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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

     QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020

     TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ______ to ______

Commission File Number: 001-37627

 

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Singapore

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

Not applicable

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 

7 Straits View #12-00, Marina One East Tower

Singapore

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

018936

(Zip Code)

 

+65 6236 3388

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

$0 Par Value Ordinary Shares

WVE

The Nasdaq Global Market

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No   

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of ‘‘large accelerated filer,’’ ‘‘accelerated filer,’’ ‘‘smaller reporting company,’’ and ‘‘emerging growth company’’ in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

 

The number of outstanding ordinary shares of the registrant as of May 1, 2020 was 34,892,550.

 

 


WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

5

Item 1. Financial Statements

 

5

Unaudited Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

5

Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

 

6

Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Series A Preferred Shares and Shareholders' Equity

 

7

Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

8

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements

 

9

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

17

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

27

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

 

28

PART II - OTHER INFORMATION

 

28

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

 

28

Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

28

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

29

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

 

29

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

29

Item 5. Other Information

 

30

Item 6. Exhibits

 

31

 


2


As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise indicates, references to “Wave,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” or similar terms refer to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries.

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that relate to future events or to our future operations or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. In some cases, forward-looking statements are identified by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “future,” “goals,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “ongoing,” “objective,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” “will” and “would” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things: our ability to fund our future operations; our financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash and capital requirements; our need for additional financing or the period for which our existing cash resources will be sufficient to meet our operating requirements; the success, progress, number, scope, cost, duration, timing or results of our research and development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials, including the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any preclinical studies and clinical trials or for submission, review or approval of any regulatory filing; the timing of, and our ability to, obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates; the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates; our strategies, prospects, plans, goals, expectations, forecasts or objectives; the success of our collaborations with third parties; any payment that our collaboration partners may make to us; our ability to identify and develop new product candidates; our intellectual property position; our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy; our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities; our estimates regarding future expenses and needs for additional financing; our ability to identify, recruit and retain key personnel; our financial performance; developments and projections relating to our competitors in the industry; our liquidity and working capital requirements; the expected impact of new accounting standards; and our expectations regarding the impact of COVID-19 on our research and development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials, supply of drug product, and our workforce.

Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this report, we caution you that these statements are based on our estimates or projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement to differ. These risks, uncertainties and other factors include, among other things, our critical accounting policies and: the ability of our preclinical studies to produce data sufficient to support the filing of global clinical trial applications and the timing thereof; our ability to continue to build and maintain the company infrastructure and personnel needed to achieve our goals; the clinical results and timing of our programs, which may not support further development of our product candidates; actions of regulatory agencies, which may affect the initiation, timing and progress of clinical trials; our effectiveness in managing current and future clinical trials and regulatory processes; the success of our platform in identifying viable candidates; the continued development and acceptance of nucleic acid therapeutics as a class of drugs; our ability to demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of our stereopure candidates in clinical trials, including our ability to develop candidates across multiple therapeutic modalities; our ability to obtain, maintain and protect intellectual property; our ability to enforce our patents against infringers and defend our patent portfolio against challenges from third parties; our ability to fund our operations and to raise additional capital as needed; competition from others developing therapies for similar uses; and the COVID-19 pandemic may negatively impact the conduct of, and the timing of enrollment, completion and reporting with respect to, our clinical trials; any other impacts on our business as a result of or related to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other risks and uncertainties under the caption “Risk Factors” contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in other filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Each forward-looking statement contained in this report is based on a combination of facts and factors currently known by us and our expectations of the future, about which we cannot be certain. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, these statements should not be regarded as representations or warranties by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified timeframe, or at all. We caution you not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement.

3


In addition, any forward-looking statement in this report represents our views only as of the date of this report and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. Although we may elect to update these forward-looking statements publicly at some point in the future, we undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

 

The Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd. names, the Wave Life Sciences mark, PRISM and the other registered and pending trademarks, trade names and service marks of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. appearing in this Form 10-Q are the property of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. This Form 10-Q also contains additional trade names, trademarks and service marks belonging to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and to other companies. We do not intend our use or display of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this Form 10-Q are referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such reference should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

4


PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

120,949

 

 

$

147,161

 

Current portion of accounts receivable

 

 

 

 

 

20,000

 

Prepaid expenses

 

 

9,999

 

 

 

9,626

 

Other current assets

 

 

18,843

 

 

 

8,689

 

Total current assets

 

 

149,791

 

 

 

185,476

 

Long-term assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, net of current portion

 

 

30,000

 

 

 

30,000

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

34,986

 

 

 

36,368

 

Operating lease right-of-use assets

 

 

17,659

 

 

 

18,101

 

Restricted cash

 

 

3,649

 

 

 

3,647

 

Other assets

 

 

2,487

 

 

 

10,658

 

Total long-term assets

 

 

88,781

 

 

 

98,774

 

Total assets

 

$

238,572

 

 

$

284,250

 

Liabilities, Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

16,486

 

 

$

9,073

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

10,994

 

 

 

16,185

 

Current portion of deferred revenue

 

 

88,044

 

 

 

89,652

 

Current portion of operating lease liability

 

 

3,357

 

 

 

3,243

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

118,881

 

 

 

118,153

 

Long-term liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

 

 

60,913

 

 

 

63,466

 

Operating lease liability, net of current portion

 

 

28,425

 

 

 

29,304

 

Other liabilities

 

 

1,621

 

 

 

1,721

 

Total long-term liabilities

 

$

90,959

 

 

$

94,491

 

Total liabilities

 

$

209,840

 

 

$

212,644

 

Series A preferred shares, no par value; 3,901,348 shares issued and

   outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019

 

$

7,874

 

 

$

7,874

 

Shareholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ordinary shares, no par value; 34,601,582 and 34,340,690 shares issued

   and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively

 

$

540,161

 

 

$

539,547

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

61,276

 

 

 

57,277

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income

 

 

273

 

 

 

267

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(580,852

)

 

 

(533,359

)

Total shareholders’ equity

 

$

20,858

 

 

$

63,732

 

Total liabilities, Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity

 

$

238,572

 

 

$

284,250

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

5


WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Revenue

 

$

4,161

 

 

$

3,026

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

41,158

 

 

 

40,113

 

General and administrative

 

 

12,996

 

 

 

10,901

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

54,154

 

 

 

51,014

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(49,993

)

 

 

(47,988

)

Other income, net:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividend income

 

 

385

 

 

 

1,424

 

Interest income, net

 

 

3

 

 

 

11

 

Other income (expense), net

 

 

2,112

 

 

 

2,353

 

Total other income, net

 

 

2,500

 

 

 

3,788

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(47,493

)

 

 

(44,200

)

Income tax provision

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(47,493

)

 

$

(44,200

)

Net loss per share attributable to ordinary

   shareholders—basic and diluted

 

$

(1.38

)

 

$

(1.36

)

Weighted-average ordinary shares used in

   computing net loss per share attributable to

   ordinary shareholders—basic and diluted

 

 

34,461,505

 

 

 

32,597,158

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(47,493

)

 

$

(44,200

)

Foreign currency translation

 

 

6

 

 

 

97

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(47,487

)

 

$

(44,103

)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

 

6


WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SERIES A PREFERRED SHARES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

(In thousands, except share amounts)

 

 

 

Series A

Preferred Shares

 

 

 

Ordinary Shares

 

 

Additional

Paid-In-

 

 

Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Total

Shareholders’

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Income

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2018

 

 

3,901,348

 

 

$

7,874

 

 

 

 

29,472,197

 

 

$

375,148

 

 

$

37,768

 

 

$

153

 

 

$

(339,721

)

 

$

73,348

 

Issuance of ordinary shares,

   net of offering costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,542,500

 

 

 

161,785

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

161,785

 

Share-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,345

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,345

 

Vesting of RSUs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

110,187

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Option exercises

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

130,522

 

 

 

1,481

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,481

 

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

97

 

 

 

 

 

 

97

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(44,200

)

 

 

(44,200

)

Balance at March 31, 2019

 

 

3,901,348

 

 

$

7,874

 

 

 

 

34,255,406

 

 

$

538,414

 

 

$

42,113

 

 

$

250

 

 

$

(383,921

)

 

$

196,856

 

 

 

 

 

Series A

Preferred Shares

 

 

 

Ordinary Shares

 

 

Additional

Paid-In-

 

 

Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

Total

Shareholders’

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Income

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2019

 

 

3,901,348

 

 

$

7,874

 

 

 

 

34,340,690

 

 

$

539,547

 

 

$

57,277

 

 

$

267

 

 

$

(533,359

)

 

$

63,732

 

Issuance of ordinary shares

   pursuant to the at-the-market

   equity program, net

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59,690

 

 

 

604

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

604

 

Share-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,999

 

Vesting of RSUs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

198,202

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Option exercises

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,000

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(47,493

)

 

 

(47,493

)

Balance at March 31, 2020

 

 

3,901,348

 

 

$

7,874

 

 

 

 

34,601,582

 

 

$

540,161

 

 

$

61,276

 

 

$

273

 

 

$

(580,852

)

 

$

20,858

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

 

7


WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Cash flows from operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(47,493

)

 

$

(44,200

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

Amortization of right-of-use assets

 

 

442

 

 

 

381

 

Depreciation of property and equipment

 

 

2,039

 

 

 

1,783

 

Share-based compensation expense

 

 

3,999

 

 

 

4,345

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

20,000

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses

 

 

(373

)

 

 

(1,090

)

Other assets

 

 

(1,983

)

 

 

(2,124

)

Accounts payable

 

 

7,336

 

 

 

783

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

(5,191

)

 

 

(6,467

)

Deferred revenue

 

 

(4,161

)

 

 

(3,026

)

Operating lease liabilities

 

 

(765

)

 

 

(663

)

Other non-current liabilities

 

 

(100

)

 

 

(103

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(26,250

)

 

 

(50,381

)

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(580

)

 

 

(508

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

(580

)

 

 

(508

)

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of ordinary shares, net of offering costs

 

 

 

 

 

162,065

 

Proceeds from issuance of ordinary shares pursuant to the

   at-the-market equity program, net

 

 

604

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from the exercise of share options

 

 

10

 

 

 

1,481

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

614

 

 

 

163,546

 

Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

6

 

 

 

97

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

(26,210

)

 

 

112,754

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period

 

 

150,808

 

 

 

178,444

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period

 

$

124,598

 

 

$

291,198

 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deferred follow-on offering costs in accounts payable and

   accrued expenses at period end

 

$

 

 

$

280

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

8


Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements

 

1. THE COMPANY

Organization

Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (together with its subsidiaries, “Wave” or the “Company”) is a clinical-stage genetic medicines company committed to delivering life-changing treatments for people battling devastating diseases. PRISM, Wave’s proprietary discovery and drug development platform, enables Wave to target genetically defined diseases with stereopure oligonucleotides across multiple therapeutic modalities.

The Company was incorporated in Singapore on July 23, 2012 and has its principal U.S. office in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Company was incorporated with the purpose of combining two commonly held companies, Wave Life Sciences USA, Inc. (“Wave USA”), a Delaware corporation (formerly Ontorii, Inc.), and Wave Life Sciences Japan, Inc. (“Wave Japan”), a company organized under the laws of Japan (formerly Chiralgen., Ltd.), which occurred on September 13, 2012. On May 31, 2016, Wave Life Sciences Ireland Limited (“Wave Ireland”) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. On April 3, 2017, Wave Life Sciences UK Limited (“Wave UK”) was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

The Company’s primary activities since inception have been developing PRISM to design, develop and commercialize oligonucleotide therapeutics, advancing the Company’s neurology business, building the Company’s research and development activities in ophthalmology and hepatic, advancing programs into the clinic, furthering clinical development of such clinical-stage programs, building the Company’s intellectual property, and assuring adequate capital to support these activities.

Liquidity

Since its inception, the Company has not generated any product revenue and has incurred recurring net losses. To date, the Company has primarily funded its operations through private placements of debt and equity securities, public offerings of its ordinary shares and collaborations with third parties. Until the Company can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, the Company expects to continue to finance operations through a combination of public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, which may include collaborations with third parties. Adequate additional financing may not be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. The inability to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on the Company’s financial condition and ability to pursue its business strategy.

As of March 31, 2020, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $120.9 million. The Company expects that its existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund its operations for at least the next twelve months. The Company has based this expectation on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect, and the Company may use its available capital resources sooner than it currently expects. If the Company’s anticipated operating results are not achieved in future periods, planned expenditures may need to be further reduced in order to extend the time period over which the then-available resources would be able to fund the Company’s operations. In addition, the Company may elect to raise additional funds before it needs them if the conditions for raising capital are favorable due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if the Company expects it has sufficient funds for its current or future operating plans.

Risks and Uncertainties

The Company is subject to risks common to companies in the biotechnology industry including, but not limited to, new technological innovations, protection of proprietary technology, maintaining internal manufacturing capabilities, dependence on key personnel, compliance with government regulations and the need to obtain additional financing. The Company’s therapeutic programs will require significant additional research and development efforts, including extensive preclinical and clinical testing and regulatory approval, prior to commercialization of any product candidates. These efforts require significant amounts of additional capital, adequate personnel infrastructure and extensive compliance-reporting capabilities. There can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development efforts will be successful, that adequate protection for the Company’s intellectual property will be obtained, that any products developed will obtain necessary government regulatory approval or that any approved products will be commercially viable. Even if the Company’s product development efforts are successful, it is uncertain when, if ever, the Company will generate significant revenue from product sales. The Company operates in an environment of rapid change in technology and substantial competition from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.

9


COVID-19 Global Pandemic

In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Since that time, multiple other countries throughout the world and their economies have been effectively shut down and significantly affected by the spread of the virus. To date, responsive measures such as social distancing, work-from-home policies, travel bans and quarantines have been implemented in many countries throughout the world.

The Company is closely monitoring developments related to COVID-19, which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. In response to this global pandemic, the Company has concentrated its efforts to remain focused on the health and safety of its employees and patients, while maintaining business continuity and honoring its commitment to deliver life-changing treatments for people battling devastating diseases.

The COVID-19 global pandemic is evolving rapidly and its impact on the Company is highly uncertain and subject to change. The Company does not yet know the full extent of potential delays or long-term impacts on its business, its clinical trials, healthcare systems or the global economy. These impacts are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, travel restrictions and actions to contain the outbreak or treat its impact, such as social distancing and quarantines or lock-downs, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken to contain and treat the disease. These effects may materially adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Basis of Presentation

The Company has prepared the accompanying consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and in U.S. dollars.

2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

The significant accounting policies described in the Company’s audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 2, 2020, as amended (the “2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K”), have had no material changes during the three months ended March 31, 2020.

Unaudited Interim Financial Data

The accompanying interim consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2020, the related interim consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the consolidated statements of Series A preferred shares and shareholders’ equity for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related interim information contained within the notes to the consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and the notes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The financial data and other information disclosed in these notes related to the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 are unaudited. In the opinion of management, the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal and recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020 or any other interim period or future year or period.

Principles of Consolidation

The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Reclassifications

The Company has reclassified certain prior period financial statement amounts to conform to its current period presentation. These reclassifications have not changed the results of operations of prior periods.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

The recently issued accounting pronouncements described in the Company’s audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019, and the notes thereto, which are included in the 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K, have had no material changes during the three months ended March 31, 2020.

10


3. OTHER CURRENT ASSETS

Other current assets consist of the following:

 

 

 

March 31, 2020

 

 

December 31, 2019

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Refundable tax credits receivable

 

$

18,692

 

 

$

8,205

 

Dividend income receivable

 

 

104

 

 

 

200

 

Other current assets

 

 

47

 

 

 

284

 

Total other current assets

 

$

18,843

 

 

$

8,689

 

 

 

4. SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION

The Wave Life Sciences Ltd. 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (the “2014 Plan”), authorizes the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors to, among other things, grant non-qualified share options, restricted awards, which includes restricted shares, time-based restricted share units (“RSUs”) and performance-based restricted share units (“PSUs”) to eligible employees and directors of the Company. Options generally vest over periods of one to four years, and any options that are forfeited or cancelled are available to be granted again. The contractual life of options is generally five or ten years from the grant date. RSUs generally vest over a period of one to four years. PSUs vest upon the achievement of certain milestones. Any RSUs or PSUs that are forfeited are available to be granted again.

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company granted 701,685 options and 14,750 RSUs to employees.

As of March 31, 2020, 878,110 ordinary shares remained available for future grant under the 2014 Plan. 

Employee Share Purchase Plan

At the 2019 Annual General Meeting, the Company’s board of directors and the Company’s shareholders approved the 2019 Employee Share Purchase Plan (“ESPP”). As of March 31, 2020, there were 1,000,000 ordinary shares available for issuance under the ESPP. The ESPP allows all full-time and certain part-time employees to purchase the Company’s ordinary shares at a discount to fair market value. Eligible employees may enroll in a six-month offering period beginning approximately every January 15th and July 15th. Shares are purchased at a price equal to 85% of the lower of the fair market value of the Company’s ordinary shares on the first business day or the last business day of an offering period. Eligible employees who elected to participate in the ESPP were able to participate in the ESPP for the first time beginning on January 15, 2020. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, no shares were issued under the ESPP and the earliest that shares would be issued under the ESPP is July 14, 2020.

5. COLLABORATION AGREEMENTS

Pfizer Collaboration and Equity Agreements

In May 2016, the Company entered into a Research, License and Option Agreement (as amended in November 2017, the “Pfizer Collaboration Agreement”) with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”). Pursuant to the terms of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the Company and Pfizer agreed to collaborate on the discovery, development and commercialization of stereopure oligonucleotide therapeutics for up to five programs (the “Pfizer Programs”), each directed at a genetically-defined hepatic target selected by Pfizer (the “Pfizer Collaboration”). The Company received $10.0 million as an upfront license fee under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. Subject to option exercises by Pfizer, the Company may earn potential research, development and commercial milestone payments, plus royalties, tiered up to low double-digits, on sales of any products that may result from the Pfizer Collaboration. None of the payments under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement are refundable.

Simultaneously with the entry into the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the Company entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (the “Pfizer Equity Agreement,” and together with the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the “Pfizer Agreements”) with C.P. Pharmaceuticals International C.V., an affiliate of Pfizer (the “Pfizer Affiliate”). Pursuant to the terms of the Pfizer Equity Agreement, the Pfizer Affiliate purchased 1,875,000 of the Company’s ordinary shares (the “Shares”) at a purchase price of $16.00 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $30.0 million. The Company did not incur any material costs in connection with the issuance of the Shares.

11


Under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement, the parties agreed to collaborate during a four-year research term. During the research term, the Company is responsible to use its commercially reasonable efforts to advance up to five programs through to the selection of clinical candidates. At that stage, Pfizer may elect to license any of these Pfizer Programs exclusively and obtain exclusive rights to undertake the clinical development of the resulting clinical candidates into products and the potential commercialization of any such products thereafter. In addition, the Company received a non-exclusive, royalty-bearing sublicensable license to use Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology in any of the Company’s own hepatic programs that are outside the scope of the Pfizer Collaboration (the “Wave Programs”). If the Company uses this technology on the Wave Programs, Pfizer is eligible to receive potential development and commercial milestone payments from the Company. Pfizer is also eligible to receive tiered royalties on sales of any products that include Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology. The Company is not currently utilizing Pfizer’s hepatic targeting technology in any of its own hepatic programs that are outside of the scope of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement.

The stated term of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement commenced on May 5, 2016 and terminates on the date of the last to expire payment obligation with respect to each Pfizer Program and, with respect to each Wave Program, expires on a program-by-program basis accordingly. Pfizer may terminate its rights related to a Pfizer Program under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement at its own convenience upon 90 days’ notice to the Company. The Company may also terminate its rights related to a Wave Program at its own convenience upon 90 days’ notice to Pfizer. The Pfizer Collaboration Agreement may also be terminated by either party in the event of an uncured material breach of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement by the other party.

Pfizer nominated two hepatic targets upon entry into the Pfizer Collaboration in May 2016. The Pfizer Collaboration Agreement provides Pfizer with options to nominate up to three additional programs by making nomination milestone payments. Pfizer nominated the third, fourth and fifth hepatic targets in August 2016, March 2018 and April 2018, respectively.

The Pfizer Collaboration is managed by a joint steering committee in which both parties are represented equally, which will oversee the scientific progression of each Pfizer Program up to the clinical candidate stage. During the four-year research term and for a period of two years thereafter, the Company has agreed to work exclusively with Pfizer with respect to using any of the Company’s stereopure oligonucleotide technology that is specific for the applicable hepatic target which is the basis of any Pfizer Program. Within a specified period after receiving a data package for a candidate under each nominated program, Pfizer may exercise an option to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize the program candidate by paying an exercise price per program.

The Company assessed this arrangement in accordance with ASC 606 and concluded that the contract counterparty, Pfizer, is a customer. The Company identified the following promises under the arrangement: (1) the non-exclusive, royalty-free research and development license; (2) the research and development services for Programs 1 and 2; (3) the program nomination options for Programs 3, 4 and 5; (4) the research and development services associated with Programs 3, 4 and 5; (5) the options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 1 and 2; and (6) the options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 3, 4 and 5. The research and development services for each of Programs 1 and 2 were determined to not be distinct from the research and development license and should be combined into a single performance obligation for each program. The promises under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement relate primarily to the research and development required by the Company for each of the programs nominated by Pfizer.

Additionally, the Company determined that the program nomination options for Programs 3, 4 and 5 were priced at a discount and, as such, provide material rights to Pfizer, representing three separate performance obligations. The research and development services associated with Programs 3, 4 and 5 and the options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 3, 4 and 5 are subject to Pfizer’s exercise of the program nomination options for such programs and therefore do not represent performance obligations at the outset of the arrangement. The options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 1 and 2 do not represent material rights; as such, they are not representative of performance obligations at the outset of the arrangement. Based on these assessments, the Company identified five performance obligations in the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement: (1) research and development services and license for Program 1; (2) research and development services and license for Program 2; (3) material right provided for the option to nominate Program 3; (4) material right provided for the option to nominate Program 4; and (5) material right provided for the option to nominate Program 5.

At the outset of the arrangement, the transaction price included only the $10.0 million up-front consideration received. The Company determined that the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement did not contain a significant financing component. The program nomination option exercise fees for research and development services associated with Programs 3, 4 and 5 that may be received are excluded from the transaction price until each customer option is exercised. The potential milestone payments were excluded from the transaction price, as all milestone amounts were fully constrained at the inception of the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. The exercise fees for the options to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Programs 3, 4 and 5 that may be received are excluded from the transaction price until each customer option is exercised. The Company will reevaluate the transaction price at the end of each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur, and, if necessary, will adjust its estimate of the transaction price.

During the year ended December 31, 2017, it became probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur for a developmental milestone under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. At such time, the associated consideration was added to the estimated transaction price and allocated to the existing performance obligations, and the Company recognized a cumulative catch-up to revenue for this developmental milestone, representing the amount that would have been recognized had the milestone payment been included in the transaction price from the outset of the arrangement. The remainder will be recognized in the same manner as the remaining, unrecognized transaction price over the remaining period until each performance obligation is satisfied.

12


Revenue associated with the performance obligations relating to Programs 1 and 2 is being recognized as revenue as the research and development services are provided using an input method, according to the full-time employee (“FTE”) hours incurred on each program and the FTE hours expected to be incurred in the future to satisfy the performance obligation. The transfer of control occurs over time and, in management’s judgment, this input method is the best measure of progress towards satisfying the performance obligation. The amount allocated to the three material rights will be recognized as the underlying research and development services are provided commencing from the date that Pfizer exercises each respective option, or immediately as each option expires unexercised. The amounts received that have not yet been recognized as revenue are recorded in deferred revenue on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. 

Pfizer nominated the third, fourth and fifth hepatic targets in August 2016, March 2018 and April 2018, respectively. Upon each exercise, the Company allocated the transaction price amount allocated to the material right at inception of the arrangement plus the program nomination option exercise fee paid by Pfizer at the time of exercising the option to a new performance obligation, which will be recognized as revenue as the research and development services are provided using the same method as the performance obligations relating to Programs 1 and 2.

Through March 31, 2020, the Company had recognized revenue of $18.3 million as collaboration revenue in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company recognized revenue of approximately $1.3 million and $0.6 million, respectively, in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss under the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement. The aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the Company’s partially unsatisfied performance obligations and recorded in deferred revenue at March 31, 2020 is $0.2 million, all of which is included in current liabilities. The Company expects to recognize this amount according to FTE hours incurred, over the remaining research term, which is one month as of March 31, 2020.

Takeda Collaboration and Equity Agreements

In February 2018, Wave USA and Wave UK entered into a global strategic collaboration (the “Takeda Collaboration”) with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”), pursuant to which Wave USA, Wave UK and Takeda agreed to collaborate on the research, development and commercialization of oligonucleotide therapeutics for disorders of the Central Nervous System (“CNS”). The Takeda Collaboration provides Wave with at least $230.0 million in committed cash and Takeda with the option to co-develop and co-commercialize Wave’s CNS development programs in (1) Huntington’s disease (“HD”); (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”) and frontotemporal dementia (“FTD”); and (3) Wave’s discovery-stage program targeting ATXN3 for the treatment of spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (“SCA3”) (collectively, “Category 1 Programs”). In addition, Takeda will have the right to exclusively license multiple preclinical programs for CNS disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease (collectively, “Category 2 Programs”). In April 2018, the Takeda Collaboration became effective and Takeda paid Wave $110.0 million as an upfront payment. Takeda also agreed to fund Wave’s research and preclinical activities in the amount of $60.0 million during the four-year research term and to reimburse Wave for any collaboration-budgeted research and preclinical expenses incurred by Wave that exceed that amount.

Simultaneously with Wave USA and Wave UK’s entry into the collaboration and license agreement with Takeda (the “Takeda Collaboration Agreement”), the Company entered into a share purchase agreement with Takeda (the “Takeda Equity Agreement,” and together with the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, the “Takeda Agreements”) pursuant to which it agreed to sell to Takeda 1,096,892 of its ordinary shares at a purchase price of $54.70 per share. In April 2018, the Company closed the Takeda Equity Agreement and received aggregate cash proceeds of $60.0 million. The Company did not incur any material costs in connection with the issuance of shares.

With respect to Category 1 Programs, Wave will be responsible for researching and developing products and companion diagnostics for Category 1 Programs through completion of the first proof of mechanism study for such products. Takeda will have an exclusive option for each target and all associated products and companion diagnostics for such target, which it may exercise at any time through completion of the proof of mechanism study. If Takeda exercises this option, Wave will receive an opt-in payment and will lead manufacturing and joint clinical co-development activities and Takeda will lead joint co-commercial activities in the United States and all commercial activities outside of the United States. Global costs and potential profits will be shared 50:50 and Wave will be eligible to receive development and commercial milestone payments. In addition to its 50% profit share, Wave is eligible to receive option exercise fees and development and commercial milestone payments for each of the Category 1 Programs.

13


With respect to Category 2 Programs, Wave has granted Takeda the right to exclusively license multiple preclinical programs during a four-year research term (subject to limited extension for programs that were initiated prior to the expiration of the research term, in accordance with the Takeda Collaboration Agreement) (“Category 2 Research Term”). During that term, the parties may collaborate on preclinical programs for up to six targets at any one time. Wave will be responsible for researching and preclinically developing products and companion diagnostics directed to the agreed upon targets through completion of Investigational New Drug application (“IND“)-enabling studies in the first major market country. Thereafter, Takeda will have an exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize products and companion diagnostics directed to such targets, subject to Wave’s retained rights to lead manufacturing activities for products directed to such targets. Takeda will fund Wave’s research and preclinical activities in the amount of $60.0 million during the research term and will reimburse Wave for any collaboration-budgeted research and preclinical expenses incurred by Wave that exceed that amount. Wave is also eligible to receive tiered high single-digit to mid-teen royalties on Takeda’s global commercial sales of products from each Category 2 Program.

Under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, each party grants to the other party specific intellectual property licenses to enable the other party to perform its obligations and exercise its rights under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, including license grants to enable each party to conduct research, development and commercialization activities pursuant to the terms of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement.

The term of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement commenced on April 2, 2018 and, unless terminated earlier, will continue until the date on which: (i) with respect to each Category 1 Program target for which Takeda does not exercise its option, the expiration or termination of the development program with respect to such target; (ii) with respect to each Category 1 Program target for which Takeda exercises its option, the date on which neither party is researching, developing or manufacturing any products or companion diagnostics directed to such target; or (iii) with respect to each Category 2 Program target, the date on which royalties are no longer payable with respect to products directed to such target.

Takeda may terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement for convenience on 180 days’ notice, in its entirety or on a target-by-target basis. Subject to certain exceptions, each party has the right to terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement on a target-by-target basis if the other party, or a third party related to such party, challenges the patentability, enforceability or validity of any patents within the licensed technology that cover any product or companion diagnostic that is subject to the Takeda Collaboration Agreement. In the event of any material breach of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement by a party, subject to cure rights, the other party may terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement in its entirety if the breach relates to all targets or on a target-by-target basis if the breach relates to a specific target. In the event that Takeda and its affiliates cease development, manufacturing and commercialization activities with respect to compounds or products subject to the Takeda Collaboration Agreement and directed to a particular target, Wave may terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement with respect to such target. Either party may terminate the Takeda Collaboration Agreement for the other party’s insolvency. In certain termination circumstances, Wave would receive a license from Takeda to continue researching, developing and manufacturing certain products, and companion diagnostics.

The Takeda Collaboration is managed by a joint steering committee (“JSC”) in which both parties are represented equally. The JSC is tasked with overseeing the scientific progression of each Category 1 Program and the Category 2 Programs.

The Company assessed this arrangement in accordance with ASC 606 and concluded that the contract counterparty, Takeda, is a customer for Category 1 Programs prior to Takeda exercising its option, and for Category 2 Programs during the Category 2 Research Term. The Company identified the following material promises under the arrangement: (1) the non-exclusive, royalty-free research and development license for each Category 1 Program; (2) the research and development services for each Category 1 Program through completion of the first proof of mechanism study; (3) the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize each Category 1 Program; (4) the right to exclusively license the Category 2 Programs; and (5) the research and preclinical development services of the Category 2 Programs through completion of IND-enabling studies. The research and development services for each Category 1 Program were determined to not be distinct from the research and development license and should therefore be combined into a single performance obligation for each Category 1 Program. The research and preclinical development services for the Category 2 Programs were determined to not be distinct from the exclusive licenses for the Category 2 Programs and should therefore be combined into a single performance obligation.

Additionally, the Company determined that the exclusive option for each Category 1 Program was priced at a discount, and, as such, provide material rights to Takeda, representing three separate performance obligations. Based on these assessments, the Company identified seven performance obligations in the Takeda Collaboration Agreement: (1) research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for HD; (2) research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for ALS and FTD; (3) research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for SCA3; (4) the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize HD; (5) the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize ALS and FTD; (6) the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize SCA3; and (7) the research and preclinical development services and right to exclusively license the Category 2 Programs.

14


At the outset of the arrangement, the transaction price included the $110.0 million upfront consideration received and the $60.0 million of committed research and preclinical funding for the Category 2 Programs. The Company determined that the Takeda Collaboration Agreement did not contain a significant financing component. The option exercise fees to license, co-develop and co-commercialize each Category 1 Program that may be received are excluded from the transaction price until each customer option is exercised. The potential milestone payments were excluded from the transaction price, as all milestone amounts were fully constrained at the inception of the Takeda Collaboration Agreement. The Company will reevaluate the transaction price at the end of each reporting period and as uncertain events are resolved or other changes in circumstances occur, if necessary, will adjust its estimate of the transaction price.

The Company allocated the transaction price to the performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. For the performance obligations associated with the research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for HD; the research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for ALS and FTD; the research and development services through completion of the first proof of mechanism and non-exclusive research and development license for SCA3; and the research and preclinical development services and right to exclusively license the Category 2 Programs, the Company determined the standalone selling price using estimates of the costs to perform the research and development services, including expected internal and external costs for services and supplies, adjusted to reflect a profit margin. The total estimated cost of the research and development services reflected the nature of the services to be performed and the Company’s best estimate of the length of time required to perform the services. For the performance obligations associated with the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize HD; the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize ALS and FTD; and the material right provided for the exclusive option to license, co-develop and co-commercialize SCA3, the Company estimated the standalone fair value of the option to license each Category 1 Program utilizing an adjusted market assessment approach, and determined that any standalone fair value in excess of the amounts to be paid by Takeda associated with each option represented a material right.

Revenue associated with the research and development services for each Category 1 Program performance obligation is being recognized as the research and development services are provided using an input method, according to the costs incurred on each Category 1 Program and the total costs expected to be incurred to satisfy each Category 1 Program performance obligation. Revenue associated with the research and preclinical development services for the Category 2 Programs performance obligation is being recognized as the research and preclinical development services are provided using an input method, according to the costs incurred on Category 2 Programs and the total costs expected to be incurred to satisfy the performance obligation. The transfer of control for these performance obligations occurs over time and, in management’s judgment, this input method is the best measure of progress towards satisfying the performance obligations. The amount allocated to the material right for each Category 1 Program option will be recognized on the date that Takeda exercises each respective option, or immediately as each option expires unexercised. The amounts received that have not yet been recognized as revenue are recorded in deferred revenue on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. 

Through March 31, 2020, the Company had recognized revenue of approximately $21.3 million as collaboration revenue in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company recognized revenue of $2.9 million and $2.5 million, respectively, in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement. The aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the Company’s unsatisfied and partially unsatisfied performance obligations and recorded in deferred revenue at March 31, 2020 is $148.7 million, of which $87.8 million is included in current liabilities. The Company expects to recognize revenue for the portion of the deferred revenue that relates to the research and development services for each Category 1 Program and the Category 2 Programs as costs are incurred, over the remaining research term. The Company expects to recognize revenue for the portion of the deferred revenue that relates to the material right for each Category 1 Program option upon Takeda’s exercise of such option, or immediately as each option expires unexercised. The aggregate amount of the transaction price included in accounts receivable at March 31, 2020 is $30.0 million, all of which is included in long-term assets.

6. NET LOSS PER ORDINARY SHARE

The Company applies the two-class method to calculate its basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders, as its Series A preferred shares are participating securities. The two-class method is an earnings allocation formula that treats a participating security as having rights to earnings that otherwise would have been available to ordinary shareholders.

Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted-average number of ordinary shares.

The Company’s potentially dilutive shares, which include outstanding share options to purchase ordinary shares, RSUs, PSUs and Series A preferred shares, are considered to be ordinary share equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share when their effect is dilutive.

15


The following ordinary share equivalents, presented based on amounts outstanding at each period end, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to ordinary shareholders for the periods indicated because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:

 

 

 

As of March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Options to purchase ordinary shares

 

 

4,320,605

 

 

 

3,853,542

 

RSUs and PSUs

 

 

1,272,350

 

 

 

1,674,124

 

Series A preferred shares

 

 

3,901,348

 

 

 

3,901,348

 

 

Additionally, for the periods presented, the two-class method does not impact the net loss per ordinary share as the Company was in a net loss position for each of the periods presented and holders of Series A preferred shares do not participate in losses.

7. INCOME TAXES

During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company recorded no income tax provision.

The Company maintained a full valuation allowance for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 in all jurisdictions due to uncertainty regarding future taxable income.

The Company’s reserves related to taxes and its accounting for uncertain tax positions are based on a determination of whether and how much of a tax benefit taken by the Company in its tax filings or positions is more-likely-than-not to be realized following resolution of any potential contingencies present related to the tax benefit.

 

8. GEOGRAPHIC DATA

Substantially all of the Company’s long-lived assets were located in the United States as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019.

9. RELATED PARTIES

The Company had the following related party transaction for the periods presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, which has not otherwise been discussed in these notes to the consolidated financial statements:

 

In 2012, the Company entered into a consulting agreement for scientific advisory services with Dr. Gregory L. Verdine, one of the Company’s founders and a member of the Company’s board of directors. The consulting agreement does not have a specific term and may be terminated by either party upon 14 days’ prior written notice. Pursuant to the consulting agreement, the Company pays Dr. Verdine approximately $13 thousand per month, plus reimbursement for certain expenses.

10. FEBRUARY 2020 COST REDUCTION PLAN

On February 6, 2020, the Company implemented a plan to reduce operating costs and better align its workforce with the needs of its business following the Company’s December 16, 2019 announcement of its decision to discontinue the suvodirsen program for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (“DMD”) and to cease development of the Company’s other DMD programs. Under this cost reduction plan, the Company reduced its workforce by approximately 22%. The Company incurred a one-time restructuring charge of approximately $3.4 million, of which $2.5 million was included in research and development expenses and $0.9 million was included in general and administrative expenses in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, including employee severance, benefits and related termination costs, during the three months ended March 31, 2020.

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company paid approximately $2.1 million of these restructuring expenses. The remaining payments of $1.3 million will be paid through March 31, 2021.

 

 

 

 

Accrued Restructuring

Expenses at January 1, 2020

 

 

Expenses

 

 

Less:

Payments

 

 

Accrued Restructuring

Expenses at March 31, 2020

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Severance, benefits and related costs

   due to workforce reduction

 

$

 

 

$

3,385

 

 

$

(2,096

)

 

$

1,289

 

Total

 

$

 

 

$

3,385

 

 

$

(2,096

)

 

$

1,289

 

 

 

16


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 2, 2020, as amended (the “2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K”). Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, including those factors set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, our actual results could differ materially from the results described in, or implied by, these forward-looking statements.

COVID-19 Business Update

We are closely monitoring developments related to COVID-19, which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. In response to this global pandemic, we have concentrated our efforts to remain focused on the health and safety of our employees and patients, while maintaining business continuity and honoring our commitment to deliver life-changing treatments for people battling devastating diseases.

We implemented business continuity plans in March 2020 designed to address the impact of COVID-19 on our business, which continue to evolve with the rapid evolution of the pandemic. Effective March 12, 2020, we implemented measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and contribute to the ongoing public health effort to reduce the spread of the virus. We formed a COVID-19 Response Team to maintain business continuity while safeguarding employee and patient health. We also mandated a work-from-home policy for most employees and set up additional processes to work from home effectively, including measures to bolster our cybersecurity. Our COVID-19 Response Team continues to assess, evaluate and evolve our ongoing business continuity plans and our COVID-19 policies and guidance.

Our manufacturing operations and lab-based activities continue with social-distancing and updated protocols for accessing our facilities. As a biopharmaceutical research and development company, we are deemed to provide essential services under the “stay at home” advisory that was issued by the Governor of Massachusetts on March 23, 2020. While we continue to conduct R&D activities, including our ongoing clinical trials, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted, and may continue to impact, certain of our early-stage discovery efforts and clinical trials. We are working with our clinical investigators, R&D vendors and supply chain vendors to continually assess and take steps to mitigate the potential impact of COVID-19 on our manufacturing operations and R&D activities.

We will continue to closely monitor the COVID-19 situation as we evolve our business continuity plans. Given the global economic slowdown and the other risks and uncertainties associated with COVID-19, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially adversely affected. For additional information, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

17


Overview

We are a clinical-stage genetic medicines company committed to delivering life-changing treatments for people battling devastating diseases. Using PRISM, our proprietary discovery and drug development platform that enables the precise design, optimization and production of novel stereopure oligonucleotides, we aspire to develop best in class medicines for genetically defined diseases with a high degree of unmet need.

Nucleic acid therapeutics, including oligonucleotides, are a growing and innovative class of drugs comprised of a sequence of nucleotides that are linked together by a backbone of chemical bonds. We are initially developing oligonucleotides that target the ribonucleic acid (“RNA”) to either reduce the expression of disease-promoting proteins or transform the production of dysfunctional mutant proteins into the production of functional proteins. RNA is a critical molecule that can adopt complex three-dimensional structures and affect various cellular functions. By intervening at the RNA level, we have the potential to address diseases that have historically been difficult to treat with small molecules or biologics. The mechanisms that we are currently using to target RNA with our oligonucleotides include RNase H-mediated RNA degradation, Ago2-mediated RNA interference (“RNAi”), exon-skipping, and ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA)-mediated RNA editing. Oligonucleotides have additional advantages as a therapeutic class including the ability to target multiple tissue types, often without the need for a delivery vehicle, and the ability to modulate the frequency of dosing to ensure broad distribution within tissues. Oligonucleotides also have well-established manufacturing processes and validated test methods based on decades of improvements.

The oligonucleotides we are developing with PRISM are stereopure. A stereopure oligonucleotide is comprised of molecules with atoms precisely arranged in three-dimensional orientations at each linkage. We believe that controlling the stereochemistry of each backbone position will optimize the pharmacological profile of our oligonucleotides by maximizing the potential therapeutic benefit while minimizing the potential for side effects and safety risks. The stereopure oligonucleotides we are developing differ from the mixture-based oligonucleotides currently on the market or in development by others. Our preclinical studies have demonstrated that our stereopure oligonucleotides may achieve superior pharmacological properties compared with mixture-based oligonucleotides. Through our work in developing stereopure oligonucleotides, we have created and continue to evolve PRISM, our proprietary discovery and drug development platform.

PRISM enables us to target genetically defined diseases with stereopure oligonucleotides across multiple therapeutic modalities. PRISM combines our unique ability to construct stereopure oligonucleotides with a deep understanding of how the interplay among oligonucleotide sequence, chemistry and backbone stereochemistry impacts key pharmacological properties. By exploring these interactions through iterative analysis of in vitro and in vivo outcomes and artificial intelligence-driven predictive modeling, we continue to define design principles that we deploy across programs to rapidly develop and manufacture clinical candidates that meet pre-defined product profiles.

Our lead clinical development programs are focused in genetic diseases within neurology. Our most advanced stereopure therapeutic candidates in development, WVE-120101 and WVE-120102, are designed to selectively target mutant huntingtin (“mHTT”) and spare wild-type, or healthy, huntingtin (“wtHTT”) for the treatment of Huntington’s disease (“HD”). WVE-120101 and WVE-120102 are currently being studied in two Phase 1b/2a clinical trials, PRECISION-HD1 and PRECISION-HD2. Our next neurology programs approaching clinical development include our mHTT SNP3 program for the treatment of HD and our C9orf72 program for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”) and frontotemporal dementia (“FTD”). We are also pursuing additional CNS programs in collaboration with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”), including spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (“SCA3”). Outside of neurology, we are advancing discovery research in ophthalmologic disorders, specifically inherited retinal diseases, in hepatic diseases, and in ADAR-mediated RNA-editing applications. In further support of our pipeline, we continue to invest in PRISM to potentially develop the next generation of stereopure oligonucleotides. We have also established and continue to enhance our internal current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”) manufacturing capabilities to increase control and visibility of our drug substance supply chain.

18


Our Current Programs

 

Additional details regarding our programs are set forth below.

Neurology

Huntington’s Disease (“HD”): HD is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease that results in early death and for which there is no cure. HD is caused by a mutation (i.e., an expanded CAG triplet repeat) in the HTT gene, which results in production of mutant HTT (“mHTT”) protein. In HD patients, there is a progressive loss of neurons in the brain leading to cognitive, psychiatric and motor disabilities. HD patients still possess wild-type (healthy) HTT (“wtHTT”) protein, which is important for neuronal function and there is increasing evidence that wtHTT may be neuroprotective in an adult brain. Additionally, a dominant gain of function in mHTT protein and a concurrent loss of function of wtHTT protein may be important components of the pathophysiology of HD. Accordingly, suppression of wtHTT may have detrimental long-term consequences. Absence of wtHTT protein has been shown to be embryonically lethal in mice. In October 2019, at our Analyst and Investor Research Day, key opinion leaders in HD research presented data suggesting that wtHTT is neuroprotective in an adult brain; transport of key neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (“BDNF”) are regulated by wtHTT levels; and HD may be caused by a dominant gain of function in mutant HTT and a loss of function of wtHTT protein. Further, the relative proportion of wtHTT to mHTT is critical based on evidence that suggests an increased amount of wtHTT relative to mHTT may result in slower disease progression (measured by age-at-onset). Also, HD patients that lack wtHTT all together have significantly more severe disease, as measured by disease progression after symptom onset.

Our HD Portfolio: In HD, we are currently advancing two clinical programs and one preclinical program. WVE-120101 and WVE-120102 are our clinical programs, where each is a distinct stereopure antisense oligonucleotide designed to selectively target a single nucleotide polymorphism (“SNP”) associated with the disease-causing mutant huntingtin (mHTT) mRNA transcript within the HTT gene: rs362307 (“mHTT SNP1”) and rs362331 (“mHTT SNP2”), respectively. Our third program in HD, which we refer to as our “mHTT SNP3” program, is also a stereopure antisense oligonucleotide designed to selectively target an undisclosed SNP on the mHTT mRNA transcript. Our mHTT SNP3 program is currently in the preclinical stage. Approximately 50% of the HD population carries SNP1 or SNP2 and, with overlap, up to 70% of the HD population carries either SNP1, SNP2 or both. Approximately 40% of the HD population carries SNP3 and, with overlap, up to 80% of the HD population carries at least one of SNP1, SNP2 and/or SNP3. Targeting mRNA transcript with these SNPs allows us to lower the mutant allele transcript, while leaving the healthy transcript relatively intact. The healthy transcript is required to produce healthy HTT protein which is important for neuronal function. We commonly refer to this method (or approach) as “allele selective targeting.” SNPs are naturally occurring variations within a given genetic sequence and in certain instances can be used to distinguish between two related copies of a gene where only one is associated with the expression of a disease-causing protein. Our allele selective approach may also enable us to address the pre-manifest, or asymptomatic, HD patient population in the future. We have shown that by targeting mHTT SNP1 and mHTT SNP2 in preclinical in vitro studies, the production of disease-causing proteins associated with HD can be selectively reduced. In addition, we have shown that by targeting mHTT SNP3 in preclinical in vitro studies, our SNP3 compounds selectively reduce the expression of the mutant HTT.

19


Phase 1b/2a Clinical Trials: PRECISION-HD is a global clinical program consisting of the PRECISION-HD1 and PRECISION-HD2 clinical trials. PRECISION-HD1 and PRECISION-HD2 are two parallel, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 1b/2a clinical trials evaluating WVE-120101 and WVE-120102, respectively, administered intrathecally, consisting of single-ascending dose and multiple-ascending dose portions. The primary objective of these two trials is to assess the safety and tolerability of intrathecal doses of WVE-120101 and WVE-120102, respectively, in early manifest HD patients. Additional objectives include measurement of total HTT protein and mutant HTT protein, and exploratory pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, clinical and MRI endpoints. Each trial is designed with five multi-dose cohorts (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg), each with 12 patients that have Stage I or Stage II HD, ages 25-65, who have screened positively for the presence of SNP1 or SNP2. Outside of the United States, we are conducting both the single-ascending dose and multiple-ascending dose portions of the PRECISION-HD1 and PRECISION-HD2 trials. In the United States, we received approvals to proceed with the single-dose portions of both trials. However, the FDA indicated to us that we cannot progress to the multiple-ascending dose portions of these trials in the United States unless we conduct an additional preclinical study and present the resulting data to the FDA for its review. For the single-dose portion of the PRECISION-HD1 trial in the United States, escalation to our highest proposed doses is subject to the FDA’s review and approval of additional monitoring plans. WVE-120101 and WVE-120102 have been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of HD by the FDA. In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken, and will continue to take, actions to minimize disruptions to our PRECISION-HD clinical trials, including, among other actions, more frequent communications with our trial sites to monitor the impact of the evolving pandemic. If global restrictions continue or worsen, the ability to evaluate patients in both of the PRECISION-HD trials as planned may be impacted.

PRECISION-HD2 trial: In December 2019, we announced initial clinical data from our ongoing PRECISION-HD2 trial. In an analysis comparing all patients treated with multiple intrathecal doses of WVE-120102 to placebo, a statistically significant reduction of 12.4% (p<0.05) in mHTT protein was observed in cerebrospinal fluid (“CSF”). An analysis to assess a dose response across treatment groups (2, 4, 8, or 16 mg) suggested a statistically significant response in mHTT reduction at the highest doses tested (p=0.03). WVE-120102 was generally safe and well tolerated across all cohorts. These topline data supported the addition of higher dose cohorts, and we initiated the 32 mg cohort in January 2020. We expect to deliver clinical data from the 32 mg cohort in the second half of 2020.

PRECISION-HD1 trial: We initiated the 32 mg cohort of the PRECISION-HD1 trial in March 2020. We expect to deliver topline clinical data from the five multi-dose cohorts (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 mg) of the PRECISION-HD1 trial in the second half of 2020.

Open-label Extensions of PRECISION-HD1 and PRECISION-HD2: In October 2019, we initiated an OLE of the PRECISION-HD2 trial outside of the United States for patients who participated in that trial. In February 2020, we initiated an OLE of the PRECISION-HD1 trial outside of the United States for patients who participated in that trial.

mHTT SNP3 Program in HD: We expect to initiate clinical development of our mHTT SNP3 program in the second half of 2020.

ALS and FTD: In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”) and frontotemporal dementia (“FTD”), we are advancing our C9orfF72 program, which is designed to selectively target the transcripts containing the hexanucleotide repeat expansion (G4C2) in the C9orf72 gene. Our C9orf72 program is designed to minimize the impact on normal C9orf72 protein in patients, thereby reducing potential on-target risk. The G4C2 expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of familial ALS and FTD and is a strong genetic risk factor for non-inherited (sporadic) forms of ALS and FTD. We expect to initiate clinical development of our C9orf72 program in the second half of 2020.

SCA3: In spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (“SCA3”), we are continuing to advance our program targeting ATXN3. SCA3 is a rare, hereditary (autosomal dominant), progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene.

Additional CNS Disorders: We are collaborating with Takeda to advance genetically defined targets for the treatment of other CNS disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and others. Under the terms of the agreement, we may collaborate with Takeda on up to six preclinical programs at any one time, during a four-year term. Takeda is entitled to exclusively license multiple preclinical programs from us during the term.

Ophthalmology

We are designing and advancing stereopure oligonucleotides for the potential treatment of rare, inherited eye diseases. Our preclinical data demonstrate that a single intravitreal injection of stereopure oligonucleotide in the eye of non-human primates (“NHPs”) resulted in greater than 95% knockdown of a target RNA in the retina for at least four months. Based on these data, we are working to design candidates that could achieve a therapeutic effect with only two doses per year. We are focused on advancing two preclinical programs: Usher syndrome type 2A (“USH2A”) and retinitis pigmentosa due to a P23H mutation in the RHO gene (“RhoP23H”). In October 2019, we presented in vitro and ex vivo preclinical data on our USH2A program, which is designed to promote USH2A exon 13 skipping, and we presented in vitro data on our RhoP23H program, which is designed to selectively silence RhoP23H transcripts.

20


Hepatic

In May 2020, we announced the first in vivo data from our novel RNA-editing platform, which demonstrated successful RNA editing of ACTB (Beta-actin) mRNA in NHPs via endogenous ADARs using stereopure GalNAc-conjugated oligonucleotides. In this ongoing proof-of-concept study, our oligonucleotides demonstrated up to 50% A to I (G) editing of ACTB mRNA in the liver of NHPs two-days post-last dose. To our knowledge, these are the first publicly available data that demonstrate successful RNA editing in vivo in NHPs.

We recently concluded our collaboration with Pfizer Inc. to advance genetically defined targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Through our work in the collaboration, we have incorporated valuable learnings and technology advancements into PRISM, where we have leveraged our new understanding of GalNAc conjugations to design novel RNA-editing oligonucleotides.

Recent Developments

On February 6, 2020, we implemented a plan to reduce operating costs and better align our workforce with the needs of our business following our December 16, 2019 announcement of our decision to discontinue the suvodirsen program for patients with DMD and to cease development of our other DMD programs. Under this cost reduction plan, we reduced our workforce by approximately 22%. The reduction in workforce was completed in February 2020.

Financial Operations Overview

We have never been profitable, and since our inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our net loss was $47.5 million and $44.2 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $580.9 million and $533.4 million, respectively. We expect to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future.

Revenue

We have not generated any product revenue since our inception and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products for the foreseeable future. Our revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 represents revenue earned under our two revenue-generating collaboration agreements: the Pfizer Collaboration Agreement (as defined in Note 5 in the notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Note 5”)), which was entered into in May 2016, and the Takeda Collaboration Agreement (as defined in Note 5), which became effective in April 2018.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses since inception have consisted primarily of research and development costs and general and administrative costs.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our discovery efforts, and the development of our product candidates, which include:

 

compensation-related expenses, including employee salaries, bonuses, share-based compensation expense and other related benefits expenses for personnel in our research and development organization;

 

expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including contract research organizations (“CROs”) that conduct research, preclinical and clinical activities on our behalf, as well as contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”) that manufacture drug product for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

expenses incurred related to our internal manufacturing of drug substance for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

expenses related to compliance with regulatory requirements;

 

expenses related to third-party consultants;

 

research and development supplies and services expenses; and

 

facility-related expenses, including rent, maintenance and other general operating expenses.

We recognize research and development costs as incurred. We recognize external development costs based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using information provided to us by our vendors. Payments for these activities are based on

21


the terms of the individual agreements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected in our financial statements as prepaid or accrued expenses.

Our primary research and development focus since inception has been the development of our proprietary discovery and drug development platform, PRISM. We are using PRISM to design, develop and commercialize a broad pipeline of nucleic acid therapeutic candidates.

Our research and development expenses consist primarily of expenses related to our CROs, CMOs, consultants, other external vendors and fees paid to global regulatory agencies to conduct our clinical trials, in addition to compensation-related expenses, internal manufacturing expenses, facility-related expenses and other general operating expenses. These expenses are incurred in connection with research and development efforts and our preclinical studies and clinical trials. We track certain external expenses on a program-by-program basis. However, we do not allocate compensation-related expenses, internal manufacturing expenses, equipment repairs and maintenance expense, facility-related expenses or other operating expenses to specific programs. These expenses, which are not allocated on a program-by-program basis, are included in the “PRISM and other research and development expenses” category along with other external expenses related to our discovery and development programs, as well as platform development and identification of potential drug discovery candidates.

The table below summarizes our research and development expenses incurred for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

DMD programs

 

$

4,509

 

 

$

12,448

 

HD programs

 

 

7,513

 

 

 

3,438

 

ALS and FTD programs

 

 

2,038

 

 

 

726

 

PRISM and other research and development

   expenses (1)

 

 

27,098

 

 

 

23,501

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

41,158

 

 

$

40,113

 

 

(1)

Includes discovery and development programs, identification of potential drug discovery candidates, compensation-related expenses, internal manufacturing expenses, equipment repairs and maintenance expense, facility-related expenses and other operating expenses, which are not allocated to specific programs.

Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect to continue to incur significant research and development expenses in the foreseeable future as we continue to manage our existing clinical trials, initiate additional clinical trials for certain product candidates, pursue later stages of clinical development for certain product candidates, maintain our manufacturing capabilities and continue to discover and develop additional product candidates in multiple therapeutic areas.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation-related expenses, including salaries, bonuses, share-based compensation and other related benefits costs for personnel in our executive, finance, corporate, legal and administrative functions, as well as compensation-related expenses for our board of directors. General and administrative expenses also include legal fees; expenses associated with being a public company; professional fees for accounting, auditing, tax and consulting services; insurance costs; travel expenses; other operating costs; and facility-related expenses.

Other Income, Net

Other income, net consists primarily of refundable tax credits from tax authorities and dividend income earned on cash and cash equivalents balances. We recognize refundable tax credits when there is reasonable assurance that we will comply with the requirements of the refundable tax credit and that the refundable tax credit will be received.

Income Taxes

We are a Singapore multi-national company subject to taxation in the United States and various other jurisdictions.

22


Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. The preparation of our financial statements and related disclosures requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses and related disclosures.

Our significant accounting policies, judgments and estimates are described in Note 2 in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements included in the 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as in Note 2 in the notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. We believe that our revenue recognition policy, particularly (a) assessing the number of performance obligations; (b) determining the transaction price; (c) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (d) determining the pattern over which performance obligations are satisfied, including estimates to complete performance obligations, and the assumptions and estimates used in our analysis of contracts with CROs and CMOs to estimate the contract expense, involve a greater degree of judgment, and therefore we consider them to be our critical accounting policies. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Change

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Revenue

 

$

4,161

 

 

$

3,026

 

 

$

1,135

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

41,158

 

 

 

40,113

 

 

 

1,045

 

General and administrative

 

 

12,996

 

 

 

10,901

 

 

 

2,095

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

54,154

 

 

 

51,014

 

 

 

3,140

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(49,993

)

 

 

(47,988

)

 

 

(2,005

)

Other income, net:

 

 

2,500

 

 

 

3,788

 

 

 

(1,288

)

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(47,493

)

 

 

(44,200

)

 

 

(3,293

)

Income tax provision