except share and per share data)  

Numerator:

    

Net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders

   $ (149,910   $ (193,638
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Denominator:

    

Weighted-average ordinary shares outstanding

     39,227,618       33,866,487  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

   $ (3.82   $ (5.72
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

The Company’s potentially dilutive shares, which include outstanding share options to purchase ordinary shares and restricted share units, are considered to be ordinary share equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share when their effect is dilutive.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

The following potential ordinary shares, presented based on amounts outstanding at each period end, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders for the periods indicated because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:

 

     As of December 31,  
     2020      2019  

Options to purchase ordinary shares

     3,873,395        3,838,549  

RSUs

     1,180,215        1,751,862  

Series A preferred shares

     3,901,348        3,901,348  

11. INCOME TAXES

The components of loss before income taxes were as follows:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2020     2019  
     (in thousands)  

Singapore

   $ (9,931   $ (5,931

Rest of world

     (140,820     (187,707
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

   $ (150,751   $ (193,638
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded an income tax benefit of $0.8 million, which was primarily due to the release of a portion of the Company’s uncertain tax positions as a result of a lapse in the statute of limitations. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recorded no income tax benefit or provision.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded no income tax benefit for the net operating losses incurred in Singapore and the United Kingdom, due to uncertainty regarding future taxable income in those jurisdictions. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recorded no income tax benefit for the net operating losses incurred in Singapore, the United States, and the United Kingdom, due to uncertainty regarding future taxable income in those jurisdictions. In May 2016, the Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary in Ireland, however no income tax expense or benefit has been recorded during the years ended December 31, 2020 or 2019.

The components of the benefit (provision), net for income taxes were as follows:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
         2020              2019      
     (in thousands)  

Current benefit (provision), net for income taxes:

     

Singapore

   $ —        $ —    

Rest of world

     841        —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total current benefit (provision), net for income taxes

   $ 841      $ —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Deferred benefit (provision), net for income taxes:

     

Singapore

   $ —        $ —    

Rest of world

     —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total deferred benefit (provision), net for income taxes

   $ —        $ —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total benefit (provision), net for income taxes

   $ 841      $ —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

F-27


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

A reconciliation of the Singapore statutory income tax rate to the Company’s effective income tax rate is as follows:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
         2020             2019      

Singapore statutory income tax rate

     17.0     17.0

Federal and state tax credits

     5.4       9.4  

Permanent differences

     (2.4     (1.5

Changes in reserves for uncertain tax positions

     (1.3     (3.2

Foreign rate differential

     6.1       7.0  

Tax rate change

     2.6       (0.4

Other

     (1.2     1.3  

Change in deferred tax asset valuation allowance

     (25.6     (29.6
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Effective income tax rate

     0.6     —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

The components of the Company’s deferred tax assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:

 

     December 31,  
     2020      2019  
     (in thousands)  

Deferred tax assets:

     

Net operating loss carryforwards

   $ 133,841      $ 89,585  

Federal and state tax credits

     36,151        31,336  

Share-based compensation

     5,880        6,342  

Accumulated amortization

     962        11,169  

Operating lease liabilities

     8,006        8,892  

Deferred revenue

     13,956        14,299  

Other

     1,146        424  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total deferred tax assets

     199,942        162,047  

Valuation allowance

     (195,381      (156,680
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net deferred tax assets

     4,561        5,367  

Deferred tax liabilities:

     

Operating lease right-of-use assets

     (4,435      (4,945

Accumulated depreciation

     (117      (422

Other

     (9      —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total deferred tax liabilities

     (4,561      (5,367
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)

   $ —        $ —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

F-28


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

A roll-forward of the valuation allowance for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is as follows:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2020      2019  
     (in thousands)  

Balance at beginning of year

   $ 156,680      $ 99,438  

Increase in valuation allowance

     38,653        57,235  

Effect of foreign currency translation

     48        7  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Balance at end of year

   $ 195,381      $ 156,680  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2020, the Company had federal net operating loss carryforwards in the United States of $213.5 million, $211.5 million of which may be available to offset future income tax liabilities indefinitely, while $2.0 million of carryforwards that were in existence as of December 31, 2017 may offset future income tax liabilities up through 2037. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had state net operating loss carryforwards of $206.0 million that will begin to expire in 2038. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had U.S. federal research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $10.3 million and $8.9 million, respectively, available to offset future U.S. federal income taxes and will begin to expire in 2031. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had state research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $7.4 million and $6.3 million, respectively, available to offset future state income taxes and will begin to expire in 2033, and state investment tax credit carryforwards of $0.7 million and $1.1 million, respectively, that will begin to expire in 2021. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had a U.S. orphan drug credit carryforward of $19.4 million that will begin to expire in 2037.

As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had net operating loss carryforwards in Japan of $3.0 million and $2.9 million, respectively, which may be available to offset future income tax liabilities and begin to expire in 2023.

As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had net operating loss carryforwards in Singapore of $179.3 million and $171.6 million, respectively, which may be available to offset future income tax liabilities and can be carried forward indefinitely.

As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had net operating loss carryforwards in the United Kingdom of $233.3 million and $133.1 million, which may be available to offset future income tax liabilities and can be carried forward indefinitely.

The Company has evaluated the positive and negative evidence bearing upon its ability to realize its deferred tax assets. As of December 31, 2020, management has considered the Company’s history of cumulative net losses incurred since inception and its lack of commercialization of any products or generation of any revenue from product sales since inception and has concluded that it is more likely than not that the Company will not realize the benefits of the deferred tax assets in all jurisdictions. Accordingly, a full valuation allowance has been established against those deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2020.

The valuation allowance increased by approximately $38.7 million in 2020 and $57.2 million in 2019 primarily as a result of operating losses generated with no corresponding financial statement benefit. The Company may release this valuation allowance when management determines that it is more-likely-than-not that the deferred tax assets will be realized. Any release of valuation allowance will be recorded as a tax benefit either increasing net income or decreasing net loss.

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

The Company’s reserves related to taxes and its accounting for uncertain tax positions are based on a determination of whether and how much of a tax benefit taken by the Company in its tax filings or positions is more-likely-than-not to be realized following resolution of any potential contingencies present related to the tax benefit.

A summary of activity in the Company’s unrecognized tax benefits is as follows:

 

     2020      2019  
     (in thousands)  

Unrecognized tax benefit at the beginning of the year

   $ 16,682      $ 10,219  

Tax positions related to prior years

     (310      (14

Tax positions related to statute lapse

     (313      (23

Tax positions related to the current year

     2,357        6,500  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Unrecognized tax benefit at the end of the year

   $ 18,416      $ 16,682  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the total amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits, which excludes interest and penalties, was $18.4 million and $16.7 million, respectively. At December 31, 2020, $0.2 million of the net unrecognized tax benefits would affect the Company’s annual effective tax rate if recognized.

The Company anticipates that $0.2 million of the total unrecognized tax benefits at December 31, 2020 will decrease within the next twelve months due to a statute lapse.

The Company’s policy is to record interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as part of its income tax provision. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had recorded less than $0.1 million of interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions.

The Company files income tax returns as prescribed by the tax laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates. In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to examination by various tax authorities in the United States, Japan, Singapore and the United Kingdom. Tax years from 2016 to the present are still open to examination in the United States, from 2016 to the present in Japan, from 2016 to the present in Singapore and from 2018 to the present in the United Kingdom. To the extent that the Company has tax attribute carryforwards, the tax years in which the attribute was generated may still be adjusted upon examination by the tax authorities to the extent utilized in a future period.

As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, $61.0 million and $17.2 million, respectively, of cash was held by the subsidiaries outside of Singapore. The Company does not provide for Singapore income tax or foreign withholding taxes on foreign unrepatriated earnings, as the Company intends to permanently reinvest undistributed earnings in its foreign subsidiaries. If the Company decides to change this assertion in the future to repatriate any additional foreign earnings, the Company may be required to accrue and pay taxes. Because of the complexity of Singapore and foreign tax rules applicable to the distribution of earnings from foreign subsidiaries to Singapore, the determination of the unrecognized deferred tax liability on these earnings is not practicable.

Utilization of the net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credit carryforwards in the United States may be subject to a substantial annual limitation under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), due to ownership changes that have occurred previously or that could occur in the future. These ownership changes may limit the amount of carryforwards that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income. In general, an ownership change, as defined by Section 382, results from transactions increasing the ownership of certain shareholders or public groups in the shares of a corporation by more than

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

50% over a three-year period. In 2018, the Company completed a study to assess whether an ownership change has occurred or whether there have been multiple ownership changes since its formation. The results of this study indicated that the Company experienced ownership changes as defined by Section 382 of the Code. Based on the results of the study, management has determined that the limitations will not have a material impact on the Company’s ability to utilize its net operating losses and research and development credit carryforwards to offset future tax liabilities. Should an ownership change have occurred after December 31, 2018 or occur in the future, the Company’s ability to utilize its net operating losses and research and development tax credit carryforwards may be limited.

12. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS

The Company has a 401(k) retirement and savings plan (the “401(k) Plan”) covering employees of Wave USA. The 401(k) Plan allows employees to make contributions up to the maximum allowable amount set by the Internal Revenue Service. Under the 401(k) Plan, the Company may make discretionary contributions as approved by the board of directors. The Company made contributions of $0.9 million and $1.0 million in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

13. RELATED PARTIES

The Company had the following related party transactions for the periods presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements:

 

   

In 2012, the Company entered into a consulting agreement for scientific advisory services with Dr. Gregory L. Verdine, one of the Company’s founders and a member of the Company’s board of directors. The consulting agreement does not have a specific term and may be terminated by either party upon 14 days’ prior written notice. Pursuant to the consulting agreement, the Company pays Dr. Verdine approximately $13 thousand per month, plus reimbursement for certain expenses.

 

F-31


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and its Subsidiaries

Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

Supplementary Financial Information of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (Parent Company)

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

     December 31,
2020
    December 31,
2019
 

Assets

    

Current assets:

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 123,473     $ 129,960  

Intercompany accounts receivable

     561       1,229  

Prepaid expenses

     1,779       1,667  

Other current assets

     3       201  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current assets

     125,816       133,057  

Long-term assets:

    

Investment in subsidiary—Wave USA

     —         —    

Investment in subsidiary—Wave UK

     —         —    

Investment in subsidiary—Wave Japan

     2,921       2,914  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total long-term assets

     2,921       2,914  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total assets

   $ 128,737     $ 135,971  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Liabilities, Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity

    

Current liabilities:

    

Accounts payable

   $ 549     $ 540  

Intercompany accounts payable

     1,195       5,179  

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

     838       1,039  

Current portion of deferred revenue

     —         1,482  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

     2,582       8,240  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities

   $ 2,582     $ 8,240  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Series A preferred shares, no par value; 3,901,348 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019

   $ 7,874     $ 7,874  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Shareholders’ equity:

    

Ordinary shares, no par value; 48,778,678 and 34,340,690 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively

     694,085       539,547  

Additional paid-in capital

     12,789       11,928  

Accumulated deficit

     (588,593     (431,618
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total shareholders’ equity

     118,281       119,857  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities, Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity

   $ 128,737     $ 135,971  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the supplementary financial information.

 

F-32


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

1. DOMICILE AND ACTIVITIES

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (the “Parent”), formerly Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd., registration number 201218209G, is a company incorporated in the Republic of Singapore on July 23, 2012. The Parent’s registered office is located at 7 Straits View #12-00, Marina One East Tower, Singapore 018936. The Parent was incorporated with the purpose of combining two commonly held companies, Wave Life Sciences USA, Inc. (“Wave USA”), a Delaware corporation (formerly Ontorii, Inc.), and Wave Life Sciences (Japan) (“Wave Japan”), a company organized under the laws of Japan (formerly Chiralgen., Ltd.), which occurred on September 13, 2012. On May 31, 2016, Wave Life Sciences Ireland Limited (“Wave Ireland”) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. On April 3, 2017, Wave Life Sciences UK Limited (“Wave UK”) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

On November 5, 2015, the Parent converted from a Singapore private company limited by shares to a Singapore public company limited by shares. In connection with this conversion, the Parent changed its name from “Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd.” to “Wave Life Sciences Ltd.”

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (together with its subsidiaries, “Wave” or the “Company”) is a clinical-stage genetic medicines company committed to delivering life-changing treatments for people battling devastating diseases. PRISM, Wave’s proprietary discovery and drug development platform, enables Wave to target genetically defined diseases with stereopure oligonucleotides across multiple therapeutic modalities.

The Company’s primary activities since inception have been developing and evolving PRISM to design, develop and commercialize oligonucleotide therapeutics, advancing the Company’s differentiated neurology portfolio, as well as exploring other therapeutic areas of interest, building the Company’s research and development capabilities, advancing programs into the clinic, furthering clinical development of such clinical-stage programs, building the Company’s intellectual property, and assuring adequate capital to support these activities.

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of preparation

In order to comply with the requirements of the Singapore Companies Act, the Parent must present supplementary balance sheets comprised solely from the standalone accounts of Wave Life Sciences Ltd., the Parent company. This supplementary financial information is presented on page F-32.

The Parent applied to the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority of Singapore (“ACRA”) for an exemption from preparing its 2020 Singapore Statutory Financial Statements in accordance with Singapore Financial Reporting Standards. The Parent applied for this exemption because it is listed on the Nasdaq and therefore is required to prepare its audited annual consolidated financial statements in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles of the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) in order to maintain its listing on Nasdaq. These U.S. GAAP annual consolidated financial statements (“U.S. GAAP consolidated financials”) were included in the Form 10-K, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 4, 2021. The Parent received the exemption from ACRA and therefore the Singapore Statutory Financial Statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, except as noted in the paragraph entitled “Investment in Subsidiaries.” The U.S. GAAP consolidated financials are included in these Singapore Statutory Financial Statements on pages F-1 to F-31.

 

F-33


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Functional and presentation currency

This supplementary financial information is presented in U.S. dollars, which is the Parent’s functional currency.

Investment in Subsidiaries

For the purposes of the supplementary financial information provided as a part of the Singapore Statutory Financial Statements, the Parent did not consolidate its investments in subsidiaries and reported these investments as separate lines in the Parent’s standalone balance sheet. The Parent’s investment in each subsidiary is accounted for by either increasing its initial investment in each subsidiary by that subsidiary’s net income for each financial year or by decreasing its initial investment in each subsidiary by that subsidiary’s net loss for each financial year to the extent of the initial investment of the subsidiary. U.S. GAAP requires that a Parent’s investments in subsidiaries be consolidated.

Cash Equivalents

The Parent considers all highly liquid securities with original final maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are comprised of funds in money market accounts.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the supplementary financial information. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in the supplementary financial information include the assumptions used to determine the fair value of share-based awards, the Parent’s revenue recognition policy, particularly, (a) assessing the number of performance obligations; (b) determining the transaction price; (c) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (d) determining the pattern over which performance obligations are satisfied, including estimates to complete performance obligations, and the valuation allowance required for the Parent’s deferred tax assets and determining uncertain tax positions and the related liabilities. Estimates are periodically reviewed in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Actual results could differ from the Parent’s estimates.

Going Concern

At each reporting period, the Parent evaluates whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about the Parent’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. The Parent is required to make certain additional disclosures if it concludes substantial doubt exists and it is not alleviated by the Parent’s plans or when its plans alleviate substantial doubt about the Parent’s ability to continue as a going concern. The Parent’s evaluation entails analyzing prospective operating budgets and forecasts for expectations of the Parent’s cash needs and comparing those needs to the current cash and cash equivalents balance.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Parent is required to disclose information on all assets and liabilities reported at fair value that enables an assessment of the inputs used in determining the reported fair values. The fair value hierarchy is a hierarchy of

 

F-34


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the financial instrument based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Parent. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Parent’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the financial instrument and are developed based on the information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy applies only to the valuation inputs used in determining the reported fair value of the investments and is not a measure of the investment credit quality. The hierarchy defines three levels of valuation inputs:

Level 1—Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date of identical, unrestricted assets.

Level 2—Quoted prices for similar assets, or inputs that are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term through corroboration with observable market data. Level 2 includes investments valued at quoted prices adjusted for legal or contractual restrictions specific to the security.

Level 3—Pricing inputs are unobservable for the asset, that is, inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset. Level 3 includes private investments that are supported by little or no market activity.

Cash and cash equivalents are Level 1 assets which are comprised of funds held in checking and money market accounts. Cash and cash equivalents were recorded at fair value as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, totaling $123.5 million and $130.0 million, respectively. The carrying amounts of accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to their short-term maturities. Accounts receivable relate to the Parent’s collaboration agreement.

Given their related party nature, intercompany accounts receivables and intercompany accounts payables were transacted based upon terms and amounts set forth between the Parent and its subsidiaries.

Concentration of Credit Risk

Cash and cash equivalents are financial instruments that potentially subject the Parent to concentration of credit risk. The Parent uses high quality, accredited financial institutions to maintain its cash and cash equivalents and, accordingly, such funds are subject to minimal credit risk. The Parent has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Parent is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which those deposits are held. The Parent has no financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk of loss.

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”).

This standard applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, and financial instruments. Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration that the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the entity performs the following five-

 

F-35


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

step analysis: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step analysis to contracts when it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration to which it is entitled in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract, determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.

The Company has entered into collaboration agreements for research, development, and commercial services, under which the Company licenses certain rights to its product candidates to third parties. The terms of these arrangements typically include payment to the Company of one or more of the following: non-refundable, upfront license fees; reimbursement of certain costs; customer option exercise fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; and royalties on net sales of licensed products. Any variable consideration is constrained and, therefore, the cumulative revenue associated with this consideration is not recognized until it is deemed not to be at significant risk of reversal.

In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as the Parent fulfills its obligations under each of its agreements for which the collaboration partner is also a customer, the Parent performs the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Parent satisfies each performance obligation. As part of the accounting for these arrangements, the Parent must use significant judgment to determine: (a) the number of performance obligations based on the determination under step (ii) above; (b) the transaction price under step (iii) above; and (c) the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations as a measure of progress in step (v) above. The Parent uses significant judgment to determine whether milestones or other variable consideration, except for royalties, should be included in the transaction price as described further below. The transaction price is allocated to the optional goods and services the Parent expects to provide. The Parent uses estimates to determine the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations.

Amounts received prior to being recognized as revenue are recorded as deferred revenue. Amounts expected to be recognized as revenue within the 12 months following the balance sheet date are classified as current portion of deferred revenue in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Amounts not expected to be recognized as revenue within the 12 months following the balance sheet date are classified as deferred revenue, net of current portion.

Licenses of intellectual property: In assessing whether a promise or performance obligation is distinct from the other promises, the Parent considers factors such as the research, development, manufacturing and commercialization capabilities of the customer and the availability of the associated expertise in the general marketplace. In addition, the Parent considers whether the customer can benefit from a promise for its intended purpose without the receipt of the remaining promise, whether the value of the promise is dependent on the unsatisfied promise, whether there are other vendors that could provide the remaining promise, and whether it is

 

F-36


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

separately identifiable from the remaining promise. For licenses that are combined with other promises, the Parent utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue. The Parent evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

Research and development services: If an arrangement is determined to contain a promise or obligation for the Parent to perform research and development services, the Parent must determine whether these services are distinct from other promises in the arrangement. In assessing whether the services are distinct from the other promises, the Parent considers the capabilities of the customer to perform these same services. In addition, the Parent considers whether the customer can benefit from a promise for its intended purpose without the receipt of the remaining promise, whether the value of the promise is dependent on the unsatisfied promise, whether there are other vendors that could provide the remaining promise, and whether it is separately identifiable from the remaining promise. For research and development services that are combined with other promises, the Parent utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue. The Parent evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

Customer options: If an arrangement is determined to contain customer options that allow the customer to acquire additional goods or services, the goods and services underlying the customer options are not considered to be performance obligations at the outset of the arrangement, as they are contingent upon option exercise. The Parent evaluates the customer options for material rights, that is, the option to acquire additional goods or services for free or at a discount. If the customer options are determined to represent a material right, the material right is recognized as a separate performance obligation at the outset of the arrangement. The Parent allocates the transaction price to material rights based on the standalone selling price. As a practical alternative to estimating the standalone selling price when the goods or services are both (i) similar to the original goods and services in the contract and (ii) provided in accordance with the terms of the original contract, the Parent allocates the total amount of consideration expected to be received from the customer to the total goods or services expected to be provided to the customer. Amounts allocated to any material right are not recognized as revenue until the option is exercised and the performance obligation is satisfied.

Milestone payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments, the Parent evaluates whether a significant reversal of cumulative revenue provided in conjunction with achieving the milestones is probable, and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Parent or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. For other milestones, the Parent evaluates factors such as the scientific, clinical, regulatory, commercial, and other risks that must be overcome to achieve the particular milestone in making this assessment. There is considerable judgment involved in determining whether it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Parent reevaluates the probability of achievement of all milestones subject to constraint and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.

 

F-37


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on a level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Parent recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date, the Parent has not recognized any royalty revenue resulting from any of its licensing arrangements.

Contract costs: The Parent recognizes as an asset the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if the costs are expected to be recovered. As a practical expedient, the Parent recognizes the incremental costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the asset that it otherwise would have recognized is one year or less. To date, the Parent has not incurred any incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer.

For additional discussion of accounting for collaboration revenues, see Note 5.

Share-Based Compensation

The Parent measures and recognizes share-based compensation expense, for both employee and director option awards, based on the grant date fair value of the awards. The Parent calculates the fair value of restricted share unit awards based on the grant date fair value of the underlying ordinary shares. The Parent recognizes share-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting period.

The Parent determines the fair value of share-based awards granted to non-employees as either the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. All equity instruments issued to non-employees as consideration for goods or services received by the Parent are accounted for based on the fair value of the equity instruments issued. These awards are recorded in expense and additional paid-in capital in shareholders’ equity over the applicable service periods based on the fair value of the options at the end of each period. The Parent accounts for the expense from share-based awards to non-employees by re-measuring the awards at fair value over the vesting period.

The additional paid-in capital presented on the Parent’s supplementary balance sheets only reflects share-based compensation expense for non-employee option awards and share-based compensation expense for option awards granted to non-employee directors, which are accounted for as employee option awards. The remainder of the consolidated share-based compensation expense was recorded by the Parent’s subsidiaries as the expense relates to option awards and restricted share units granted to employees of the subsidiaries.

The fair value of each share option grant was determined using the methods and assumptions discussed below. These inputs are generally subjective and require significant judgment and estimation by management.

 

   

Fair Value of Ordinary Shares The fair value of the ordinary shares underlying the Company’s share-based awards is based on the closing price of the Parent’s ordinary shares as reported by the Nasdaq Global Market on the date of grant.

 

   

Expected Term The expected term of share options represents the weighted-average period that the share options are expected to remain outstanding. The Company estimated the expected term using the simplified method, which is an average of the contractual term of the option and the vesting period.

 

   

Expected Volatility Since there is limited historical data for the Parent’s ordinary shares and limited company-specific historical volatility, it has determined the share price volatility for options granted

 

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Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

 

based on an analysis of the volatility used by a peer group of publicly traded companies. In evaluating similarity, the Parent considers factors such as industry, stage of life cycle and size.

 

   

Risk-free Interest Rate The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield in effect at the time of the grant for zero-coupon U.S. Treasury notes with remaining terms similar to the expected term of the options.

 

   

Dividend Rate The expected dividend was assumed to be zero as the Parent has never paid dividends and has no current plans to do so.

Income Taxes

The Parent accounts for income taxes using an asset and liability approach, which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the consolidated financial statements but have not been reflected in taxable income. A valuation allowance is established to reduce deferred tax assets to their estimated realizable value. Therefore, the Parent provides a valuation allowance to the extent that it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized in the future.

The Parent accounts for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements by applying a two-step process to determine the amount of tax benefit to be recognized. First, the tax position must be evaluated to determine the likelihood that it will be sustained upon external examination by the tax authorities. If the tax position is deemed more-likely-than-not to be sustained, the tax position is then assessed to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The amount of the benefit that may be recognized is the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The provision for income taxes includes the effects of any resulting tax reserves, or unrecognized tax benefits, that are considered appropriate as well as the related net interest and penalties.

The Parent recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in the income tax provision on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

The Parent has certain research and management services agreements in place with Wave USA, it’s U.S. subsidiary, which include transfer pricing assumptions. The determination of the appropriate level of transfer pricing requires judgment based on transfer pricing analyses of comparable companies. The Parent monitors the nature of its service agreements for changes in its operations as well as economic conditions. The Parent also periodically reviews the transfer pricing analyses for changes in the composition in the pool of comparable companies as well the related ongoing results of the comparable companies.

Unasserted Claims

In the ordinary course of business, the Parent may be subject to legal proceedings, claims and litigation as the Parent operates in an industry susceptible to patent and other legal claims. The Parent accounts for estimated losses with respect to legal proceedings and claims when such losses are probable and estimable. Legal costs associated with these matters are expensed when incurred. The Parent is not currently a party to any material legal proceedings.

 

F-39


Table of Contents

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Supplementary Financial Information

Year ended December 31, 2020

 

3. INTERCOMPANY BALANCES

The intercompany balances presented on the Parent’s balance sheets are the result of intercompany transactions between the Parent and its subsidiaries.

As of December 31, 2020, intercompany accounts receivables totaled $0.6 million and related to amounts due from Wave USA and Wave UK related to the reimbursement of certain expenses that were paid for by the Parent on behalf of Wave USA and Wave UK, as well as amounts due from Wave USA related to proceeds from the exercise of share options by Wave USA’s employees.

As of December 31, 2019, intercompany accounts receivables totaled $1.2 million and related to amounts due from Wave USA related to proceeds from the exercise of share options by Wave USA’s employees, as well as amounts due from Wave UK related to the reimbursement of certain expenses that were paid for by the Parent on behalf of Wave UK.

As of December 31, 2020, the intercompany accounts payable totaled $1.2 million and related to amounts due to Wave USA under the intercompany research and management services agreements, as well as additional amounts due to Wave USA related to the reimbursement of certain expenses that were paid for by Wave USA on behalf of the Parent.

As of December 31, 2019, the intercompany accounts payable totaled $5.2 million and related to amounts due to Wave USA under the intercompany research and management services agreements, as well as additional amounts due to Wave USA and Wave Japan related to the reimbursement of certain expenses that were paid for by Wave USA and Wave Japan on behalf of the Parent.

4. INCOME TAXES

The components of the Parent’s deferred tax assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:

 

     December 31,
2020
     December 31,
2019
 
     (in thousands)  

Deferred tax assets:

     

Net operating loss carryforwards

   $ 31,392      $ 30,408  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total deferred tax assets

     31,392        30,408  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Valuation allowance

     (31,392      (30,013