S-3ASR
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 10, 2019

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Singapore   Not applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

7 Straits View #12-00, Marina One East Tower

Singapore 018936

+65 6236 3388

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

CT Corporation

155 Federal Street, Suite 700

Boston, Massachusetts 02110

(617) 757-6400

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

John T. Rudy, Esq.

John P. Condon, Esq.

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris,

Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.

One Financial Center

Boston, MA 02111

(617) 542-6000

  

Linda Rockett, Esq.

Senior Vice President, General Counsel

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

c/o 733 Concord Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02138

(617) 949-2900

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐


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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

per Unit

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee

Primary Offering of Securities

               

Ordinary Shares, no par value

  (1)   (1)   (1)   (2)

Debt Securities

  (1)   (1)   (1)   (2)

Warrants

  (1)   (1)   (1)   (2)

Rights

  (1)   (1)   (1)   (2)

Units(3)

  (1)   (1)   (1)   (2)

Subtotal

  (1)   (1)   (1)   (2)

Primary Offering of Securities

               

Ordinary Shares, no par value

  $250,000,000   N/A*   $250,000,000   $3,946.08(4)

Total

  (1)   (1)   (1)   (2)

 

 

*

The proposed maximum offering price per unit is not applicable in that these securities are not issued in predetermined amounts or units.

(1)

Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instructions II.E, this information is not required to be included. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class of securities is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities.

(2)

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of these registration fees and will pay these registration fees subsequently in advance or on a “pay-as-you-go” basis.

(3)

Each unit will represent an interest in two or more other securities registered hereunder, which may or may not be separable from one another.

(4)

Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the securities registered for this offering pursuant to this registration statement include $227,384,992 of unsold securities (the “Unsold Primary Securities”) previously registered for primary offerings in accordance with Rule 415(a)(1)(x) under the Securities Act (“Rule 415(a)(1)(x)”) on the registrant’s registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-215428) initially filed on January 4, 2017 and declared effective on February 6, 2017 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). The Prior Registration Statement registered securities for primary offerings in accordance with Rule 415(a)(1)(x) with a proposed maximum aggregate offering price of $500,000,000. The registrant sold an aggregate of $272,615,008 of such securities under the Prior Registration Statement, leaving the balance of $227,384,992 of Unsold Primary Securities, in respect of which the registrant paid an aggregate registration fee of $26,353.92 in connection with the Prior Registration Statement. Consequently, a filing fee of $3,946.08 is due in connection with the filing of this registration statement, which amount reflects the difference between the registration fee to be paid in connection with the $250,000,000 of securities to be registered pursuant to this registration statement, which is $30,300.00, and the previously paid fees of $26,353.92 for the Unsold Primary Securities. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the offering of the Unsold Primary Securities under the Prior Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the time of filing of this registration statement.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains:

 

   

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $250,000,000 of our ordinary shares that may be issued and sold from time to time under an Open Market Sale AgreementSM, or the Sales Agreement, entered into with Jefferies LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the Sales Agreement are specified in the sales agreement prospectus that immediately follows the base prospectus.


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PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

ORDINARY SHARES

DEBT SECURITIES

WARRANTS

RIGHTS

UNITS

 

 

This prospectus will allow us to issue, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of the offering, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in units. We may also offer ordinary shares upon conversion of or exchange for the debt securities; or ordinary shares or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants or rights.

This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as any documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, carefully before you invest.

Our securities may be sold directly by us to you, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section titled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of our securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

 

Our ordinary shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “WVE.” On May 9, 2019, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares was $27.31 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page  6 of this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors.” We may include specific risk factors in supplements to this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors.” This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is May 10, 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     3  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     7  

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

     9  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     9  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     21  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     27  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

     28  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     30  

COMPARISON OF SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS

     32  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     47  

ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES UNDER UNITED STATES SECURITIES LAWS

     49  

LEGAL MATTERS

     50  

EXPERTS

     50  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     50  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     51  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of an automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering.

This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” before making an investment decision.

You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

This prospectus is not a “prospectus” as defined in the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore, or the SFA, and accordingly, statutory liability under the SFA in relation to the content of prospectuses will not apply. This prospectus has not been and will not be lodged with or registered as a prospectus by the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of our securities may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor, as defined in Section 4A(1)(c) of the SFA, under Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) to a “relevant person”, as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to compliance with the conditions set forth in the SFA.

 

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Where securities or securities-based derivatives contracts are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is: (a) a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or (b) a trustee of a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor, the securities or securities-based derivatives contracts (each as defined in Section 2(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after securities or securities-based derivatives contracts are acquired by that corporation or for that trust pursuant to an offer made in reliance on an exemption under Section 275 of the SFA, except:

 

   

to an institutional investor or to a relevant person defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, or (in the case of such corporation) where the transfer arises from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) of the SFA or (in the case of such trust) where the transfer arises from an offer that is made on terms that such rights or interest are acquired at a consideration of not less than S$200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction, whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or securities-based derivatives contracts or other assets;

 

   

where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;

 

   

where the transfer is by operation of law; or

 

   

as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA.

By accepting this prospectus, the recipient hereof represents and warrants that such recipient is entitled to receive it in accordance with the restrictions set forth above and agrees to be bound by the limitations contained herein. Any failure to comply with these limitations may constitute a violation of law.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of our securities, unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references to “Wave,” the “company,” “we,” “our,” “us” or similar terms refer to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. References in this prospectus to “S$” refer to Singapore dollars, “¥” refer to Japanese yen and “€” refer to euros.

The Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd. names, the Wave Life Sciences mark, and the other trademarks, trade names and service marks of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. appearing in this prospectus are the property of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. Wave has applied to register certain of its trademarks in the United States. This prospectus also contains additional trade names, trademarks and service marks belonging to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and to other companies. We do not intend our use or display of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such reference should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC or included in any applicable prospectus supplement. Investing in our securities involves risks. Therefore, carefully consider the risk factors set forth in any prospectus supplements and in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

About Wave Life Sciences

We are a clinical-stage genetic medicines company committed to delivering life-changing treatments for people battling devastating diseases. Using PRISM, our proprietary discovery and drug development platform that enables the precise design, optimization and production of novel stereopure oligonucleotides, we aspire to develop best in class medicines across multiple therapeutic modalities.

Nucleic acid therapeutics, including oligonucleotides, are a growing and innovative class of drugs comprised of a sequence of nucleotides that are linked together by a backbone of chemical bonds. We are initially developing oligonucleotides that target the ribonucleic acid (“RNA”) to either reduce the expression of disease-promoting proteins or transform the production of dysfunctional mutant proteins into the production of functional proteins. RNA is a critical molecule that can adopt complex three-dimensional structures and affect various cellular functions. By intervening at the RNA level, we have the potential to address diseases that have historically been difficult to treat with small molecules or biologics. Oligonucleotides have additional advantages as a therapeutic class including the ability to target multiple tissue types, often without the need for a delivery vehicle, and the ability to modulate the frequency of dosing to ensure broad distribution within tissues and account for cell turnover. Oligonucleotides also have well-established manufacturing processes and validated test methods based on decades of improvements.

The oligonucleotides we are developing with PRISM are stereopure. A stereopure oligonucleotide is comprised of molecules with atoms precisely arranged in three-dimensional orientations at each linkage. We believe that controlling the position of the sulfur atom following phosphorothioate (“PS”) modification will optimize the pharmacological profile of our oligonucleotides by maximizing the potential therapeutic benefit while minimizing the potential for side effects and safety risks. The stereopure oligonucleotides we are developing differ from the mixture-based oligonucleotides currently on the market or in development by others. Our preclinical studies have demonstrated that our stereopure oligonucleotides may achieve superior pharmacological properties compared with mixture-based oligonucleotides. Through our work in developing stereopure oligonucleotides, we have created and continue to evolve PRISM, our proprietary discovery and drug development platform.

PRISM enables us to target genetically defined diseases with stereopure oligonucleotides across multiple therapeutic modalities. PRISM combines our unique ability to construct stereopure oligonucleotides with a deep understanding of how the interplay among oligonucleotide sequence, chemistry and backbone stereochemistry impacts key pharmacological properties. By exploring these interactions through iterative analysis of in vitro and in vivo outcomes and artificial intelligence-driven predictive modeling, we continue to define design principles that we deploy across programs to rapidly develop and manufacture clinical candidates that meet pre-defined product profiles.



 

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Our goal is to develop and commercialize disease-modifying medicines for genetically defined diseases with a high degree of unmet medical need, and to become a fully integrated genetic medicines company. Our initial focus for our clinical development programs is in neurology, which we broadly define as genetic diseases within the neuromuscular system and central nervous system. We are conducting clinical trials of suvodirsen, our lead program in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (“DMD”) targeting exon 51, and our two lead programs in Huntington’s disease (“HD”). We are also advancing additional development programs in DMD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia and spinocerebellar ataxia 3. In addition to neurology, we are advancing discovery research in ophthalmologic disorders, specifically inherited retinal diseases, and in hepatic diseases, and we expect to make continued investments in expanding the breadth of our portfolio. In further support of our pipeline, we continue to make substantial investments in, and leverage, PRISM to potentially develop the next generation of stereopure oligonucleotides. We have also established and continue to enhance our internal current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”) manufacturing capabilities to increase control and visibility of our drug substance supply chain. These investments further improve our ability to secure drug substance for current and future development activities and may provide commercial-scale manufacturing capabilities.

Corporate History and Information

We were incorporated under the name Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd. (Registration No.: 201218209G) under the laws of Singapore on July 23, 2012. On November 16, 2015, we closed our initial public offering. In preparation for our initial public offering, on November 5, 2015, Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd. converted from a private limited company to a public limited company known as Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (“Wave”). Wave has four wholly-owned subsidiaries: Wave Life Sciences USA, Inc. (“Wave USA”), a Delaware corporation (formerly Ontorii, Inc.); Wave Life Sciences Japan, Inc. (“Wave Japan”), a company organized under the laws of Japan (formerly Chiralgen., Ltd.); Wave Life Sciences Ireland Limited (“Wave Ireland”), a company organized under the laws of Ireland; and Wave Life Sciences UK Limited (“Wave UK”), a company organized under the laws of the United Kingdom.

Our registered office is located at 7 Straits View #12-00, Marina One East Tower, Singapore 018936, and our telephone number at that address is +65 6236 3388. Our principal office for Wave USA is located at 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, and our telephone number at that address is +1-617-949-2900. Our registered office for Wave Japan is 2438 Miyanoura-cho, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima pref. 891-1394, Japan. Our registered office for Wave Ireland is One Spencer Dock, North Wall Quay, Dublin 1, Ireland. Our registered office for Wave UK is Hays Galleria, 1 Hays Lane, London, SE1 2RD, United Kingdom.

Our corporate website address is www.wavelifesciences.com. The information on our website is not part of this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website in deciding whether to purchase our ordinary shares. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to such reports are made available free of charge through the “For Investors & Media—Financial Information” section of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they have been filed or furnished with the SEC.

Offerings Under This Prospectus

Under this prospectus, we may offer ordinary shares, various series of debt securities and/or warrants or rights, either individually or in units, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a



 

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prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

   

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

maturity, if applicable;

 

   

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

   

redemption, conversion or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

   

voting or other rights, if any; and

 

   

conversion or exercise prices, if any.

The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

   

the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

   

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

   

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

   

the net proceeds to us.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves significant risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities may contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” included in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our current reports on Form 8-K on file with the SEC, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. In some cases, forward-looking statements are identified by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “future,” “goals,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “ongoing,” “objective,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “will” and “would” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus and the documents that we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference, such statements are based on a combination of facts and factors currently known by us and our expectations of the future, about which we cannot be certain. Forward-looking statements include statements about:

 

   

our ability to fund our future operations; our financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash and capital requirements; our need for additional financing or the period for which our existing cash resources will be sufficient to meet our operating requirements;

 

   

the success, progress, number, scope, cost, duration, timing or results of our research and development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials, including the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any preclinical studies and clinical trials or for submission, review or approval of any regulatory filing;

 

   

the timing of, and our ability to, obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates;

 

   

the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates;

 

   

our strategies, prospects, plans, goals, expectations, forecasts or objectives;

 

   

the success of our collaborations with third parties;

 

   

any payment that our collaboration partners may make to us;

 

   

our ability to identify and develop new product candidates;

 

   

our intellectual property position;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

our expected uses of the net proceeds from any offering of our securities;

 

   

our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities;

 

   

our estimates regarding future expenses and needs for additional financing;

 

   

our ability to identify, recruit and retain key personnel;

 

   

our financial performance;

 

   

developments and projections relating to our competitors in the industry;

 

   

our liquidity and working capital requirements; and

 

   

the expected impact of new accounting standards.

 

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You should refer to the section titled “Risk Factors” of this prospectus and in our other filings with the SEC for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus or the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, these statements should not be regarded as representations or warranties by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements as predictions of future events.

You should read this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement, the documents that we have incorporated by reference herein and therein and the documents we have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

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INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

Certain industry data and market data included in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated herein by reference were obtained from independent third-party surveys, market research, publicly available information, reports of governmental agencies and industry publications and surveys. All of management’s estimates presented herein are based upon management’s review of independent third-party surveys and industry publications prepared by a number of sources and other publicly available information. All of the market data used in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated herein by reference involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. We believe that the information from these industry publications and surveys is reliable. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

Any time debt securities are offered pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide a table setting forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges on a historical basis in the applicable prospectus supplement, if required.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We cannot assure you that we will receive any proceeds in connection with securities which may be offered pursuant to this prospectus. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for our operations and for other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, clinical trial costs and other research and development expenses; continued growth of our manufacturing capabilities; initial investments in commercial and medical affairs infrastructure to support our transition to a fully integrated, commercial-stage genetic medicines company; continued investment in our drug development platform; and working capital, capital expenditures and general and administrative expenses. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with securities offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

General

For the purposes of this section, references to “shareholders” mean those persons whose names and number of shares are entered in our register of members. Only persons who are registered in our register of members are recognized under Singapore law as shareholders of our company with legal standing to institute shareholder actions against us or otherwise seek to enforce their rights as shareholders. Our branch register of members is maintained by our transfer agent, Computershare Trust Company, N.A. (“Computershare”).

The shares offered in any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement are expected to be held through the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”). Accordingly, DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., will be the shareholder on record registered in our register of members. The holder of our shares held in book-entry through DTC or its nominee may become a registered shareholder by exchanging its interest in our shares for certificated shares and being registered in our register of members for such shares. The procedures by which a holder of book-entry interests held through DTC or its nominee may exchange such interests for certificated shares are determined by DTC and Computershare, in accordance with their internal policies and guidelines regulating the withdrawal and exchange of book-entry interests for certificated shares, and following such an exchange Computershare will perform the procedures to register the shares in the register.

Under the Singapore Companies Act, if (a) the name of any person is without sufficient cause entered in or omitted from the register of members; or (b) default is made or there is unnecessary delay in entering in the register of members the fact of any person having ceased to be a member, the person aggrieved or any member of the public company or the company itself, may apply to the Singapore courts for rectification of the register of members. The Singapore courts may either refuse the application or order rectification of the register of members, and may direct the company to pay any damages sustained by any party to the application. The Singapore courts will not entertain any application for the rectification of a register of members in respect of an entry which was made in the register of members more than 30 years before the date of the application.

As of March 31, 2019, there were outstanding:

 

   

34,255,406 ordinary shares;

 

   

3,901,348 Series A preferred shares held by one shareholder of record;

 

   

1,674,124 ordinary shares issuable upon vesting of outstanding restricted share units;

 

   

3,853,542 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding share options; and

 

   

201,898 ordinary shares reserved for issuance in connection with future grants under our equity incentive plan.

The following description of our share capital and provisions of our constitution (formerly known as our memorandum and articles of association) are summaries and are qualified by reference to the Singapore Companies Act and our constitution. A copy of our constitution has been filed with the SEC as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Ordinary Shares

As of March 31, 2019, our issued and paid-up ordinary share capital consists of 34,255,406 ordinary shares. We currently have only one class of issued ordinary shares, which have identical rights in all respects and rank equally with one another. Our ordinary shares have no par value and there is no authorized share capital under Singapore law. There is a provision in our constitution which provides that we may issue shares with such preferred, deferred or other special rights or such restrictions, whether in regard to dividend, voting, return of capital or otherwise as our board of directors may determine.

 

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All of our shares presently issued are fully paid-up, and existing shareholders are not subject to any calls on these shares. Although Singapore law does not recognize the concept of “non-assessability” with respect to newly-issued shares, we note that any purchaser of our shares who has fully paid up all amounts due with respect to such shares will not be subject under Singapore law to any personal liability to contribute to the assets or liabilities of our company in such purchaser’s capacity solely as a holder of such shares. We believe that this interpretation is substantively consistent with the concept of “non-assessability” under most, if not all, U.S. state corporations laws. All of our shares are in registered form. We cannot, except in the circumstances permitted by the Singapore Companies Act, grant any financial assistance for the acquisition or proposed acquisition of our own shares. Except as described below under “—Takeovers,” there are no limitations imposed by the Singapore Companies Act or by our constitution on the right of shareholders not resident in Singapore to hold or vote ordinary shares.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our ordinary shares is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

Nasdaq Global Market

Our ordinary shares are listed for quotation on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “WVE.”

New Shares

Under the Singapore Companies Act, new shares may be issued only with the prior approval of our shareholders in a general meeting. General approval may be sought from our shareholders in a general meeting for the issue of shares. Approval, if granted, will lapse at the earlier of:

 

   

the conclusion of the next annual general meeting; or

 

   

the expiration of the period within which the next annual general meeting is required by law to be held (i.e., within six months after the end of each financial year),

but any approval may be revoked or varied by the company in a general meeting.

Our shareholders have provided such general authority to issue new ordinary shares until the conclusion of our 2019 annual general meeting. Such approval will lapse in accordance with the preceding paragraph if our shareholders do not grant a new approval at our 2019 annual general meeting. Subject to this and the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and our constitution, our board of directors may allot and issue or grant options over or otherwise dispose of new ordinary shares to such persons on such terms and conditions and with the rights and restrictions as they may think fit to impose.

Preferred Shares

Series A Preferred Shares

As of March 31, 2019, we have 3,901,348 Series A preferred shares outstanding. These shares are currently held by one of our largest shareholders, Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. The terms of the Series A preferred shares as set out in our constitution include (1) no voting rights at any general meeting other than in limited circumstances, (2) a liquidation preference equal to $0.002 per Series A preferred share, (3) no entitlement to dividends and (4) the right to convert the Series A preferred shares at any time on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares at the discretion of the holder in accordance with the constitution.

The holders of the Series A preferred shares are not entitled to vote at any general meeting. The only instances in which the holders of the Series A preferred shares are able to vote at a general meeting would be if

 

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(but only if) the matters to be discussed at the meeting relate to or there is intent to pass resolutions on (i) abrogating or changing the rights attached to the Series A preferred shares; and (ii) for the winding up of the Company. Such resolutions would require the unanimous approval of the holders of the Series A preferred shares.

Other Preferred Shares

Under the Singapore Companies Act, different classes of shares in a public company may be issued only if (a) the issue of the class or classes of shares is provided for in the constitution of the public company and (b) the constitution of the public company sets out in respect of each class of shares the rights attached to that class of shares. Our constitution provides that we may issue shares of a different class with preferred, deferred or other special rights, or such restrictions, whether in regard to dividend, voting, return of capital or otherwise as our board of directors may determine. Under Singapore law, our preferred shareholders will have the right to attend any general meeting and in a poll at such general meeting, to have at least one vote for every preferred share held:

 

   

upon any resolution concerning the voluntary winding-up of our company under Section 290 of the Singapore Companies Act;

 

   

upon any resolution which varies the rights attached to such preferred shares; or

 

   

in the case of preferred shares issued after August 15, 1984, but before the commencement of Section 96 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2014, when the dividends to be paid on our preferred shares or any part thereof are more than twelve months in arrears and unpaid, for the period they remain in arrears and unpaid.

We may, subject to the Singapore Companies Act and the prior approval in a general meeting of our shareholders, issue preferred shares which are, or at our option or are to be, subject to redemption provided that such preferred shares may not be redeemed out of capital unless:

 

   

all the directors have made a solvency statement in relation to such redemption; and

 

   

we have lodged a copy of the statement with the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority of Singapore.

Further, such shares must be fully paid-up before they are redeemed.

As of the date of this prospectus, we have no preferred shares outstanding other than the Series A preferred shares described above. At present, we have no plans to issue additional preferred shares.

Registration Rights under our Investors’ Rights Agreement

As of March 31, 2019, the holders of approximately 7.3 million of our ordinary shares are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of these shares under the Securities Act. These rights are provided under the terms of the Investors’ Rights Agreement dated as of August 14, 2015 between us and the holders of these shares, as amended on November 8, 2018, and include demand registration rights, Form S-3 registration rights and piggyback registration rights. We are generally required to bear all registration expenses incurred in connection with the demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registrations described below, other than underwriting commissions and discounts, and will pay the reasonable fees and expenses, not to exceed $25,000, of one special counsel to represent all participating shareholders in a registration.

Demand Registration Rights

Under the terms of the Investors’ Rights Agreement, we will be required, upon the request of holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding shares of Registrable Securities, as such term is defined in the Investors’

 

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Rights Agreement, requesting registration of at least 50% of the then-outstanding shares of Registrable Securities having an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $25.0 million, net of selling expenses, to effect the registration of such shares on Form S-1 for public resale. We are required to effect only one registration pursuant to this provision of the Investors’ Rights Agreement.

Form S-3 Registration Rights

At any time that we are entitled under the Securities Act to register our shares on Form S-3 and the holders of at least 30% of the then-outstanding Registrable Securities request that we register their shares for public resale on Form S-3 with an aggregate offering price of the shares to be registered of at least $5.0 million, net of selling expenses, we will be required to effect such registration. If, however, our chief executive officer certifies that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our shareholders for such registration to become or remain effective because such action would (i) materially interfere with a significant acquisition, corporate reorganization or similar transaction involving us, (ii) require premature disclosure of material information that we have a bona fide business purpose for preserving as confidential, or (iii) render us unable to comply with requirements under the Securities Act or Exchange Act, then we will have the right to defer the registration for up to 120 days. We are only obligated to effect up to one registration on Form S-3 within any 12 month period.

Piggyback Registration Rights

If we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other shareholders, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering if the underwriters believe that including these shares would adversely affect the offering. In connection with the filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, the holders of registrable securities were entitled to, and the necessary percentage of holders waived, their rights to include their shares of registrable securities in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Indemnification

Our Investors’ Rights Agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

Termination of Registration Rights

The registration rights granted under the Investors’ Rights Agreement will terminate on December 31, 2019 or, with respect to any holder of registrable securities, such earlier time as all such registrable securities held by such holder are available for resale without limitation during a three-month period without registration, pursuant to Rule 144 or another similar exemption under the Securities Act.

Registration Rights under our Share Purchase Agreement with Pfizer

Under the terms of our Share Purchase Agreement dated as of May 5, 2016 with an affiliate of Pfizer Inc. (the “Pfizer Affiliate”), the Pfizer Affiliate agreed that the 1,875,000 ordinary shares that the Pfizer Affiliate purchased from us under the Share Purchase Agreement (the “Pfizer Shares”), are subject to a lock-up restriction, such that the Pfizer Affiliate will not, and will also cause its affiliates not to, without our prior approval, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of the Pfizer Shares until certain specified periods of time after the effective date of the Share Purchase Agreement. For a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, we agreed to provide certain demand registration rights to the Pfizer Affiliate

 

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in order to register all or a portion of the Pfizer Shares purchased by the Pfizer Affiliate. We also provided the Pfizer Affiliate with certain “piggyback” registration rights for a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, such that when we propose to register our ordinary shares for our account, the Pfizer Affiliate will have the right to include some or all of the Pfizer Shares in such registration. The Share Purchase Agreement also contains other customary terms and conditions of the parties with respect to the registration of the Pfizer Shares.

Registration Rights under our Share Purchase Agreement with Takeda

On February 19, 2018, the Company entered into a share purchase agreement with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”), pursuant to which Takeda purchased 1,096,892 of the Company’s ordinary shares (the “Takeda Shares”). In connection with the share purchase agreement, Takeda and the Company agreed upon certain rights and restrictions as set forth in the Investor Agreement, dated as of April 2, 2018 (the “Investor Agreement”). The Takeda Shares are subject to a lock-up restriction, such that Takeda will not, and will also cause its affiliates not to, without our prior approval, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of the Takeda Shares until certain specified periods of time after the effective date of the Investor Agreement. For a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, we agreed to provide certain demand registration rights to Takeda in order to register all or a portion of the Takeda Shares purchased by Takeda. We also provided Takeda with certain “piggyback” registration rights for a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, such that when we propose to register our ordinary shares for our account, Takeda will have the right to include some or all of the Takeda Shares in such registration. The Investor Agreement also contains other customary terms and conditions of the parties with respect to the registration of Takeda Shares.

Transfer of Ordinary Shares

Subject to applicable securities laws in relevant jurisdictions and our constitution, our ordinary shares are freely transferable. Our constitution provides that shares may be transferred by a duly signed instrument of transfer in any usual or common form or in a form approved by the directors and Nasdaq. The directors may decline to register any transfer unless, among other things, evidence of payment of any stamp duty payable with respect to the transfer is provided together with other evidence of ownership and title as the directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer. We will replace lost or destroyed certificates for shares upon notice to us and upon, among other things, the applicant furnishing evidence and indemnity as the directors may require and the payment of all applicable fees.

Election and Re-election of Directors

We may, by ordinary resolution, remove any director before the expiration of his or her period of office, notwithstanding anything in our constitution or in any agreement between us and such director. We may also, by an ordinary resolution, appoint another person in place of a director removed from office pursuant to the foregoing.

Under our constitution, subject to the Singapore Companies Act, any director shall retire at the next annual general meeting and shall then be eligible for re-election at that meeting.

Our board of directors shall have the power, at any time and from time to time, to appoint any person to be a director either to fill a casual vacancy or as an additional director so long as the total number of directors shall not at any time exceed the maximum number (if any) fixed by or in accordance with our constitution.

Shareholders’ Meetings

We are required to hold an annual general meeting each calendar year and within six months after the end of each financial year. The directors may convene an extraordinary general meeting whenever they think fit and

 

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they must do so upon the written request of shareholders holding not less than 10% of the total number of paid-up shares as of the date of deposit of the requisition carrying the right to vote at a general meeting. In addition, two or more shareholders holding not less than 10% of our total number of issued shares (excluding our treasury shares) may call a meeting of our shareholders.

The Singapore Companies Act provides that a shareholder is entitled to attend any general meeting and speak on any resolution put before the general meeting. Unless otherwise required by law or by our constitution, resolutions put forth at general meetings may be decided by ordinary resolution, requiring the affirmative vote of a majority of the shareholders present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the resolution. An ordinary resolution suffices, for example, for appointments of directors. A special resolution, requiring an affirmative vote of not less than three-fourths of the shareholders present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the resolution, is necessary for certain matters under Singapore law, such as an alteration of our constitution. A shareholder entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company, or at a meeting of any class of shareholders of the company, shall be entitled to appoint another person or persons, whether a shareholder of the company or not, as his proxy to attend and vote instead of the shareholder at the meeting. Under the Singapore Companies Act, a proxy appointed to attend and vote instead of the shareholder shall also have the same right as the shareholder to speak at the meeting, but unless the constitution of the company otherwise provides, (i) a proxy shall not be entitled to vote except on a poll, (ii) a shareholder shall not be entitled to appoint more than two proxies to attend and vote at the same meeting and (iii) where a shareholder appoints two proxies the appointment shall be invalid unless the shareholder specifies the proportions of his holdings to be represented by each proxy.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, a registered shareholder entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company held pursuant to an order of court under Section 210(1) of the Singapore Companies Act, or at any adjourned meeting under Section 210(3) of the Singapore Companies Act, is, unless the court orders otherwise, entitled to appoint only one proxy to attend and vote at the same meeting, and except where the aforementioned applies, a registered shareholder having a share capital who is a relevant intermediary (as defined under the Singapore Companies Act) may appoint more than two proxies in relation to a meeting to exercise all or any of his rights to attend and to speak and vote at the meeting, but each proxy must be appointed to exercise the rights attached to a different share or shares held by him (which number and class of shares shall be specified), and at such meeting, the proxy has the right to vote on a show of hands.

Only registered shareholders of our company, and their proxies, will be entitled to attend, speak and vote at any meeting of shareholders. Under the Singapore Companies Act, public companies may issue non-voting shares and shares that confer special, limited or conditional voting rights, such that the holder of a share may vote on a resolution before a general meeting of the company if, in accordance with the provisions of Section 64A of the Singapore Companies Act, the share confers on the holder a right to vote on that resolution.

Voting Rights

As provided under our constitution and the Singapore Companies Act, voting at any meeting of shareholders is by show of hands unless a poll has been demanded prior to the declaration of the result of the show of hands by, among others, (i) the chairman or (ii) at least one shareholder present in person or by proxy or by attorney or, in the case of a corporation, by a representative entitled to vote thereat, in each case representing in the aggregate not less than 5% of the total voting rights of all shareholders having the right to vote at the general meeting, provided that no poll shall be demanded in respect of an election of a chairman or relating to any adjournment of such meeting. On a poll every shareholder who is present in person or by proxy or by attorney, or in the case of a corporation, by a representative, has one vote for every share held by such shareholder. Proxies need not be shareholders.

Only those shareholders who are registered in our register of members as holders of ordinary shares will be entitled to vote at any meeting of shareholders. Therefore, DTC, or its nominee, will grant an omnibus proxy to

 

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DTC participants holding our shares in book-entry form through a broker, bank, nominee, or other institution that is a direct or indirect participant in the DTC. Such shareholders will have the right to instruct their broker, bank, nominee or other institution holding these shares on how to vote such shares by completing the voting instruction form provided by the applicable broker, bank, nominee, or other institution. Whether voting is by a show of hands or by a poll, DTC’s vote will be voted by the chairman of the meeting according to the results of the DTC’s participants’ votes (which results will reflect the instructions received from shareholders that own our shares electronically in book-entry form).

Minority Rights

The rights of minority shareholders of Singapore companies are protected, among other things, under Section 216 of the Singapore Companies Act, which gives the Singapore courts a general power to make any order, upon application by any shareholder of a company, as they think fit to remedy any of the following situations:

 

   

the affairs of a company are being conducted or the powers of the board of directors are being exercised in a manner oppressive to, or in disregard of the interests of, one or more of the shareholders, including the applicant; or

 

   

a company takes an action, or threatens to take an action, or the shareholders pass a resolution, or propose to pass a resolution, which unfairly discriminates against, or is otherwise prejudicial to, one or more of the shareholders, including the applicant.

Singapore courts have wide discretion as to the remedy they may grant, and the remedies listed in the Singapore Companies Act itself are not exclusive. In general, Singapore courts may, with a view to bringing to an end or remedying the matters complained of:

 

   

direct or prohibit any act or cancel or modify any transaction or resolution;

 

   

regulate the conduct of the affairs of the company in the future;

 

   

authorize civil proceedings to be brought in the name of, or on behalf of, the company by a person or persons and on such terms as the court may direct;

 

   

provide for the purchase of a minority shareholder’s shares by the other shareholders or by the company itself;

 

   

in the case of a purchase of shares by the company provide for a reduction accordingly of the company’s capital; or

 

   

provide that the company be wound up.

Dividends

Subject to any preferential rights of holders of any outstanding preferred shares, holders of our ordinary shares will be entitled to receive dividends and other distributions in cash, shares or property as may be declared by our company from time to time. We may, by ordinary resolution, declare dividends at a general meeting of shareholders, but we are restricted from paying dividends in excess of the amount recommended by our board of directors. Pursuant to Singapore law and our constitution, no dividend may be paid except out of our profits. To date, we have not declared any cash dividends on our ordinary shares and have no current plans to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

Bonus and Rights Issues

In a general meeting, our shareholders may, upon the recommendation of the directors, capitalize any reserves or profits and distribute them as bonus shares, credited as paid-up, to the shareholders in proportion to their shareholdings.

 

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Subject to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and our constitution, our directors may also issue rights to take up additional ordinary shares to our shareholders in proportion to their respective ownership. Such rights are subject to any condition attached to such issue and the regulations of any stock exchange on which our shares are listed, as well as U.S. federal and blue sky securities laws applicable to such issue.

Takeovers

The Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers applies to, among other things, the acquisition of voting shares of Singapore-incorporated listed public companies or unlisted public companies with more than 50 shareholders and net tangible assets of S$5 million or more. Any person acquiring, whether by a series of transactions over a period of time or not, either on his or her own or together with parties acting in concert with such person, 30% or more of our voting shares, or, if such person holds, either on his or her own or together with parties acting in concert with such person, between 30% and 50% (both amounts inclusive) of our voting shares, and if such person (or parties acting in concert with such person) acquires additional voting shares representing more than 1% of our voting shares in any six-month period, must, except with the consent of the Securities Industry Council in Singapore, extend a mandatory takeover offer for the remaining voting shares in accordance with the provisions of the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers. Responsibility for ensuring compliance with the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers rests with parties (including company directors) to a take-over or merger and their advisors.

“Parties acting in concert” comprise individuals or companies who, pursuant to an agreement or understanding (whether formal or informal), cooperate, through the acquisition by any of them of shares in a company, to obtain or consolidate effective control of that company. Certain persons are presumed (unless the presumption is rebutted) to be acting in concert with each other. They are as follows:

 

   

a company, its parent company, subsidiaries and fellow subsidiaries, the associated companies of any of the company and its related companies, subsidiaries and fellow subsidiaries, companies whose associated companies include any of these companies and any person who has provided financial assistance (other than a bank in the ordinary course of business) to any of the foregoing for the purchase of voting rights;

 

   

a company with any of its directors (together with their close relatives, related trusts and companies controlled by any of the directors, their close relatives and related trusts);

 

   

a company with any of its pension funds and employee share schemes;

 

   

a person with any investment company, unit trust or other fund whose investment such person manages on a discretionary basis, but only in respect of the investment account which such person manages;

 

   

a financial or other professional advisor, including a stockbroker, with its client in respect of the shareholdings of the advisor and persons controlling, controlled by or under the same control as the advisor;

 

   

directors of a company (together with their close relatives, related trusts and companies controlled by any of such directors, their close relatives and related trusts) which is subject to an offer or where the directors have reason to believe a bona fide offer for their company may be imminent;

 

   

partners; and

 

   

an individual and (i) such person’s close relatives, (ii) such person’s related trusts, (iii) any person who is accustomed to act in accordance with such person’s instructions, (iv) companies controlled by the individual, such person’s close relatives, related trusts or any person who is accustomed to act in accordance with such person’s instructions and (v) any person who has provided financial assistance (other than a bank in the ordinary course of business) to any of the foregoing for the purchase of voting rights.

 

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Subject to certain exceptions, a mandatory offer must be in cash or be accompanied by a cash alternative at not less than the highest price paid by the offeror or parties acting in concert with the offeror during the offer period and within the six months prior to its commencement.

Under the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers, where effective control of a company is acquired or consolidated by a person, or persons acting in concert, a general offer to all other shareholders is normally required. An offeror must treat all shareholders of the same class in an offeree company equally. A fundamental requirement is that shareholders in the company subject to the takeover offer must be given sufficient information, advice and time to consider and decide on the offer. These legal requirements may impede or delay a takeover of our company by a third-party.

We may submit an application to the Securities Industry Council of Singapore for a waiver from the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers so that the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers will not apply to our company for so long as we are not listed on a securities exchange in Singapore. We will make an appropriate announcement if we submit the application and when the result of the application is known.

Liquidation or Other Return of Capital

On a winding-up or other return of capital, subject to any special rights attaching the Series A preferred shares or to any other class of shares, holders of ordinary shares will be entitled to participate in any surplus assets in proportion to their shareholdings.

Limitations of Liability and Indemnification Matters

Under Section 172 of the Singapore Companies Act, any provision exempting or indemnifying the officers of a company (including directors) against any liability that would otherwise attach to them in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company is void. However, a company is not prohibited from (a) purchasing and maintaining for any such individual insurance against liability incurred by him or her in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company, or (b) indemnifying the individual against liability incurred by him or her to a person other than the company except when the indemnity is against any liability (i) of the individual to pay a fine in criminal proceedings, (ii) of the individual to pay a penalty in respect of non-compliance with any requirements of a regulatory nature (howsoever arising), (iii) incurred by the individual in defending criminal proceedings in which he or she is convicted, (iv) incurred by the individual in defending civil proceedings brought by the company or a related company in which judgment is given against him or her, or (v) incurred by the individual in connection with an application for relief under Section 76A(13) or Section 391 of the Singapore Companies Act in which the court refuses to grant him or her relief.

Subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force concerning companies and affecting us, our constitution provides that each of our directors and other officers and those of our subsidiaries and affiliates shall be entitled to be indemnified by us or such subsidiary against any liability incurred by him or her arising out of or in connection with any acts, omissions or conduct, actual or alleged, by such individual acting in his or her capacity as either director, officer, secretary or employee of us or the relevant subsidiary, except to such extent as would not be permitted under applicable Singapore laws or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being void in accordance with the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act.

Subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force and affecting our company, we may indemnify our directors and officers against costs, charges, fees and other expenses that may be incurred by any of them in defending any proceedings (whether civil or criminal) relating to anything done or omitted or alleged to be done or omitted by such person acting in his or her capacity as a director, officer or employee of our company, in which judgment is given in his or her favor, or in which he or

 

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she is acquitted or in which the courts have granted relief pursuant to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, provided that such indemnity shall not extend to any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he may be guilty in relation to our company, or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being voided under applicable Singapore laws.

No director or officer of our company shall be liable for any acts, omissions, neglects, defaults or other conduct of any other director or officer, and to the extent permitted by Singapore law, our company shall contribute to the amount paid or payable by a director or officer in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative fault of such director or officer, taking into consideration any other relevant equitable considerations, including acts of other directors or officers and our company, and the relative fault of such parties in respect thereof.

In addition, subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force and affecting our company, no director, managing director or other officer shall be liable for the acts, receipts, neglects or defaults of any other director or officer, or for joining in any receipt or other act for conformity, or for any loss or expense incurred by us, through the insufficiency or deficiency of title to any property acquired by order of the directors for us or for the insufficiency or deficiency of any security upon which any of our moneys are invested or for any loss or damage arising from the bankruptcy, insolvency or tortious act of any person with whom any moneys, securities or effects are deposited, or any other loss, damage or misfortune which happens in the execution of his duties, unless the same happens through his own negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust.

We have entered into deeds of indemnity with each of our directors and officers. These agreements will require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under our constitution and the Singapore Companies Act against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us as a director or officer of the company (as the case may be), and to advance expenses incurred in connection with any proceeding against them by reason of their status as a director, officer, agent or employee of the company in accordance with the terms of the deeds. These indemnification rights shall not be exclusive of any other right which an indemnified person may have or thereafter acquire under any applicable law, provision of our constitution, agreement, vote of shareholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

We expect to maintain standard policies of insurance that provide coverage (1) to our directors and officers against loss rising from claims made by reason of breach of duty or other wrongful act and (2) to us with respect to indemnification payments that we may make to such directors and officers.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.

We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture, or the Trust Indenture Act. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.

General

Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution and/or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

   

the title or designation;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

   

the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

   

whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;

 

   

the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;

 

   

the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

   

the place or places where payments will be payable;

 

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our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

 

   

the date, if any, on which, and the price at which, we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

 

   

whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

   

whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the U.S. federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our ordinary shares or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of ordinary shares or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction

The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Events of Default Under the Indenture

The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

 

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if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium, if any, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

   

the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

 

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the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

   

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

 

   

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;

 

   

reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

   

making the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

 

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Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange, and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

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Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee

The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

We may issue warrants to purchase our ordinary shares and/or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Warrants for the purchase of ordinary shares and/or debt securities will be in registered form only. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.

The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the exercise price for our ordinary shares and the number of ordinary shares to be received upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the ordinary shares and/or debt securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions;

 

   

whether the warrants may be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

General

We may issue rights to our shareholders to purchase our ordinary shares or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, ordinary shares or warrants, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights.

We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

 

   

the date of determining the shareholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

   

the aggregate number of our ordinary shares or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

   

the exercise price;

 

   

the aggregate number of rights issued;

 

   

whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;

 

   

the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;

 

   

the conditions to the completion of the offering, if any;

 

   

the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights, if any;

 

   

whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment, if any;

 

   

whether shareholders are entitled to oversubscription rights, if any;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights, as applicable.

Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of our ordinary shares or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or

 

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any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the ordinary shares or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than shareholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Rights Agent

The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplements summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.

We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.

General

We may issue units consisting of our ordinary shares, one or more debt securities, warrants, or rights for the purchase of our ordinary shares and/or debt securities in one or more series, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:

 

   

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and

 

   

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.

The provisions described in this section, as well as those set forth in any prospectus supplement or as described under “Description of Share Capital,” “Description of Debt Securities,” “Description of Warrants” and “Description of Rights” will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any ordinary shares, debt security, warrant or right included in each unit, as applicable.

Unit Agent

The name and address of the unit agent, if any, for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Issuance in Series

We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.

 

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Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

 

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COMPARISON OF SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS

We are incorporated under the laws of Singapore. The following discussion summarizes material differences between the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and the rights of holders of the common stock of a typical corporation incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware which result from differences in governing documents and the laws of Singapore and Delaware.

This discussion does not purport to be a complete statement of the rights of holders of our ordinary shares under applicable law in Singapore and our constitution or the rights of holders of the common stock of a typical corporation under applicable Delaware law and a typical certificate of incorporation and bylaws.

 

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Board of Directors

A typical certificate of incorporation and bylaws provides that the number of directors on the board of directors will be fixed from time to time by a vote of the majority of the authorized directors. Under Delaware law, a board of directors can be divided into classes and cumulative voting in the election of directors is only permitted if expressly authorized in a corporation’s certificate of incorporation.    The constitution of companies will typically state the minimum and maximum number of directors as well as provide that the number of directors may be increased or reduced by shareholders via ordinary resolution passed at a general meeting, provided that the number of directors following such increase or reduction is within the maximum (if any) and minimum number of directors provided in our constitution and the Singapore Companies Act, respectively.

Limitation on Personal Liability of Directors

  
A typical certificate of incorporation provides for the elimination of personal monetary liability of directors for breach of fiduciary duties as directors to the fullest extent permissible under the laws of Delaware, except for liability (i) for any breach of a director’s loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (relating to the liability of directors for unlawful payment of a dividend or an unlawful stock purchase or redemption) or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. A typical certificate of incorporation also provides that if the Delaware General Corporation Law is amended so as to allow further elimination of, or limitations on, director liability, then the liability of directors will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law as so amended.    Pursuant to the Singapore Companies Act, any provision (whether in the constitution, a contract with the company or otherwise) exempting or indemnifying a director against any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which such director may be guilty in relation to the company is void. However, a company is not prohibited from (a) purchasing and maintaining for any such director insurance against any such liability, or (b) indemnifying such director against any liability incurred by him or her to a person other than the company except when the indemnity is against any liability (i) of the director to pay a fine in criminal proceedings, (ii) of the director to pay a penalty in respect of non-compliance with any regulatory requirements, (iii) incurred by the director in defending criminal proceedings in which he or she is convicted, (iv) incurred by the director in defending civil proceedings brought by the company or a related company in which judgment is given against him or her, or (v) incurred by the director in connection with an application for relief under Section 76A(13) or Section 391 of the Singapore Companies Act in which the court refuses to grant him or her relief. Nevertheless, a director can be

 

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released by the shareholders of a company for breaches of duty to a company except in the case of fraud, illegality, insolvency of the company and oppression or disregard of minority interests.

 

Subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force and affecting the Company, we may indemnify our directors against costs, charges, fees, and other expenses that may be incurred by any of them in defending any proceedings (whether civil or criminal) relating to anything done or omitted or alleged to be done or omitted by such person acting in his or her capacity as a director of our company, in which judgment is given in his or her favor, or in which he or she is acquitted or in which the courts have granted relief pursuant to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, provided that such indemnity shall not extend to any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he may be guilty in relation to our company, or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being voided under applicable Singapore laws.

Interested Shareholders

  

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in specified corporate transactions (such as mergers, stock and asset sales, and loans) with an “interested stockholder” for three years following the time that the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Subject to specified exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person or group that owns 15% or more of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock (including any rights to acquire stock pursuant to an option, warrant, agreement, arrangement or understanding, or upon the exercise of conversion or exchange rights, and stock with respect to which the person has voting rights only), or is an affiliate or associate of the corporation and was the owner of 15% or more of the voting stock at any time within the previous three years.

 

A Delaware corporation may elect to “opt out” of, and not be governed by, Section 203 through a provision in either its original certificate of incorporation, or an amendment to its original certificate or bylaws that was approved by majority stockholder vote. With a limited exception, this amendment would not become effective until 12 months following its adoption.

   There are no comparable provisions under the Singapore Companies Act with respect to public companies which are not listed on the Singapore Exchange Securities Trading Limited.

 

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Removal of Directors

  
A typical certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that, subject to the rights of holders of any preferred stock, directors may be removed at any time by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority, or in some instances a supermajority, of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. A certificate of incorporation could also provide that such a right is only exercisable when a director is being removed for cause (removal of a director only for cause is the default rule in the case of a classified board).    Under the Singapore Companies Act, directors of a public company may be removed before expiration of their term of office, notwithstanding anything in its constitution or in any agreement between the public company and such directors, by ordinary resolution (i.e., a resolution which is passed by a simple majority of those shareholders present and voting in person or by proxy). Notice of the intention to move such a resolution has to be given to the company not less than 28 days before the meeting at which it is moved. The company shall then give notice of such resolution to its shareholders not less than 14 days before the meeting. Where any director removed in this manner was appointed to represent the interests of any particular class of shareholders or debenture holders, the resolution to remove such director will not take effect until such director’s successor has been appointed.

Filling Vacancies on the Board of Directors

  
A typical certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that, subject to the rights of the holders of any preferred stock, any vacancy, whether arising through death, resignation, retirement, disqualification, removal, an increase in the number of directors or any other reason, may be filled by a majority vote of the remaining directors, even if such directors remaining in office constitute less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. Any newly elected director usually holds office for the remainder of the full term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders at which the term of the class of directors to which the newly elected director has been elected expires.    The constitution of a Singapore company typically provides that the directors have the power to appoint any person to be a director, either to fill a vacancy or as an addition to the existing directors, but so that the total number of directors shall not at any time exceed the maximum number (if any) fixed by or in accordance with the constitution. Any director so appointed shall hold office until the next following annual general meeting, where such director will then be eligible for re-election. Our constitution provides that the directors may appoint any person to be a director either to fill a casual vacancy or as an additional director but so that the total number of Directors shall not at any time exceed the maximum number fixed by or in accordance with the constitution.

Amendment of Governing Documents

  
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, amendments to a corporation’s certificate of incorporation require the approval of stockholders holding a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment. If a class vote on the amendment is required by the Delaware General Corporation Law, a majority of the outstanding stock of the class is required, unless a greater proportion is specified in the certificate of incorporation or by other provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, the board of directors may amend bylaws if so authorized in   

Our constitution may be altered by special resolution (i.e., a resolution passed by at least a three-fourths majority of the shareholders entitled to vote, present in person or by proxy at a meeting for which not less than 21 days’ written notice is given). The board of directors has no right to amend the constitution.

 

Under the Singapore Companies Act, an entrenching provision may be included in the constitution with which a company is formed and may at any time be inserted into the constitution of a company only if all the shareholders of the company agree. An entrenching provision is a provision of the

 

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the charter. The stockholders of a Delaware corporation also have the power to amend bylaws.    constitution of a company to the effect that other specified provisions of the constitution may not be altered in the manner provided by the Singapore Companies Act or may not be so altered except (i) by a resolution passed by a specified majority greater than 75% (the minimum majority required by the Singapore Companies Act for a special resolution) or (ii) where other specified conditions are met. The Singapore Companies Act provides that such entrenching provision may be removed or altered only if all the members of the company agree.

Meetings of Shareholders

  

Annual and Special Meetings

 

Typical bylaws provide that annual meetings of stockholders are to be held on a date and at a time fixed by the board of directors. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a special meeting of stockholders may be called by the board of directors or by any other person authorized to do so in the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws.

  

Annual General Meetings

 

All companies are required to hold an annual general meeting after the end of each financial year within either 4 months (in the case of a public company that is listed on an exchange in Singapore approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore) or 6 months (in the case of any other company).

  

Extraordinary General Meetings

 

Any general meeting other than the annual general meeting is called an “extraordinary general meeting.” Notwithstanding anything in the constitution, directors of a company are required to convene an extraordinary general meeting if required to do so by requisition (i.e. written notice, requiring that a meeting be called, given to the directors) by shareholder(s) holding not less than 10% of the total number of paid-up shares as at the date of the deposit of the requisition carrying the right of voting at general meetings of the company. In addition, the constitution usually also provides that general meetings may be convened in accordance with the Singapore Companies Act by the directors.

Quorum Requirements

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws can specify the number of shares which constitute the quorum required to conduct business at a meeting, provided that in no event shall a quorum consist of less than one-third of the shares entitled to vote at a meeting.

  

Quorum Requirements

 

Our constitution provides that any two shareholders present in person or by proxy or by attorney or, in the case of a corporation, by a representative and entitled to vote thereat; in each case representing in aggregate not less than a majority of the total voting rights of all shareholders having the right to vote at a general meeting, shall constitute a quorum. In the event a quorum is not present, the meeting if not convened on the requisition of shareholders may be adjourned for one week. When reconvened, the quorum for the meeting will be the same and if at such adjourned meeting a quorum is not present, the meeting will be dissolved.

 

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Shareholders’ Rights at Meetings

 

The Singapore Companies Act provides that every member shall, notwithstanding any provision in the constitution, have a right to attend any general meeting of the company and to speak on any resolution before the meeting. The company’s constitution may provide that a member shall not be entitled to vote unless all calls or other sums personally payable by him in respect of shares in the company have been paid.

 

Public companies may issue non-voting shares and shares that confer special, limited and conditional voting rights, such that the holder of a share may vote on a resolution before a general meeting if, in accordance with the provisions of Section 64A of the Singapore Companies Act, the share confers on the holder a right to vote on the resolution.

 

Circulation of Shareholders’ Resolutions

 

Under the Singapore Companies Act, (a) any number of shareholders representing not less than 5% of the total voting rights of all the shareholders having at the date of requisition a right to vote at a meeting to which the requisition relates or (b) not less than 100 shareholders holding shares on which there has been paid up an average sum, per shareholder, of not less than S$500, may requisition the company to give to shareholders notice of any resolution which may properly be moved and is intended to be moved at the next annual general meeting, and circulate to shareholders any statement of not more than 1,000 words with respect to the matter referred to in any proposed resolution or the business to be dealt with at that meeting.

Indemnification of Officers, Directors and Employees   
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to specified limitations in the case of derivative suits brought by a corporation’s stockholders in its name, a corporation may indemnify any person who is made a party to any third-party action, suit or proceeding on account of being a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation (or was serving at the request of the corporation in such capacity for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise) against expenses, including attorney’s fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with the action, suit or proceeding through, among other things, a   

Under Section 172 of the Singapore Companies Act, any provision exempting or indemnifying the officers of a company (including directors) against liability, which by law would otherwise attach to them in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company is void.

 

However, the Singapore Companies Act allows a company to:

 

•  purchase and maintain for any officer insurance against any liability which by law would otherwise attach to such officer

 

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majority vote of a quorum consisting of directors who were not parties to the suit or proceeding, if the person:

 

•  acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation or, in some circumstances, at least not opposed to its best interests; and

 

•  in a criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

 

Delaware corporate law permits indemnification by a corporation under similar circumstances for expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such persons in connection with the defense or settlement of a derivative action or suit, except that no indemnification may be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which the person is adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless the Delaware Court of Chancery or the court in which the action or suit was brought determines upon application that the person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for the expenses which the court deems to be proper.

 

To the extent a director, officer, employee or agent is successful in the defense of such an action, suit or proceeding, the corporation is required by Delaware corporate law to indemnify such person for reasonable expenses incurred thereby. Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by such persons in defending any action, suit or proceeding may be paid in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of that person to repay the amount if it is ultimately determined that that person is not entitled to be so indemnified.

  

in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company;

 

•  indemnify such officer against any liability incurred by him or her to a person other than the company except when the indemnity is against any liability (i) of the officer to pay a fine in criminal proceedings, (ii) of the officer to pay a penalty in respect of non-compliance with any regulatory requirements, (iii) incurred by the officer in defending criminal proceedings in which he or she is convicted, (iv) incurred by the officer in defending civil proceedings brought by the company or a related company in which judgment is given against him or her, or (v) incurred by the officer in connection with an application for relief under Section 76A(13) or Section 391 of the Singapore Companies Act in which the court refuses to grant him or her relief.

 

In cases where a director is sued by the company, the Singapore Companies Act gives the court the power to relieve directors either wholly or partially from their liability for their negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust. In order for relief to be obtained, it must be shown that (i) the director acted reasonably and honestly; and (ii) it is fair, having regard to all the circumstances of the case including those connected with such director’s appointment, to excuse the director. However, Singapore case law has indicated that such relief will not be granted to a director who has benefited as a result of his or her breach of trust.

 

Our constitution provides that subject to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and every other applicable statute for the time being in force concerning companies and affecting the company, the directors and officers are entitled to be indemnified against costs, charges, fees and other expenses that may be incurred by such person in defending any proceedings, whether civil or criminal, which relates to anything done or omitted or alleged to be done or omitted by such person as a director, officer or employee of the company and in which judgment is given in his or her favor or in which such person is acquitted or in which the courts have granted relief pursuant to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, provided that such

 

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   indemnity shall not extend to any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he or she may be guilty in relation to the company, or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being voided under applicable Singapore laws.

Shareholder Approval of Issuances of Shares

Under Delaware law, the board of directors has the authority to issue, from time to time, capital stock in its sole discretion, as long the number the shares to be issued, together with those shares that are already issued and outstanding and those shares reserved to be issued, do not exceed the authorized capital for the corporation as previously approved by the stockholders and set forth in the corporation’s certificate of incorporation. Under the foregoing circumstances, no additional stockholder approval is required for the issuance of capital stock. Under Delaware law, stockholder approval is required (i) for any amendment to the corporation’s certificate of incorporation to increase the authorized capital and (ii) for the issuance of stock in a direct merger transaction where the number of shares exceeds 20% of the corporation’s shares outstanding prior to the transaction, regardless of whether there sufficient authorized capital.    Section 161 of the Singapore Companies Act provides that notwithstanding anything in the company’s constitution, the directors shall not exercise any power to issue shares without prior approval of Company’s shareholders in a general meeting. The affirmative vote of shareholders holding at least a majority of the ordinary shares held by the shareholders present in person or represented by proxy at the annual general meeting and entitled to vote is required for this authorization. Once this shareholders’ approval is obtained, unless previously revoked or varied by the company in general meeting, it continues in force until the conclusion of the next annual general meeting or the expiration of the period within which the next annual general meeting after that date is required by law to be held, whichever is earlier; but any approval may be revoked or varied by the company in general meeting. Notwithstanding this general authorization to allot and issue our ordinary shares, Wave will be required to seek shareholder approval with respect to future issuances of ordinary shares, where required under the Nasdaq Stock Market rules, such as if we were to propose an issuance of ordinary shares that would result in a change in control of Wave or in connection with a transaction involving the issuance of ordinary shares representing 20% or more of our outstanding ordinary shares.

Shareholder Approval of Business Combinations

Generally, under the Delaware General Corporation Law, completion of a merger, consolidation, or the sale, lease or exchange of substantially all of a corporation’s assets or dissolution requires approval by the board of directors and by a majority (unless the certificate of incorporation requires a higher percentage) of outstanding stock of the corporation entitled to vote.

 

The Delaware General Corporation Law also requires a special vote of stockholders in connection with a business combination with an “interested stockholder” as defined in section 203 of the Delaware General

  

The Singapore Companies Act mandates that specified corporate actions require approval by the shareholders in a general meeting, notably:

 

•  notwithstanding anything in the company’s constitution, directors are not permitted to carry into effect any proposals for disposing of the whole or substantially the whole of the company’s undertaking or property unless those proposals have been approved by shareholders in a general meeting;

 

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Corporation Law. See “—Interested Shareholders” above.   

 

•  the company may by special resolution resolve that it be wound up voluntarily;

 

•  subject to the constitution of each amalgamating company, an amalgamation proposal must be approved by the shareholders of each amalgamating company via special resolution at a general meeting;

 

•  a compromise or arrangement proposed between a company and its shareholders, or any class of them, must, among other things, be approved by a majority in number representing three-fourths in value of the shareholders or class of shareholders present and voting either in person or by proxy at the meeting ordered by the court; and

 

•  notwithstanding anything in the company’s constitution, the directors may not, without the prior approval of shareholders, issue shares, including shares being issued in connection with corporate actions.

Shareholder Action Without A Meeting

  
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, unless otherwise provided in a corporation’s certificate of incorporation, any action that may be taken at a meeting of stockholders may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote if the holders of outstanding stock, having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize such action, consent in writing. It is not uncommon for a corporation’s certificate of incorporation to prohibit such action.    There are no equivalent provisions under the Singapore Companies Act in respect of public companies which are listed on a securities exchange, like our company.

Shareholder Suits

  
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a stockholder may bring a derivative action on behalf of the corporation to enforce the rights of the corporation. An individual also may commence a class action suit on behalf of himself or herself and other similarly situated stockholders where the requirements for maintaining a class action under the Delaware General Corporation Law have been met. A person may institute and maintain such a suit only if such person was a stockholder at the time of the transaction which is the subject of the suit or his or her shares thereafter devolved upon him or her by operation of law.   

Standing

 

Only registered shareholders of our company reflected in our register of members are recognized under Singapore law as shareholders of our company. As a result, only registered shareholders have legal standing to institute shareholder actions against us or otherwise seek to enforce their rights as shareholders. Holders of book-entry interests in our shares will be required to exchange their book-entry interests for certificated shares and to be registered as shareholders in our shareholder register in order to institute or enforce any legal proceedings or claims

 

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Additionally, under Delaware case law, the plaintiff generally must be a stockholder not only at the time of the transaction which is the subject of the suit, but also through the duration of the derivative suit. The Delaware General Corporation Law also requires that the derivative plaintiff make a demand on the directors of the corporation to assert the corporate claim before the suit may be prosecuted by the derivative plaintiff, unless such demand would be futile.   

against us, our directors or our executive officers relating to shareholder rights. A holder of book-entry interests may become a registered shareholder of our company by exchanging its interest in our shares for certificated shares and being registered in our shareholder register.

 

Personal remedies in cases of oppression or injustice

 

A shareholder may apply to the court for an order under Section 216 of the Singapore Companies Act to remedy situations where (i) the company’s affairs are being conducted or the powers of the company’s directors are being exercised in a manner oppressive to, or in disregard of the interests of one or more of the shareholders or holders of debentures of the company, including the applicant; or (ii) the company has done an act, or threatens to do an act, or the shareholders or holders of debentures have passed some resolution, which unfairly discriminates against, or is otherwise prejudicial to, one or more of the company’s shareholders or holders of debentures, including the applicant.

 

Singapore courts have wide discretion as to the relief they may grant under such application, including, inter alia, directing or prohibiting any act or cancelling or varying any transaction or resolution, providing that the company be wound up, or authorizing civil proceedings to be brought in the name of or on behalf of the company by such person or persons and on such terms as the court directs.

 

Derivative actions and arbitrations

 

The Singapore Companies Act has a provision which provides a mechanism enabling shareholders to apply to the court for leave to bring a derivative action or commence an arbitration on behalf of the company. Derivative actions are also allowed as a common law action.

 

Applications are generally made by shareholders of the company, but courts are given the discretion to allow such persons as they deem proper to apply (e.g., beneficial owner of shares).

 

It should be noted that this provision of the Singapore Companies Act is primarily used by minority shareholders to bring an action or arbitration in the name and on behalf of the company or intervene in an action or arbitration to which the company is a party for the purpose of prosecuting, defending or discontinuing the action or arbitration on behalf of

 

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the company. Prior to commencing a derivative action or arbitration, the court must be satisfied that (i) 14 days’ notice has been given to the directors of the company of the party’s intention to commence such action or arbitration if the directors of the company do not bring, diligently prosecute or defend or discontinue the action, (ii) the party is acting in good faith and (iii) it appears to be prima facie in the interests of the company that the action be brought, prosecuted, defended or discontinued.

 

Class actions

 

The concept of class action suits in the United States, which allows individual shareholders to bring an action seeking to represent the class or classes of shareholders, does not exist in the same manner in Singapore. In Singapore, it is possible as a matter of procedure for a number of shareholders to begin proceedings on behalf of themselves and other shareholders who have the same interest in the proceedings whom they represent. These shareholders are known as “representative plaintiffs.”

Distributions and Dividends; Repurchases and Redemptions   

The Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to declare and pay dividends out of statutory surplus or, if there is no surplus, out of net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or for the preceding fiscal year as long as the amount of capital of the corporation following the declaration and payment of the dividend is not less than the aggregate amount of the capital represented by the issued and outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets.

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, any corporation may purchase or redeem its own shares, except that generally it may not purchase or redeem these shares if the capital of the corporation is impaired at the time or would become impaired as a result of the redemption. A corporation may, however, purchase or redeem out of capital shares that are entitled upon any distribution of its assets to a preference over another class or series of its shares if the shares are to be retired and the capital reduced.

  

The Singapore Companies Act provides that no dividends can be paid to shareholders except out of profits.

 

The Singapore Companies Act does not provide a definition on when profits are deemed to be available for the purpose of paying dividends and this is accordingly governed by case law.

 

Our constitution provides that no dividend can be paid otherwise than out of profits.

 

Acquisition of a company’s own shares

 

The Singapore Companies Act generally prohibits a company from acquiring its own shares or purporting to acquire the shares of its holding company or ultimate holding company, whether directly or indirectly, in any way, subject to certain exceptions. Any contract or transaction made or entered into in contravention of the aforementioned prohibition by which a company acquires or purports to acquire its own shares or shares in its holding company or ultimate holding company is void. However, provided that it is expressly permitted to do so by its constitution and subject to the special conditions of

 

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each permitted acquisition contained in the Singapore Companies Act, a company may:

 

•  redeem redeemable preferred shares on such terms and in such manner as is provided by its constitution. Preferred shares may be redeemed out of capital only if all the directors make a solvency statement in relation to such redemption in accordance with the Singapore Companies Act, and the company lodges a copy of the statement with the Registrar of Companies;

 

•  whether listed on an exchange in Singapore approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore or any securities exchange outside Singapore, or not, make an off-market purchase of its own shares in accordance with an equal access scheme authorized in advance at a general meeting;

 

•  make a selective off-market purchase of its own shares in accordance with an agreement authorized in advance at a general meeting by a special resolution where persons whose shares are to be acquired and their associated persons have abstained from voting; and

 

•  whether listed on an exchange in Singapore approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore or any securities exchange outside Singapore, or not, make an acquisition of its own shares under a contingent purchase contract which has been authorized in advance at a general meeting by a special resolution.

 

A company may also purchase its own shares by an order of a Singapore court.

 

•  The total number of ordinary shares, stocks in any class and non-redeemable preferred shares that may be acquired by a company in a relevant period may not exceed 20% (or such other prescribed percentage) of the total number of ordinary shares, stocks in any class or non-redeemable preferred shares (as the case may be) as of the date of the resolution to acquire the shares. Where, however, a company has reduced its share capital by a special resolution or a Singapore court made an order to such

 

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effect, the total number of ordinary shares, stocks in any class or non-redeemable preferred shares shall be taken to be the total number of ordinary shares, stocks in any class or non-redeemable preferred shares (as the case may be) as altered by the special resolution or the order of the court. Payment, including any expenses (including brokerage or commission) incurred directly in the acquisition by the company of its own shares, may be made out of the company’s profits or capital, provided that the company is solvent.

  

Financial assistance for the acquisition of shares

 

A public company or a company whose holding company or ultimate holding company is a public company may not give financial assistance to any person whether directly or indirectly for the purpose of or in connection with:

 

•  the acquisition or proposed acquisition of shares in the company or units of such shares; or

 

•  the acquisition or proposed acquisition of shares in its holding company or ultimate holding company, or units of such shares.

 

Financial assistance may take the form of a loan, the giving of a guarantee, the provision of security, the release of an obligation, the release of a debt or otherwise.

 

However, it should be noted that a company may provide financial assistance for the acquisition of its shares or shares in its holding company or ultimate holding company if it complies with the requirements (including approval by special resolution) set out in the Singapore Companies Act.

 

Our constitution provides that subject to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, we may purchase or otherwise acquire our own shares upon such terms and subject to such conditions as we may deem fit. We may deal with any such shares which is so purchased or acquired by us in such manner as may be permitted under the Singapore Companies Act (including, without limitation, hold such shares as treasury shares).

Transactions with Officers or Directors

  
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, some contracts or transactions in which one or more of a corporation’s directors has an interest are not void or    Under the Singapore Companies Act, directors and the chief executive officer of the company are not prohibited from dealing with the company, but where

 

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voidable because of such interest provided that some conditions, such as obtaining the required approval and fulfilling the requirements of good faith and full disclosure, are met. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, either (a) the stockholders or the board of directors of a corporation must approve in good faith any such contract or transaction after full disclosure of the material facts or (b) the contract or transaction must have been “fair” as to the corporation at the time it was approved. If board approval is sought, the contract or transaction must be approved in good faith by a majority of disinterested directors after full disclosure of material facts, even though less than a majority of a quorum.   

they have an interest, whether directly or indirectly, in a transaction with the company, that interest must be disclosed to the board of directors. In particular, every director or chief executive officer who is in any way, whether directly or indirectly, interested in a transaction or proposed transaction with the company must, as soon as is practicable after the relevant facts have come to such director’s or, as the case may be, the chief executive officer’s knowledge, declare the nature of such interest at a meeting of the directors or send a written notice to the company detailing the nature, character and extent of the interest.

 

In addition, a director or chief executive officer who holds any office or possesses any property which directly or indirectly might create interests in conflict with such director’s or, as the case may be, the chief executive officer’s duties as director or chief executive officer is required to declare the fact and the nature, character and extent of the conflict at a meeting of directors or send a written notice to the company detailing the nature, character and extent of the conflict.

 

The Singapore Companies Act extends the scope of this statutory duty of a director and chief executive officer to disclose any interests by pronouncing that an interest of a member of a director’s or, as the case may be, the chief executive officer’s family (including spouse, son, adopted son, step-son, daughter, adopted daughter and step-daughter) will be treated as an interest of the director or chief executive officer (as the case may be).

 

A director or chief executive officer shall not be deemed to be interested or at any time interested in a transaction or proposed transaction where the interest of the director or chief executive officer (as the case may be) consists only of being a member or creditor of a corporation which is interested in the transaction or proposed transaction with the company if the interest may properly be regarded as immaterial. Where the transaction or the proposed transaction relates to any loan to the company, no disclosure need be made where the director or chief executive officer (as the case may be) has only guaranteed the repayment of such loan, unless the constitution provides otherwise.

 

Further, where the transaction or the proposed transaction has been or will be made with or for the benefit of a related corporation (i.e., the holding company, subsidiary or subsidiary of a common

 

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Delaware

  

Singapore

  

holding company), the director or chief executive officer shall not be deemed to be interested or at any time interested in such transaction or proposed transaction by virtue of only being a director or chief executive officer (as the case may be) of the related corporation, unless the constitution provides otherwise.

 

Subject to specified exceptions, the Singapore Companies Act prohibits a company (other than an exempt private company) from, among others, (i) making a loan or a quasi-loan to its directors or to directors of a related corporation, or giving a guarantee or security in connection with such a loan or quasi-loan, (ii) entering into a credit transaction as creditor for the benefit of its directors or the directors of a related corporation, or giving a guarantee or any security in connection with such a credit transaction, (iii) arranging an assignment to or assumption by us of any rights, obligations or liabilities under a transaction which, if it had been entered into by us, would have been a restricted transaction, and (iv) taking part in an arrangement under which another person enters into a transaction which, if entered into by us, would have been a restricted transaction and such person obtains a benefit from us or our related corporation pursuant thereto. Companies are also prohibited from entering into any of these transactions with the spouse or children (whether adopted or natural or step-children) of its directors.

 

Subject to specified exceptions, the Singapore Companies Act prohibits a company (other than an exempt private company) from making a loan or a quasi-loan to another company or a limited liability partnership or entering into any guarantee or providing any security in connection with a loan or a quasi-loan made to another company or a limited liability partnership by a person other than the first-mentioned company, entering into a credit transaction as a creditor for the benefit of another company or a limited liability partnership, or entering into any guarantee or provide any security in connection with a credit transaction entered into by any person for the benefit of another company or a limited liability partnership if a director or directors of the first-mentioned company is or together are interested in 20% or more of the total voting power in the other company or the limited liability partnership (as the case may be).

 

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Singapore

  

Such prohibition shall extend to apply to a loan, quasi-loan, credit transaction made by a company (other than an exempt private company), a credit transaction made by a company (other than an exempt private company) for the benefit of another company or limited liability partnership and a guarantee or security provided by a company (other than an exempt private company) in connection with a loan or quasi-loan made by a person other than the first-mentioned company to another company or a limited liability partnership where such other company or limited liability partnership is incorporated or formed (as the case may be) outside Singapore, if a director or directors of the first-mentioned company (a) is or together are interested in 20% or more of the total voting power in the other company or limited liability partnership or (b) in a case where the other company does not have a share capital, exercises or together exercise control over the other company whether by reason of having the power to appoint directors or otherwise.

 

The Singapore Companies Act also provides that an interest of a member of a director’s family (including spouse, son, adopted son, step-son, daughter, adopted daughter and step-daughter) will be treated as an interest of the director.

Dissenters’ Rights

  
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a stockholder of a corporation participating in some types of major corporate transactions may, under varying circumstances, be entitled to appraisal rights pursuant to which the stockholder may receive cash in the amount of the fair market value of his or her shares in lieu of the consideration he or she would otherwise receive in the transaction.    There are no equivalent provisions in Singapore under the Singapore Companies Act.

Cumulative Voting

  
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may adopt in its bylaws that its directors shall be elected by cumulative voting. When directors are elected by cumulative voting, a stockholder has the number of votes equal to the number of shares held by such stockholder times the number of directors nominated for election. The stockholder may cast all of such votes for one director or among the directors in any proportion.    There are no equivalent provisions in Singapore under the Singapore Companies Act.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may offer securities under this prospectus from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) through agents or (3) directly to one or more purchasers, or through a combination of such methods. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:

 

   

a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

 

   

negotiated prices.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus and may also engage in “at the market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. We will name in a prospectus supplement any underwriter or agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities.

If we utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale, and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement which the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of the securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the underwriter may compensate those dealers in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions.

With respect to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions and block trades, we will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

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if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Our ordinary shares sold pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part will be authorized for quotation and trading on the Nasdaq Global Market. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing the applicable security in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in other transactions with us, or perform other services for us, in the ordinary course of their business.

 

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ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES UNDER UNITED STATES SECURITIES LAWS

We are incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Singapore, and certain of our officers and directors are residents outside the United States. Moreover, a majority of our consolidated assets are located outside the United States. Although we are incorporated outside the United States, we have agreed to accept service of process in the United States through our agent designated for that purpose. Nevertheless, since a majority of the consolidated assets owned by us are located outside the United States any judgment obtained in the United States against us may not be enforceable within the United States. There is no treaty between the United States and Singapore providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters and a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any federal or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the federal securities laws, would, therefore, not be automatically enforceable in Singapore.

There is uncertainty as to whether judgments of courts in the United States based upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States would be recognized or enforceable in Singapore. In making a determination as to enforceability of a foreign judgment, the Singapore courts would have regard to whether the judgment was final and conclusive and on the merits of the case, given by a court of law of competent jurisdiction, and was expressed to be for a fixed sum of money. In general, a foreign judgment would be enforceable in Singapore unless procured by fraud, or the proceedings in which such judgments were obtained were not conducted in accordance with principles of natural justice, or the enforcement thereof would be contrary to public policy, or if the judgment would conflict with earlier judgment(s) from Singapore or earlier foreign judgment(s) recognized in Singapore, or if the judgment would amount to the direct or indirect enforcement of foreign penal, revenue or other public laws. Civil liability provisions of the federal and state securities law of the United States permit the award of punitive damages against us, our directors and officers. Singapore courts would not recognize or enforce judgments against us, our directors and officers to the extent that doing so would amount to the direct or indirect enforcement of foreign penal, revenue or other public laws. It is uncertain as to whether a judgment of the courts of the United States under civil liability provisions of the federal securities law of the United States would be regarded by the Singapore courts as being pursuant to foreign, penal, revenue or other public laws. Such a determination has yet to be made by a Singapore court in a reported decision.

In addition, holders of book-entry interests in our shares will be required to exchange such interests for certificated shares and to be registered as shareholders in our shareholder register in order to have standing to bring a shareholder suit and, if successful, to enforce a foreign judgment against us, our directors or our executive officers in the Singapore courts.

A holder of book-entry interests in our shares may become a registered shareholder of our company by exchanging such holder’s interest in our shares for certificated shares and being registered in our shareholder register. The administrative process of becoming a registered shareholder could result in delays prejudicial to any legal proceeding or enforcement action.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and certain other matters of Singapore law will be passed upon for us by WongPartnership LLP. Selected legal matters as to U.S. law in connection with the offering of the debt securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us, or any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018, and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the reports of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. SEC filings are available at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, and you can read and inspect our filings at the offices of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority at 1735 K Street, Washington, D.C. 20006.

This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document. You may obtain a copy of the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules, from the SEC’s website.

We also maintain a website at http://www.wavelifesciences.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, may be obtained from the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 that we filed with the SEC on March  1, 2019, as amended by the Form 10-K/A filed with the SEC on April 29, 2019;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019 that we filed with the SEC on May 10, 2019;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 23, 2019, January 24, 2019 and April 16, 2019 (in each case, except for information contained therein which is furnished rather than filed);

 

   

the description of our ordinary shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on November 9, 2015, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

   

all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-37627.

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

c/o 733 Concord Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ATTN: Investor Relations

You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.wavelifesciences.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

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LOGO

Ordinary Shares

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

May 10, 2019

We have not authorized any dealer, salesperson or other person to give any information or represent anything not contained in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not offer to sell any securities in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful. Neither the delivery of this prospectus, nor any sale made hereunder, shall create any implication that the information in this prospectus is correct after the date hereof.

 

 

 


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PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

Up to $250,000,000 of Ordinary Shares

 

 

We have entered into an Open Market Sale Agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, relating to our ordinary shares, no par value, offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell our ordinary shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000 from time to time through Jefferies, acting as sales agent. Sales of the ordinary shares, if any, may be made on the Nasdaq Global Market at market prices and such other sales as agreed upon by us and Jefferies, as the case may be.

Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “WVE.” On May 9, 2019, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market was $27.31 per share.

Sales of our ordinary shares, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Jefferies is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as sales agent on a best efforts basis and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the ordinary shares requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between us and Jefferies. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Jefferies will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per ordinary share sold under the Sales Agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-49 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Jefferies. In connection with the sale of our ordinary shares on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Jefferies with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

 

Investing in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. See the information contained under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Jefferies

The date of this prospectus is May 10, 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     S-1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     S-4  

THE OFFERING

     S-6  

RISK FACTORS

     S-7  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-10  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-12  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-13  

DILUTION

     S-14  

MATERIAL TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     S-16  

DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

     S-24  

COMPARISON OF SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS

     S-34  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-49  

ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES UNDER UNITED STATES SECURITIES LAWS

     S-51  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-52  

EXPERTS

     S-52  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-52  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     S-53  

We are responsible for the information contained and incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any related free writing prospectus we prepare or authorize. We have not authorized anyone to give you any other information, and we take no responsibility for any other information that others may give you. If you are in a jurisdiction where offers to sell, or solicitations of offers to purchase, the securities offered by this documentation are unlawful, or if you are a person to whom it is unlawful to direct these types of activities, then the offer presented in this document does not extend to you. The information contained in this document speaks only as of the date of this document, unless the information specifically indicates that another date applies. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of an automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under the shelf registration process, we may offer our ordinary shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.

If the information contained in this prospectus differs or varies from the information contained in any document incorporated by reference herein that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, you should rely on the information set forth in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date (for example, a subsequently filed document deemed incorporated by reference in this prospectus), the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information that is in addition to or different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or contained in any permitted free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We and the sales agent take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may provide.

The information contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein is accurate only as of their respective dates, regardless of the time of delivery of any such document or the time of any sale of our ordinary shares. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus in making your investment decision. You should read this prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference herein, the additional information described under the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” in this prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, before investing in our ordinary shares.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

This prospectus is not a “prospectus” as defined in the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore, or the SFA, and accordingly, statutory liability under the SFA in relation to the content of prospectuses will not apply. This prospectus has not been and will not be lodged with or registered as a prospectus by the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of our securities may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor, as defined in Section 4A(1)(c) of the SFA, under Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) to a “relevant person”, as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to compliance with the conditions set forth in the SFA.

 

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Where securities or securities-based derivatives contracts are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is: (a) a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or (b) a trustee of a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor, the securities or securities-based derivatives contracts (each as defined in Section 2(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after securities or securities-based derivatives contracts are acquired by that corporation or for that trust pursuant to an offer made in reliance on an exemption under Section 275 of the SFA, except:

 

   

to an institutional investor or to a relevant person defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, or (in the case of such corporation) where the transfer arises from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) of the SFA or (in the case of such trust) where the transfer arises from an offer that is made on terms that such rights or interest are acquired at a consideration of not less than S$200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction, whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or securities-based derivatives contracts or other assets;

 

   

where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;

 

   

where the transfer is by operation of law; or

 

   

as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA.

Notification under Section 309B(1) of the SFA, as applicable: The ordinary shares, which are stocks or shares issued or proposed to be issued by a corporation or body unincorporate (other than a corporation or body unincorporate that is a collective investment scheme), are prescribed capital markets products (as defined in the Securities and Futures (Capital Markets Products) Regulations 2018) and Excluded Investment Products (as defined in the MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).

By accepting this prospectus, the recipient hereof represents and warrants that such recipient is entitled to receive it in accordance with the restrictions set forth above and agrees to be bound by the limitations contained herein. Any failure to comply with these limitations may constitute a violation of law.

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, our ordinary shares only in jurisdictions where such offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of our ordinary shares in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our ordinary shares and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references to “Wave,” the “company,” “we,” “our,” “us” or similar terms refer to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. References in this prospectus to “S$” refer to Singapore dollars, “¥” refer to Japanese yen and “€” refer to euros.

 

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The Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd. names, the Wave Life Sciences mark, and the other trademarks, trade names and service marks of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. appearing in this prospectus are the property of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. Wave has applied to register certain of its trademarks in the United States. This prospectus also contains additional trade names, trademarks and service marks belonging to Wave Life Sciences Ltd. and to other companies. We do not intend our use or display of other parties’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the ® and symbols, but such reference should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC. Investing in our securities involves risks. Therefore, carefully consider the risk factors set forth in this prospectus and in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

About Wave Life Sciences

We are a clinical-stage genetic medicines company committed to delivering life-changing treatments for people battling devastating diseases. Using PRISM, our proprietary discovery and drug development platform that enables the precise design, optimization and production of novel stereopure oligonucleotides, we aspire to develop best in class medicines across multiple therapeutic modalities.

Nucleic acid therapeutics, including oligonucleotides, are a growing and innovative class of drugs comprised of a sequence of nucleotides that are linked together by a backbone of chemical bonds. We are initially developing oligonucleotides that target the ribonucleic acid (“RNA”) to either reduce the expression of disease-promoting proteins or transform the production of dysfunctional mutant proteins into the production of functional proteins. RNA is a critical molecule that can adopt complex three-dimensional structures and affect various cellular functions. By intervening at the RNA level, we have the potential to address diseases that have historically been difficult to treat with small molecules or biologics. Oligonucleotides have additional advantages as a therapeutic class including the ability to target multiple tissue types, often without the need for a delivery vehicle, and the ability to modulate the frequency of dosing to ensure broad distribution within tissues and account for cell turnover. Oligonucleotides also have well-established manufacturing processes and validated test methods based on decades of improvements.

The oligonucleotides we are developing with PRISM are stereopure. A stereopure oligonucleotide is comprised of molecules with atoms precisely arranged in three-dimensional orientations at each linkage. We believe that controlling the position of the sulfur atom following phosphorothioate (“PS”) modification will optimize the pharmacological profile of our oligonucleotides by maximizing the potential therapeutic benefit while minimizing the potential for side effects and safety risks. The stereopure oligonucleotides we are developing differ from the mixture-based oligonucleotides currently on the market or in development by others. Our preclinical studies have demonstrated that our stereopure oligonucleotides may achieve superior pharmacological properties compared with mixture-based oligonucleotides. Through our work in developing stereopure oligonucleotides, we have created and continue to evolve PRISM, our proprietary discovery and drug development platform.

PRISM enables us to target genetically defined diseases with stereopure oligonucleotides across multiple therapeutic modalities. PRISM combines our unique ability to construct stereopure oligonucleotides with a deep understanding of how the interplay among oligonucleotide sequence, chemistry and backbone stereochemistry impacts key pharmacological properties. By exploring these interactions through iterative analysis of in vitro and in vivo outcomes and artificial intelligence-driven predictive modeling, we continue to define design principles that we deploy across programs to rapidly develop and manufacture clinical candidates that meet pre-defined product profiles.

Our goal is to develop and commercialize disease-modifying medicines for genetically defined diseases with a high degree of unmet medical need, and to become a fully integrated genetic medicines company. Our initial



 

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focus for our clinical development programs is in neurology, which we broadly define as genetic diseases within the neuromuscular system and central nervous system. We are conducting clinical trials of suvodirsen, our lead program in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (“DMD”) targeting exon 51, and our two lead programs in Huntington’s disease (“HD”). We are also advancing additional development programs in DMD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia and spinocerebellar ataxia 3. In addition to neurology, we are advancing discovery research in ophthalmologic disorders, specifically inherited retinal diseases, and in hepatic diseases, and we expect to make continued investments in expanding the breadth of our portfolio. In further support of our pipeline, we continue to make substantial investments in, and leverage, PRISM to potentially develop the next generation of stereopure oligonucleotides. We have also established and continue to enhance our internal current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”) manufacturing capabilities to increase control and visibility of our drug substance supply chain. These investments further improve our ability to secure drug substance for current and future development activities and may provide commercial-scale manufacturing capabilities.

Corporate History and Information

We were incorporated under the name Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd. (Registration No.: 201218209G) under the laws of Singapore on July 23, 2012. On November 16, 2015, we closed our initial public offering. In preparation for our initial public offering, on November 5, 2015, Wave Life Sciences Pte. Ltd. converted from a private limited company to a public limited company known as Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (“Wave”). Wave has four wholly-owned subsidiaries: Wave Life Sciences USA, Inc. (“Wave USA”), a Delaware corporation (formerly Ontorii, Inc.); Wave Life Sciences Japan, Inc. (“Wave Japan”), a company organized under the laws of Japan (formerly Chiralgen., Ltd.); Wave Life Sciences Ireland Limited (“Wave Ireland”), a company organized under the laws of Ireland; and Wave Life Sciences UK Limited (“Wave UK”), a company organized under the laws of the United Kingdom.

Our registered office is located at 7 Straits View #12-00, Marina One East Tower, Singapore 018936, and our telephone number at that address is +65 6236 3388. Our principal office for Wave USA is located at 733 Concord Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, and our telephone number at that address is +1-617-949-2900. Our registered office for Wave Japan is 2438 Miyanoura-cho, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima pref. 891-1394, Japan. Our registered office for Wave Ireland is One Spencer Dock, North Wall Quay, Dublin 1, Ireland. Our registered office for Wave UK is Hays Galleria, 1 Hays Lane, London, SE1 2RD, United Kingdom.

Our corporate website address is www.wavelifesciences.com. The information on our website is not part of this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website in deciding whether to purchase our ordinary shares. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to such reports are made available free of charge through the “For Investors & Media—Financial Information” section of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they have been filed or furnished with the SEC.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Ordinary shares offered by us:

Ordinary shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000.

 

Ordinary shares to be outstanding after this offering:

Up to 43,409,561 ordinary shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 9,154,155 ordinary shares in this offering at an offering price of $27.31 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market on May 9, 2019. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

 

Manner of offering:

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on the Nasdaq Global Market or other existing trading market for our ordinary shares through our sales agent, Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-49 of this prospectus.

 

Use of proceeds:

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for clinical trial costs and other research and development expenses; continued growth of our manufacturing capabilities; initial investments in commercial and medical affairs infrastructure to support our transition to a fully integrated, commercial-stage genetic medicines company; continued investment in our drug development platform; and working capital, capital expenditures and general and administrative expenses. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk factors:

Investing in our ordinary shares involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference herein for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares.

 

Nasdaq Global Market symbol:

“WVE”

The number of ordinary shares to be outstanding after this offering is based on an aggregate of 34,255,406 ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2019 and excludes:

 

   

3,901,348 ordinary shares issuable upon the conversion of our Series A preferred shares outstanding as of March 31, 2019;

 

   

3,853,542 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of share options outstanding as of March 31, 2019, at a weighted average exercise price of $19.72 per share, of which 2,552,457 ordinary shares were exercisable as of such date;

 

   

1,674,124 restricted share units, or RSUs, outstanding as of March 31, 2019; and

 

   

201,898 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (the “2014 Plan”), as of March 31, 2019.

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise of outstanding options, vesting of outstanding RSUs or conversion of Series A preferred shares, each as described above, and reflects an assumed public offering price of $27.31, which was the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market on May 9, 2019.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described below and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, each of which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and all of the other information in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference herein. If any of these risks is realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and could result in a complete loss of your investment.

Risks Related to This Offering and Our Ordinary Shares

If you purchase ordinary shares in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of your investment.

The public offering price of our ordinary shares is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our ordinary shares. Therefore, if you purchase our ordinary shares in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering. If you purchase ordinary shares in this offering, you will incur an immediate and substantial dilution in net tangible book value of $17.19 per share. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section titled “Dilution.” In addition, in the past, we have issued options to acquire ordinary shares at prices significantly below the offering price. To the extent these outstanding options are ultimately exercised, you will incur additional dilution.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and you may not agree with how we use the proceeds and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.

Our management will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Accordingly, you are relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds will be used appropriately. It is possible that the proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for Wave.

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our ordinary shares. We anticipate that we will retain our earnings, if any, for future growth and therefore do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the future. As a result, only appreciation of the price of our ordinary shares will provide a return to shareholders.

Sales of a significant number of our ordinary shares in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our ordinary shares.

Sales of a substantial number of our ordinary shares in the public markets could depress the market price of our ordinary shares and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. In addition, certain of our shareholders have the right to require us to register the sales of their shares under the Securities Act under agreements between us and such shareholders. See the section titled “Description of Share Capital” for a more detailed description of these rights. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our ordinary shares would have on the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

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The public market for our ordinary shares may not be liquid enough for our shareholders to sell their ordinary shares quickly or at market price, or at all.

Prior to the completion of our initial public offering, there was no public market for our ordinary shares. An active trading market for our shares may not develop or be maintained and our shareholders may not be able to sell their ordinary shares quickly or at the market price, or at all. Our executive officers, our directors and their respective affiliates, and our other significant shareholders beneficially own a significant portion of our outstanding ordinary shares, and therefore, liquidity in our ordinary shares is limited. Due to the limited liquidity in our ordinary shares, relatively small orders can have a disproportionate impact on the trading price of our shares. Further, the limited liquidity in our ordinary shares may also impair our ability to raise capital by conducting offerings of our ordinary shares and may impair our ability to enter into strategic partnerships or acquire companies or products by using our ordinary shares as consideration.

The market price of our ordinary shares is likely to be highly volatile, and our shareholders may lose some or all of their investment.

The market price of our ordinary shares is likely to be highly volatile, including in response to factors that are beyond our control. The stock market in general experiences extreme price and volume fluctuations. In particular, the market prices of securities of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are extremely volatile, and experience fluctuations that are often unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. These broad and sector-specific market fluctuations can result in extreme fluctuations in the price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our operating performance, and can cause our shareholders to lose some or all of their investment in the Company.

Our principal shareholders and management own a significant percentage of our ordinary shares and will be able to exert significant control over matters subject to shareholder approval.

Based on information publicly available to us as of March 31, 2019, our executive officers, our directors and their respective affiliates, and our other significant shareholders beneficially own a significant portion of our outstanding ordinary shares. As a result, these shareholders, if acting together, will continue to have significant influence over the outcome of corporate actions requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors, any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets and any other significant corporate transaction. The interests of these shareholders may not be the same as or may even conflict with the interests of our other shareholders. For example, these shareholders could delay or prevent a change of control of our company, even if such a change of control would benefit our other shareholders, which could deprive shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their ordinary shares as part of a sale of our company or our assets and might affect the prevailing market price of our ordinary shares. The significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price of our ordinary shares due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise.

We may incur significant costs from class action litigation due to share volatility.

Our share price may fluctuate for many reasons, including as a result of public announcements regarding the progress of our development efforts or the development efforts of our collaborators and/or competitors, the addition or departure of our key personnel, variations in our quarterly operating results and changes in market valuations of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Holders of stock which has experienced significant price and trading volatility have occasionally brought securities class action litigation against the companies that issued the stock. If any of our shareholders were to bring a lawsuit of this type against us, even if the lawsuit is without merit, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit. The lawsuit could also divert the time and attention of our management, which could harm our business.

 

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Sales of additional ordinary shares could cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline.

Sales of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares in the public market, or the availability of such shares for sale, by us or others, including the issuance of ordinary shares upon exercise of outstanding options, or the perception that such sales could occur, could adversely affect the price of our ordinary shares. Certain of our shareholders have the right to require us to register the sales of their shares under the Securities Act under agreements between us and such shareholders.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ordinary shares may depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If too few securities or industry analysts cover our company, the trading price for our ordinary shares would likely be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our ordinary shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our ordinary shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. In some cases, forward-looking statements are identified by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “future,” “goals,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “ongoing,” “objective,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “will” and “would” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus and the documents that we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference, such statements are based on a combination of facts and factors currently known by us and our expectations of the future, about which we cannot be certain. Forward-looking statements include statements about:

 

   

our ability to fund our future operations; our financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash and capital requirements; our need for additional financing or the period for which our existing cash resources will be sufficient to meet our operating requirements;

 

   

the success, progress, number, scope, cost, duration, timing or results of our research and development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials, including the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any preclinical studies and clinical trials or for submission, review or approval of any regulatory filing;

 

   

the timing of, and our ability to, obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates;

 

   

the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates;

 

   

our strategies, prospects, plans, goals, expectations, forecasts or objectives;

 

   

the success of our collaborations with third parties;

 

   

any payment that our collaboration partners may make to us;

 

   

our ability to identify and develop new product candidates;

 

   

our intellectual property position;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

our expected uses of the net proceeds from any offering of our securities;

 

   

our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities;

 

   

our estimates regarding future expenses and needs for additional financing;

 

   

our ability to identify, recruit and retain key personnel;

 

   

our financial performance;

 

   

developments and projections relating to our competitors in the industry;

 

   

our liquidity and working capital requirements; and

 

   

the expected impact of new accounting standards.

You should refer to the section titled “Risk Factors” of this prospectus and in our other filings with the SEC for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or

 

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implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus or the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, these statements should not be regarded as representations or warranties by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements as predictions of future events.

You should read this prospectus, the documents that we have incorporated by reference herein and the documents we have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell our ordinary shares having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $250.0 million from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize our sales agreement with Jefferies as a source of financing.

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for clinical trial costs and other research and development expenses; continued growth of our manufacturing capabilities; initial investments in commercial and medical affairs infrastructure to support our transition to a fully integrated, commercial-stage genetic medicines company; continued investment in our drug development platform; and working capital, capital expenditures and general and administrative expenses.

Our expected use of the net proceeds from this offering represents our current intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions. The amounts and timing of our actual use of net proceeds will vary depending on numerous factors, including the relative success and cost of our research, preclinical and clinical development programs, whether we are able to enter into future collaborations, and any unforeseen delays or cash needs. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and investors will be relying on our judgment regarding the application of the net proceeds of this offering. In addition, we might decide to postpone or not pursue these planned trials and activities or other development activities if the net proceeds from this offering and the other sources of cash are less than, or do not last as long as, expected.

Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest- bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any dividends on our ordinary shares. We currently anticipate that we will retain any future earnings for the operation and expansion of our business. Accordingly, we do not currently anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares for the foreseeable future. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then existing conditions, including our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions (including in the agreements governing our credit facilities), capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant. We may, by ordinary resolution, declare dividends, but (without prejudice to the powers of the Company to pay interest on share capital as provided in our constitution) no dividends shall be payable (i) except out of the profits of the Company or (ii) in excess of the amount recommended by our directors.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our ordinary shares in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per ordinary share in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share immediately after this offering. The net tangible book value of our ordinary shares as of March 31, 2019 was approximately $196.9 million, or approximately $5.75 per ordinary share based upon 34,255,406 ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2019. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities and Series A preferred shares, divided by the total number of ordinary shares outstanding as of March 31, 2019.

Net tangible book value dilution per share to investors participating in this offering represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of ordinary shares in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share immediately after this offering. After giving effect to the sale of 9,154,155 ordinary shares in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $27.31 per share, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market on May 9, 2019, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 would have been approximately $439.1 million, or approximately $10.12 per ordinary share. This represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value of $4.37 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $17.19 per share to investors participating in this offering at the public offering price.

Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed public offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution to new investors:

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 27.31  
     

 

 

 

Historical net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019

   $ 5.75     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to the offering

   $ 4.37     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

      $ 10.12  
     

 

 

 

Dilution in net tangible book value per share to investors participating in this offering

      $ 17.19  
     

 

 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of $250.0 million in ordinary shares are sold at a price of $27.31 per share, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Global Market on May 9, 2019. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $27.31 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our ordinary shares in the aggregate amount of $250.0 million is sold at that price, would increase our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering by $0.07 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to investors participating in this offering by $0.93 per share, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $27.31 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our ordinary shares in the aggregate amount of $250.0 million is sold at that price, would decrease our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering by $0.08 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to investors participating in this offering by $0.92 per share, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us.

The information discussed above is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

The table and discussion above does not include:

 

   

3,901,348 ordinary shares issuable upon the conversion of our Series A preferred shares outstanding as of March 31, 2019;

 

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3,853,542 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of share options outstanding as of March 31, 2019, at a weighted average exercise price of $19.72 per share, of which 2,552,457 ordinary shares were exercisable as of such date;

 

   

1,674,124 restricted share units, or RSUs, outstanding as of March 31, 2019; and

 

   

201,898 ordinary shares reserved for future issuance under the 2014 Plan, as of March 31, 2019.

To the extent that outstanding options are exercised or outstanding RSUs vest, you will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities may result in further dilution to our shareholders.

 

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MATERIAL TAX CONSIDERATIONS

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders

This discussion sets forth a summary of material U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders (as defined below) of the purchase, ownership and disposition of the ordinary shares. The discussion is based on the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, its legislative history, final, temporary and proposed regulations thereunder, published rulings and court decisions, all as currently in effect and all subject to change at any time, possibly with retroactive effect. We cannot assure you that a change in law will not alter significantly the tax considerations described in this summary. We have not sought and do not expect to seek any rulings from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, regarding the matters discussed below. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not take positions concerning the tax consequences of the purchase, ownership or disposition of our ordinary shares that differ from those discussed below.

This discussion addresses only material U.S. federal income tax considerations to U.S. Holders (as defined below) that acquire their ordinary shares in this offering and that hold those ordinary shares as capital assets (generally, property held for investment) and does not purport to be a comprehensive description of all tax considerations that may be relevant to a particular person’s decision to acquire the ordinary shares. In addition, this discussion does not address the U.S. federal income tax consequences to any special class of U.S. Holders, including without limitation, holders of (directly, indirectly or constructively) 10% or more of the total voting power or value of our ordinary shares (except to the limited extent discussed below), dealers in securities or currencies, banks, tax-exempt organizations, qualified retirement plans, individual retirement accounts and other tax-deferred accounts, life insurance companies, financial institutions, broker-dealers, regulated investment companies, real estate investment trusts, traders in securities that elect the mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings, persons that hold securities that are a hedge or that are hedged against currency or interest rate risks or that are part of a straddle, conversion or “integrated” transaction, persons that are not U.S. Holders (as defined below), persons who acquired our ordinary shares pursuant to the exercise of an employee share option or otherwise as compensation, partnerships or other entities classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and U.S. Holders (as defined below) whose functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes is not the U.S. dollar. This discussion does not address the effect of the U.S. federal alternative minimum tax, or U.S. federal gift, estate or generation-skipping transfer tax, or any state, local or foreign tax laws on a holder of ordinary shares.

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of ordinary shares that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation (or other entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust (i) if a court within the U.S. can exercise primary supervision over its administration, and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all of the substantial decisions of that trust, or (ii) that was in existence on August 20, 1996, and validly elected under applicable Treasury Regulations to continue to be treated as a domestic trust.

If a partnership or an entity or arrangement that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our ordinary shares, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Partnerships that hold our ordinary shares and partners in such partnerships should consult their own tax advisors regarding the particular U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of owning and disposing of ordinary shares.

If you are considering the purchase of our ordinary shares, you should consult your own tax advisors concerning the particular U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of the purchase, ownership and

 

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disposition of our ordinary shares, as well as the consequences to you arising under other U.S. federal tax laws and the laws of any applicable state, local, non-U.S. or other taxing jurisdiction and any applicable tax treaty in light of your particular circumstances.

Dividends and Other Distributions

As described in the section titled “Dividend Policy,” we do not currently anticipate declaring or paying cash dividends to holders of our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. However, subject to the discussion below of the passive foreign investment company rules, if we do make distributions of cash or other property in respect of our ordinary shares, other than certain pro rata distributions of ordinary shares, the U.S. dollar amount of the gross amount of any such distribution will be taxable as a dividend, to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles). Such income will be includable in your gross income on the day actually or constructively received by you. The amount of any distribution of property other than cash will be the fair market value of that property on the date of distribution. To the extent the amount of the distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles), such excess amount will be treated first as a tax-free return of your tax basis in your ordinary shares, and then, to the extent such excess amount exceeds your tax basis in your ordinary shares, as capital gain. We, however, may not calculate earnings and profits in accordance with U.S. federal income tax principles. In that case, we intend to treat the full amount of any distribution by us to U.S. Holders as a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The amount of the dividend will generally be treated as foreign-source dividend income to U.S. Holders. However, if we are treated as a “United States-owned foreign corporation,” a portion of dividends paid by us may be treated as U.S. source for purposes of determining foreign tax credit. We will be treated as a United States-owned foreign corporation if 50% or more of the total value or total voting power of our stock is owned, directly, indirectly or by attribution, by United States persons. We do not believe that we are currently treated as a United States-owned foreign corporation, but there is no assurance that we will not be treated as such as a result of this offering or otherwise in the future. U.S. Holders of the ordinary shares that are corporations generally will not be entitled to claim a “dividends received deduction” with respect to dividends paid on the ordinary shares.

Dividends received by a non-corporate U.S. Holder, including an individual, may qualify for the lower rates of tax applicable to “qualified dividend income,” provided that (i) we are not a passive foreign investment company (as defined below) for our taxable year in which the dividend is paid or in the preceding taxable year, (ii) certain holding period and other requirements are met and (iii) our stock is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States.

You should consult your own tax advisors regarding the availability of the lower tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income for any dividends that we pay with respect to the ordinary shares, as well as the effect of any change in applicable law.

Disposition of the Ordinary Shares

You will recognize gain or loss on a sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our ordinary shares in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized (in U.S. dollars) on the sale, exchange or taxable disposition and your tax basis (in U.S. dollars) in the ordinary shares. Subject to the passive foreign investment company rules discussed below, such gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss. If you are a non-corporate U.S. Holder, including an individual, that has held the ordinary shares for more than one year, you may be eligible for reduced tax rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

Any gain or loss that you recognize on a disposition of our ordinary shares generally will be treated as U.S.-source income or loss for foreign tax credit limitation purposes. You should consult your own tax advisors regarding the proper treatment of gain or loss, as well as the availability of a foreign tax credit, in your particular circumstances.

 

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Passive Foreign Investment Company

Based on the current and anticipated value of our assets and the current and expected composition of our income and assets, we do not expect to be treated as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for our current taxable year ending December 31, 2019; however, there can be no assurance that we will not be considered a PFIC for any taxable year. The determination of PFIC status is based on an annual determination that cannot be made until the close of a taxable year, involves extensive factual investigation, including ascertaining the fair market value of all of our assets on a quarterly basis and the character of each item of income that we earn, and is subject to uncertainty in several respects. Moreover, our ability to earn specific types of income that we currently treat as non-passive for purposes of the PFIC rules is uncertain with respect to future years.

Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will not be treated as a PFIC for our current taxable year ending December 31, 2019, or for any future taxable year or that the IRS will not take a contrary position. Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., our U.S. tax counsel, therefore expresses no opinion with respect to our PFIC status for any taxable year or our expectations relating to such status set forth in this paragraph.

A non-U.S. corporation will be treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year if, applying applicable look-through rules, either:

 

   

at least 75% of its gross income for such year is passive income; or

 

   

at least 50% of the value of its assets (determined based on a quarterly average) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income.

For these purposes, we will be treated as owning a proportionate share of the assets and earning a proportionate share of the income of any other corporation in which we own, directly or indirectly, at least 25% by value of the stock or shares. Subject to various exceptions, passive income generally includes dividends, interest, capital gains, royalties and rents (other than certain royalties and rents derived in the active conduct of a trade or business and not derived from a related person).

We must make a separate determination each year as to whether we are a PFIC. As a result, our PFIC status may change. Because PFIC status must be determined annually based on tests which are factual in nature, our PFIC status in future years will depend on our income, assets and activities in those years. Furthermore, because the value of our gross assets is likely to be determined in large part by reference to our market capitalization and the value of our goodwill, a decline in the value of our shares could affect the determination of whether we are a PFIC. There can be no assurance that we will not be considered a PFIC for any taxable year. If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold ordinary shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which you hold the ordinary shares. However, if we cease to be a PFIC, you may avoid some of the adverse effects of the PFIC regime by making a “deemed sale” election with respect to the ordinary shares, as applicable.

If we are or become a PFIC in a taxable year in which we pay a dividend or the prior taxable year, the preferential tax rates discussed above with respect to dividends paid to non-corporate U.S. Holders would not apply. In addition, if we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold ordinary shares, in the absence of a “qualifying electing fund” election (which, as noted below, will not be available to you), you will be subject to special tax rules with respect to any “excess distribution” that you receive and any gain you realize from a sale or other disposition (including, under certain circumstances, a pledge) of the ordinary shares, unless you make a “mark-to-market” election as discussed below. Distributions you receive in a taxable year that are greater than 125% of the average annual distributions you received during the shorter of the three preceding taxable years or your holding period for the ordinary shares will be treated as an excess distribution. Under these special tax rules:

 

   

the excess distribution or gain will be allocated ratably over your holding period for the ordinary shares,

 

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the amount allocated to the current taxable year, and any taxable year prior to the first taxable year in which we became a PFIC, will be treated as ordinary income, and

 

   

the amount allocated to each other year will be subject to the highest tax rate in effect for individuals or corporations, as appropriate, for that year and the interest charge generally applicable to underpayments of tax will be imposed on the resulting tax attributable to each such year.

The tax liability for amounts allocated to years prior to the year of disposition or “excess distribution” cannot be offset by any net operating losses for such years, and gains (but not losses) realized on the sale of the ordinary shares cannot be treated as capital, even if you hold the ordinary shares as capital assets.

If we are treated as a PFIC with respect to you for any taxable year, to the extent any of our subsidiaries are also PFICs, you will be deemed to own shares in such lower-tier PFICs that are directly or indirectly owned by us in the proportion that the value of the ordinary shares you own bears to the value of all of our ordinary shares, and you may be subject to the rules described in the preceding paragraphs with respect to the shares of such lower-tier PFICs you are deemed to own. You should consult your own tax advisor regarding the application of the PFIC rules to any of our subsidiaries including as a result of the changes included as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Act”).

In certain circumstances, a U.S. Holder of shares in a PFIC may avoid the adverse tax consequences described above by making a “qualified electing fund” election to include in income its pro rata share of the corporation’s income on a current basis. However, you may make a qualified electing fund election with respect to your ordinary shares only if we agree to furnish you annually with a PFIC annual information statement as specified in the applicable Treasury regulations. We currently do not intend to prepare or provide the information that would enable you to make a qualified electing fund election.

Alternatively, a U.S. Holder of “marketable stock” (as defined below) in a PFIC may make a mark-to-market election with respect to such stock to elect out of the tax treatment discussed above. If you make a valid mark-to-market election for the ordinary shares you will include in income each year an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the ordinary shares as of the close of your taxable year over your adjusted basis in such ordinary shares. You are allowed a deduction for the excess, if any, of the adjusted basis of the ordinary shares over their fair market value as of the close of the taxable year. However, deductions are allowable only to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains on the ordinary shares included in your income for prior taxable years. Amounts included in your income under a mark-to-market election, as well as gain on the actual sale or other disposition of the ordinary shares, are treated as ordinary income. Ordinary loss treatment also applies to the deductible portion of any mark-to-market loss on the ordinary shares, as well as to any loss realized on the actual sale or disposition of the ordinary shares, to the extent that the amount of such loss does not exceed the net mark-to-market gains previously included for such ordinary shares. Your basis in the ordinary shares will be adjusted to reflect any such income or loss amounts. If you make such an election, the tax rules that apply to distributions by corporations that are not PFICs would apply to distributions by us, except that the preferential tax rate discussed above under “—Dividends and Other Distributions” would not apply. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the availability and advisability of making a mark-to-market election in their particular circumstances.

The mark-to-market election is available only for “marketable stock,” which is stock that is traded in other than de minimis quantities on at least 15 days during each calendar quarter “regularly traded” on a qualified exchange or other market, as defined in the applicable Treasury regulations. The Nasdaq Global Market is a qualified exchange. We anticipate that our ordinary shares will continue to be regularly traded on the Nasdaq Global Market, and therefore, in 2019 and any subsequent year in which our ordinary shares continue to be regularly traded, the mark-to-market election would be available to a U.S. Holder of our ordinary shares if we become a PFIC. If any of our subsidiaries are or become PFICs, the mark-to-market election will not be available with respect to the shares of such subsidiaries that are treated as owned by you. Consequently, you could be

 

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subject to the PFIC rules with respect to income of the lower-tier PFICs the value of which already had been taken into account indirectly via mark-to-market adjustments.

If you hold ordinary shares in any year in which we are a PFIC, you will also be subject to annual information reporting requirements.

The PFIC rules are complex, and you should consult your own tax advisors regarding the application of the PFIC rules to your investment in our ordinary shares and the availability, application and consequences of the elections discussed above.

Disposition of Foreign Currency

U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the tax consequences of receiving, converting or disposing of any non-U.S. currency received as dividends on our ordinary shares (if any) or on the sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares.

Controlled Foreign Corporation

The changes included in the Tax Act can impact the tax treatment of a U.S. person treated as a 10% U.S. Shareholder (as defined below). The Tax Act eliminated the prohibition on “downward attribution” from non-U.S. persons to U.S. persons under Section 958(b)(4) of the Code for purposes of determining constructive stock ownership under the controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”) rules. As a result, our U.S. subsidiary will be deemed to own all of the stock of our non-U.S. subsidiaries held by the Company for CFC purposes. To the extent one of our non-U.S. subsidiaries is treated as a CFC for any taxable year, each U.S. person treated as a 10% U.S. Shareholder (as defined below) with respect to such CFC that held our ordinary shares directly or indirectly through one or more non-U.S. entities (including the Company) as of the last day of such taxable year that the subsidiary was a CFC generally would be required to include in gross income as ordinary income its pro rata share of certain investment income of the CFC (with certain adjustments), regardless of whether that income was actually distributed to such U.S. person. A “10% U.S. Shareholder” of a non-U.S. corporation includes any U.S. person that owns (or is treated as owning) stock of the non-U.S. corporation possessing 10% or more of the total voting power or total value of such non-U.S. corporation’s stock. The legislative history of the Tax Act indicates that this change was not intended to cause our non-U.S. subsidiaries to be treated as CFCs with respect to a 10% U.S. Shareholder that is not related to our U.S. subsidiary. However, it is not clear whether the IRS or a court would interpret the change made by the Tax Act in a manner consistent with such indicated intent. To the extent that a non-U.S. subsidiary is treated as a CFC and as a PFIC for any taxable year, such non-U.S. subsidiary will be treated as a CFC and not as a PFIC with respect to any 10% U.S. Shareholder

You are strongly urged to consult your own tax advisors to determine whether your ownership of the ordinary shares will cause you to become a 10% U.S. Shareholder and the impact of such a classification.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

Unless an exception applies, information reporting to the IRS generally will be required with respect to payments on the ordinary shares and proceeds of the sale of the ordinary shares paid to U.S. Holders, other than corporations and other exempt recipients. Backup withholding, currently at the rate of 24%, may apply to those payments if such a holder fails to provide a taxpayer identification number to the paying agent and to certify that no loss of exemption from backup withholding has occurred. The amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules are not an additional tax and may be refunded, or credited against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided the required information is furnished to the IRS.

In addition, certain U.S. Holders who are individuals that hold certain foreign financial assets (which may include the ordinary shares), or who have a beneficial interest in or signatory authority over certain foreign

 

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financial accounts, are required to report information relating to such assets or accounts, subject to certain exceptions.

You should consult your own tax advisor regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding requirements to your particular situation.

Medicare Tax

Certain U.S. Holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay up to an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, interest, dividends and gains from the sale or other disposition of capital assets. Special rules apply and certain elections are available for certain U.S. Holders that are subject to the 3.8% tax on net investment income and hold shares in a PFIC. Each U.S. Holder that is an individual, estate or trust should consult its own tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this tax provision on their ownership and disposition of ordinary shares.

Information with Respect to Foreign Financial Assets

Certain U.S. Holders may be required to report information relating to an interest in our ordinary shares, subject to certain exceptions (including an exception for ordinary shares held in accounts maintained by certain U.S. financial institutions). U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this requirement on their ownership and disposition of the ordinary shares.

Transfer Reporting Requirements

A U.S. Holder (including a U.S. tax-exempt entity) that acquires equity of a non-U.S. corporation may be required to file a Form 926 or a similar form with the IRS under certain circumstances. Penalties may be imposed upon a U.S. Holder that fails to comply with the reporting requirements. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the applicability of this requirement to the acquisition or disposition of the ordinary shares.

Disclosure of Reportable Transactions

If a U.S. Holder sells or disposes of the ordinary shares at a loss or otherwise incurs certain losses that meet certain thresholds, such U.S. Holder may be required to file a disclosure statement with the IRS. Failure to comply with these and other reporting requirements could result in the imposition of significant penalties.

POTENTIAL PURCHASERS OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES ARE URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS TO DETERMINE THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL, AND NON-U.S. INCOME, GIFT, ESTATE OR GENERATION- SKIPPING TRANSFER, AND OTHER TAX AND TAX TREATY CONSIDERATIONS OF PURCHASING, OWNING AND DISPOSING OF OUR ORDINARY SHARES.

Material Singapore Tax Considerations

The following discussion is a summary of material Singapore income tax, stamp duty and estate duty considerations relevant to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares by an investor who is not tax resident or domiciled in Singapore and who does not carry on business or otherwise have a presence in Singapore. The statements made herein regarding taxation are based on certain aspects of the tax laws of Singapore and administrative guidelines issued by the relevant authorities in force as of the date hereof and are subject to any changes in such laws or administrative guidelines, or in the interpretation of those laws or guidelines, occurring after such date, which changes could be made on a retroactive basis. The statements made herein do not describe all of the tax considerations that may be relevant to all our shareholders, some of which (such as dealers in securities) may be subject to different rules. The statements are not intended to be and do not

 

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constitute legal or tax advice and no assurance can be given that courts or fiscal authorities responsible for the administration of such laws will agree with the interpretation adopted therein. Each prospective investor should consult an independent tax advisor regarding all Singapore income and other tax consequences applicable to them from owning or disposing of our ordinary shares in light of the investor’s particular circumstances.

Income Taxation Under Singapore Law

Dividend Distributions with Respect to Ordinary Shares

Singapore has a one-tier corporate income tax system. Under the one-tier corporate income tax system, the tax paid by a company that is tax resident in Singapore is a final tax. Any dividends paid by a company that is tax resident in Singapore are exempt from Singapore income tax in the hands of the company’s shareholders. As our company is a tax resident of Singapore, the dividends payable by our company will be one-tier tax-exempt dividends and will be exempt from Singapore income tax in the hands of our shareholders, regardless of their legal form or tax residence status. There will be no tax credits attached to the dividends payable by our company. There is no withholding tax on payment of dividends to non-resident shareholders.

Capital Gains upon Disposition of Ordinary Shares

Under current Singapore tax law, there is no tax on capital gains. As such, any profits from the disposal of our ordinary shares would not ordinarily be taxable in Singapore. However, there are no specific laws or regulations which deal with the characterization of whether a gain is income or capital in nature. If the gains from the disposal of ordinary shares are construed to be of an income nature (which could be the case if, for instance, the gains arise from activities which the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore regards as carrying on a trade or business in Singapore), the disposal profits would be taxable as income rather than capital gains. As the precise status of each prospective investor will vary from one another, each prospective investor should consult an independent tax advisor on the Singapore income tax and other tax consequences that will apply to their individual circumstances.

Subject to certain conditions being satisfied, gains derived by a company from the disposal of our ordinary shares between the period of June 1, 2012 and May 31, 2022 (inclusive of both dates) will not be subject to Singapore income tax, if the divesting company holds a minimum shareholding of 20% of our ordinary shares and these shares have been held for a continuous minimum period of 24 months.

In addition, shareholders who apply, or who are required to apply, the Singapore Financial Reporting Standard 39 (“FRS 39”), Financial Reporting Standard 109 (“FRS 109”), or Singapore Financial Reporting Standard (International) 9 (“SFRS(I) 9”) (as the case may be) for the purposes of Singapore income tax may be required to recognize gains or losses (not being gains or losses in the nature of capital) in accordance with the provisions of FRS 39, FRS 109 or SFRS(I) 9 (as modified by the applicable provisions of Singapore income tax law) even though no sale or disposal of our ordinary shares is made. Singapore corporate shareholders who may be subject to such tax treatment should consult their own accounting and tax advisors regarding the Singapore income tax consequences of their acquisition, holding and disposal of our ordinary shares.

Stamp Duty

There is no Singapore stamp duty payable in respect of the issuance or holding of our ordinary shares. Singapore stamp duty will be payable if there is an instrument of transfer of our ordinary shares executed in Singapore or if there is an instrument of transfer executed outside of Singapore which is received in Singapore. Under Singapore law, stamp duty is not applicable to electronic transfers of our shares effected on a book entry basis outside Singapore. We therefore expect that no Singapore stamp duty will be payable in respect of ordinary shares purchased by U.S. holders in this offering assuming that they are acquired solely in book entry form through the facility outside Singapore established by our transfer agent and registrar outside Singapore.

 

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Where shares evidenced in certificated form are transferred and an instrument of transfer is executed (whether physically or in the form of an electronic instrument) in Singapore or outside Singapore and which is received in Singapore, Singapore stamp duty is payable on the instrument of transfer for the sale of our ordinary shares at the rate of 0.2% of the consideration for, or market value of, the transferred shares, whichever is higher. The Singapore stamp duty is borne by the purchaser unless there is an agreement to the contrary. Where the instrument of transfer is executed outside of Singapore and is received in Singapore, Singapore stamp duty must be paid within 30 days of receipt of the instrument of transfer in Singapore. Electronic instruments that are executed outside Singapore are treated as received in Singapore in any of the following scenarios: (a) it is retrieved or accessed by a person in Singapore; (b) an electronic copy of it is stored on a device (including a computer) and brought into Singapore; or (c) an electronic copy of it is stored on a computer in Singapore. Where the instrument of transfer is executed in Singapore, Singapore stamp duty must be paid within 14 days of the execution of the instrument of transfer.

Goods and Services Tax

The issue or transfer of ownership of our ordinary shares would be exempt from Singapore goods and services tax, or GST. Hence, no GST would be incurred on the subscription or subsequent transfer of our ordinary shares.

The sale of our ordinary shares by a GST-registered investor belonging in Singapore for GST purposes to another person belonging in Singapore is an exempt supply not subject to GST. Any input GST incurred by the GST-registered investor in making the exempt supply is generally not recoverable from the Singapore Comptroller of GST.

Where our ordinary shares are sold by a GST-registered investor in the course of or furtherance of a business carried on by such investor contractually to and for the direct benefit of a person belonging outside Singapore, the sale should generally, subject to satisfaction of certain conditions, be considered a taxable supply subject to GST at 0%. Subject to the normal rules for input tax claims, any input GST incurred by the GST-registered investor in making such a supply in the course of or furtherance of a business carried out by such investor may be fully recoverable from the Singapore Comptroller of GST.

Each prospective investor should consult an independent tax advisor on the recoverability of input GST incurred on expenses in connection with the purchase and sale of our ordinary shares if applicable.

Services consisting of arranging, brokering, underwriting or advising on the issue, allotment or transfer of ownership of our ordinary shares rendered by a GST-registered person to an investor belonging in Singapore for GST purposes in connection with the investor’s purchase, sale or holding of our ordinary shares will be subject to GST at the standard rate of 7%. Similar services rendered by a GST-registered person contractually to and for the direct benefit of an investor belonging outside Singapore should generally, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, be subject to GST at 0%.

Estate Duty

Singapore estate duty has been abolished with effect from February 15, 2008 in relation to the estate of any person whose death has occurred on or after February 15, 2008.

Tax Treaties Regarding Withholding Taxes

There is currently no comprehensive avoidance of double taxation agreement between the United States and Singapore which applies to withholding taxes on dividends or capital gains.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

General

For the purposes of this section, references to “shareholders” mean those persons whose names and number of shares are entered in our register of members. Only persons who are registered in our register of members are recognized under Singapore law as shareholders of our company with legal standing to institute shareholder actions against us or otherwise seek to enforce their rights as shareholders. Our branch register of members is maintained by our transfer agent, Computershare Trust Company, N.A. (“Computershare”).

The shares offered in any offering pursuant to this prospectus are expected to be held through the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”). Accordingly, DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., will be the shareholder on record registered in our register of members. The holder of our shares held in book-entry through DTC or its nominee may become a registered shareholder by exchanging its interest in our shares for certificated shares and being registered in our register of members for such shares. The procedures by which a holder of book-entry interests held through DTC or its nominee may exchange such interests for certificated shares are determined by DTC and Computershare, in accordance with their internal policies and guidelines regulating the withdrawal and exchange of book-entry interests for certificated shares, and following such an exchange Computershare will perform the procedures to register the shares in the register.

Under the Singapore Companies Act, if (a) the name of any person is without sufficient cause entered in or omitted from the register of members; or (b) default is made or there is unnecessary delay in entering in the register of members the fact of any person having ceased to be a member, the person aggrieved or any member of the public company or the company itself, may apply to the Singapore courts for rectification of the register of members. The Singapore courts may either refuse the application or order rectification of the register of members, and may direct the company to pay any damages sustained by any party to the application. The Singapore courts will not entertain any application for the rectification of a register of members in respect of an entry which was made in the register of members more than 30 years before the date of the application.

As of March 31, 2019, there were outstanding:

 

   

34,255,406 ordinary shares;

 

   

3,901,348 Series A preferred shares held by one shareholder of record;

 

   

1,674,124 ordinary shares issuable upon vesting of outstanding restricted share units;

 

   

3,853,542 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding share options; and

 

   

201,898 ordinary shares reserved for issuance in connection with future grants under our equity incentive plan.

The following description of our share capital and provisions of our constitution (formerly known as our memorandum and articles of association) are summaries and are qualified by reference to the Singapore Companies Act and our constitution. A copy of our constitution has been filed with the SEC as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Ordinary Shares

As of March 31, 2019, our issued and paid-up ordinary share capital consists of 34,255,406 ordinary shares. We currently have only one class of issued ordinary shares, which have identical rights in all respects and rank equally with one another. Our ordinary shares have no par value and there is no authorized share capital under Singapore law. There is a provision in our constitution which provides that we may issue shares with such preferred, deferred or other special rights or such restrictions, whether in regard to dividend, voting, return of capital or otherwise as our board of directors may determine.

 

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All of our shares presently issued are fully paid-up, and existing shareholders are not subject to any calls on these shares. Although Singapore law does not recognize the concept of “non-assessability” with respect to newly-issued shares, we note that any purchaser of our shares who has fully paid up all amounts due with respect to such shares will not be subject under Singapore law to any personal liability to contribute to the assets or liabilities of our company in such purchaser’s capacity solely as a holder of such shares. We believe that this interpretation is substantively consistent with the concept of “non-assessability” under most, if not all, U.S. state corporations laws. All of our shares are in registered form. We cannot, except in the circumstances permitted by the Singapore Companies Act, grant any financial assistance for the acquisition or proposed acquisition of our own shares. Except as described below under “—Takeovers,” there are no limitations imposed by the Singapore Companies Act or by our constitution on the right of shareholders not resident in Singapore to hold or vote ordinary shares.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our ordinary shares is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

Nasdaq Global Market

Our ordinary shares are listed for quotation on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “WVE.”

New Shares

Under the Singapore Companies Act, new shares may be issued only with the prior approval of our shareholders in a general meeting. General approval may be sought from our shareholders in a general meeting for the issue of shares. Approval, if granted, will lapse at the earlier of:

 

   

the conclusion of the next annual general meeting; or

 

   

the expiration of the period within which the next annual general meeting is required by law to be held (i.e., within six months after the end of each financial year),

but any approval may be revoked or varied by the company in a general meeting.

Our shareholders have provided such general authority to issue new ordinary shares until the conclusion of our 2019 annual general meeting. Such approval will lapse in accordance with the preceding paragraph if our shareholders do not grant a new approval at our 2019 annual general meeting. Subject to this and the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and our constitution, our board of directors may allot and issue or grant options over or otherwise dispose of new ordinary shares to such persons on such terms and conditions and with the rights and restrictions as they may think fit to impose.

Preferred Shares

Series A Preferred Shares

As of March 31, 2019, we have 3,901,348 Series A preferred shares outstanding. These shares are currently held by one of our largest shareholders, Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. The terms of the Series A preferred shares as set out in our constitution include (1) no voting rights at any general meeting other than in limited circumstances, (2) a liquidation preference equal to $0.002 per Series A preferred share, (3) no entitlement to dividends and (4) the right to convert the Series A preferred shares at any time on a one-for-one basis into ordinary shares at the discretion of the holder in accordance with the constitution.

The holders of the Series A preferred shares are not entitled to vote at any general meeting. The only instances in which the holders of the Series A preferred shares are able to vote at a general meeting would be if (but only if)

 

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the matters to be discussed at the meeting relate to or there is intent to pass resolutions on (i) abrogating or changing the rights attached to the Series A preferred shares; and (ii) for the winding up of the Company. Such resolutions would require the unanimous approval of the holders of the Series A preferred shares.

Other Preferred Shares

Under the Singapore Companies Act, different classes of shares in a public company may be issued only if (a) the issue of the class or classes of shares is provided for in the constitution of the public company and (b) the constitution of the public company sets out in respect of each class of shares the rights attached to that class of shares. Our constitution provides that we may issue shares of a different class with preferred, deferred or other special rights, or such restrictions, whether in regard to dividend, voting, return of capital or otherwise as our board of directors may determine. Under Singapore law, our preferred shareholders will have the right to attend any general meeting and in a poll at such general meeting, to have at least one vote for every preferred share held:

 

   

upon any resolution concerning the voluntary winding-up of our company under Section 290 of the Singapore Companies Act;

 

   

upon any resolution which varies the rights attached to such preferred shares; or

 

   

in the case of preferred shares issued after August 15, 1984, but before the commencement of Section 96 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2014, when the dividends to be paid on our preferred shares or any part thereof are more than twelve months in arrears and unpaid, for the period they remain in arrears and unpaid.

We may, subject to the Singapore Companies Act and the prior approval in a general meeting of our shareholders, issue preferred shares which are, or at our option or are to be, subject to redemption provided that such preferred shares may not be redeemed out of capital unless:

 

   

all the directors have made a solvency statement in relation to such redemption; and

 

   

we have lodged a copy of the statement with the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority of Singapore.

Further, such shares must be fully paid-up before they are redeemed.

As of the date of this prospectus, we have no preferred shares outstanding other than the Series A preferred shares described above. At present, we have no plans to issue additional preferred shares.

Registration Rights under our Investors’ Rights Agreement

As of March 31, 2019, the holders of approximately 7.3 million of our ordinary shares are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of these shares under the Securities Act. These rights are provided under the terms of the Investors’ Rights Agreement dated as of August 14, 2015 between us and the holders of these shares, as amended on November 8, 2018, and include demand registration rights, Form S-3 registration rights and piggyback registration rights. We are generally required to bear all registration expenses incurred in connection with the demand, Form S-3 and piggyback registrations described below, other than underwriting commissions and discounts, and will pay the reasonable fees and expenses, not to exceed $25,000, of one special counsel to represent all participating shareholders in a registration.

Demand Registration Rights

Under the terms of the Investors’ Rights Agreement, we will be required, upon the request of holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding shares of Registrable Securities, as such term is defined in the Investors’ Rights

 

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Agreement, requesting registration of at least 50% of the then-outstanding shares of Registrable Securities having an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $25.0 million, net of selling expenses, to effect the registration of such shares on Form S-1 for public resale. We are required to effect only one registration pursuant to this provision of the Investors’ Rights Agreement.

Form S-3 Registration Rights

At any time that we are entitled under the Securities Act to register our shares on Form S-3 and the holders of at least 30% of the then-outstanding Registrable Securities request that we register their shares for public resale on Form S-3 with an aggregate offering price of the shares to be registered of at least $5.0 million, net of selling expenses, we will be required to effect such registration. If, however, our chief executive officer certifies that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our shareholders for such registration to become or remain effective because such action would (i) materially interfere with a significant acquisition, corporate reorganization or similar transaction involving us, (ii) require premature disclosure of material information that we have a bona fide business purpose for preserving as confidential, or (iii) render us unable to comply with requirements under the Securities Act or Exchange Act, then we will have the right to defer the registration for up to 120 days. We are only obligated to effect up to one registration on Form S-3 within any 12 month period.

Piggyback Registration Rights

If we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other shareholders, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering if the underwriters believe that including these shares would adversely affect the offering. In connection with the filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, the holders of registrable securities were entitled to, and the necessary percentage of holders waived, their rights to include their shares of registrable securities in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Indemnification

Our Investors’ Rights Agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

Termination of Registration Rights

The registration rights granted under the Investors’ Rights Agreement will terminate on December 31, 2019 or, with respect to any holder of registrable securities, such earlier time as all such registrable securities held by such holder are available for resale without limitation during a three-month period without registration, pursuant to Rule 144 or another similar exemption under the Securities Act.

Registration Rights under our Share Purchase Agreement with Pfizer

Under the terms of our Share Purchase Agreement dated as of May 5, 2016 with an affiliate of Pfizer Inc. (the “Pfizer Affiliate”), the Pfizer Affiliate agreed that the 1,875,000 ordinary shares that the Pfizer Affiliate purchased from us under the Share Purchase Agreement (the “Pfizer Shares”), are subject to a lock-up restriction, such that the Pfizer Affiliate will not, and will also cause its affiliates not to, without our prior approval, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of the Pfizer Shares until certain specified periods of time after the effective date of the Share Purchase Agreement. For a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, we agreed to provide certain demand registration rights to the Pfizer Affiliate

 

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in order to register all or a portion of the Pfizer Shares purchased by the Pfizer Affiliate. We also provided the Pfizer Affiliate with certain “piggyback” registration rights for a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, such that when we propose to register our ordinary shares for our account, the Pfizer Affiliate will have the right to include some or all of the Pfizer Shares in such registration. The Share Purchase Agreement also contains other customary terms and conditions of the parties with respect to the registration of the Pfizer Shares.

Registration Rights under our Share Purchase Agreement with Takeda

On February 19, 2018, the Company entered into a share purchase agreement with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (“Takeda”), pursuant to which Takeda purchased 1,096,892 of the Company’s ordinary shares (the “Takeda Shares”). In connection with the share purchase agreement, Takeda and the Company agreed upon certain rights and restrictions as set forth in the Investor Agreement, dated as of April 2, 2018. The Takeda Shares are subject to a lock-up restriction, such that Takeda will not, and will also cause its affiliates not to, without our prior approval, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of the Takeda Shares until certain specified periods of time after the effective date of the Investor Agreement. For a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, we agreed to provide certain demand registration rights to Takeda in order to register all or a portion of the Takeda Shares purchased by Takeda. We also provided Takeda with certain “piggyback” registration rights for a certain period following the expiration of the lock-up period, subject to certain conditions and limitations, such that when we propose to register our ordinary shares for our account, Takeda will have the right to include some or all of the Takeda Shares in such registration. The Investor Agreement also contains other customary terms and conditions of the parties with respect to the registration of Takeda Shares.

Transfer of Ordinary Shares

Subject to applicable securities laws in relevant jurisdictions and our constitution, our ordinary shares are freely transferable. Our constitution provides that shares may be transferred by a duly signed instrument of transfer in any usual or common form or in a form approved by the directors and Nasdaq. The directors may decline to register any transfer unless, among other things, evidence of payment of any stamp duty payable with respect to the transfer is provided together with other evidence of ownership and title as the directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer. We will replace lost or destroyed certificates for shares upon notice to us and upon, among other things, the applicant furnishing evidence and indemnity as the directors may require and the payment of all applicable fees.

Election and Re-election of Directors

We may, by ordinary resolution, remove any director before the expiration of his or her period of office, notwithstanding anything in our constitution or in any agreement between us and such director. We may also, by an ordinary resolution, appoint another person in place of a director removed from office pursuant to the foregoing.

Under our constitution, subject to the Singapore Companies Act, any director shall retire at the next annual general meeting and shall then be eligible for re-election at that meeting.

Our board of directors shall have the power, at any time and from time to time, to appoint any person to be a director either to fill a casual vacancy or as an additional director so long as the total number of directors shall not at any time exceed the maximum number (if any) fixed by or in accordance with our constitution.

Shareholders’ Meetings

We are required to hold an annual general meeting each calendar year and within six months after the end of each financial year. The directors may convene an extraordinary general meeting whenever they think fit and they

 

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must do so upon the written request of shareholders holding not less than 10% of the total number of paid-up shares as of the date of deposit of the requisition carrying the right to vote at a general meeting. In addition, two or more shareholders holding not less than 10% of our total number of issued shares (excluding our treasury shares) may call a meeting of our shareholders.

The Singapore Companies Act provides that a shareholder is entitled to attend any general meeting and speak on any resolution put before the general meeting. Unless otherwise required by law or by our constitution, resolutions put forth at general meetings may be decided by ordinary resolution, requiring the affirmative vote of a majority of the shareholders present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the resolution. An ordinary resolution suffices, for example, for appointments of directors. A special resolution, requiring an affirmative vote of not less than three-fourths of the shareholders present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the resolution, is necessary for certain matters under Singapore law, such as an alteration of our constitution. A shareholder entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company, or at a meeting of any class of shareholders of the company, shall be entitled to appoint another person or persons, whether a shareholder of the company or not, as his proxy to attend and vote instead of the shareholder at the meeting. Under the Singapore Companies Act, a proxy appointed to attend and vote instead of the shareholder shall also have the same right as the shareholder to speak at the meeting, but unless the constitution of the company otherwise provides, (i) a proxy shall not be entitled to vote except on a poll, (ii) a shareholder shall not be entitled to appoint more than two proxies to attend and vote at the same meeting and (iii) where a shareholder appoints two proxies the appointment shall be invalid unless the shareholder specifies the proportions of his holdings to be represented by each proxy.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, a registered shareholder entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company held pursuant to an order of court under Section 210(1) of the Singapore Companies Act, or at any adjourned meeting under Section 210(3) of the Singapore Companies Act, is, unless the court orders otherwise, entitled to appoint only one proxy to attend and vote at the same meeting, and except where the aforementioned applies, a registered shareholder having a share capital who is a relevant intermediary (as defined under the Singapore Companies Act) may appoint more than two proxies in relation to a meeting to exercise all or any of his rights to attend and to speak and vote at the meeting, but each proxy must be appointed to exercise the rights attached to a different share or shares held by him (which number and class of shares shall be specified), and at such meeting, the proxy has the right to vote on a show of hands.

Only registered shareholders of our company, and their proxies, will be entitled to attend, speak and vote at any meeting of shareholders. Under the Singapore Companies Act, public companies may issue non-voting shares and shares that confer special, limited or conditional voting rights, such that the holder of a share may vote on a resolution before a general meeting of the company if, in accordance with the provisions of Section 64A of the Singapore Companies Act, the share confers on the holder a right to vote on that resolution.

Voting Rights

As provided under our constitution and the Singapore Companies Act, voting at any meeting of shareholders is by show of hands unless a poll has been demanded prior to the declaration of the result of the show of hands by, among others, (i) the chairman or (ii) at least one shareholder present in person or by proxy or by attorney or, in the case of a corporation, by a representative entitled to vote thereat, in each case representing in the aggregate not less than 5% of the total voting rights of all shareholders having the right to vote at the general meeting, provided that no poll shall be demanded in respect of an election of a chairman or relating to any adjournment of such meeting. On a poll every shareholder who is present in person or by proxy or by attorney, or in the case of a corporation, by a representative, has one vote for every share held by such shareholder. Proxies need not be shareholders.

Only those shareholders who are registered in our register of members as holders of ordinary shares will be entitled to vote at any meeting of shareholders. Therefore, DTC, or its nominee, will grant an omnibus proxy to

 

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DTC participants holding our shares in book-entry form through a broker, bank, nominee, or other institution that is a direct or indirect participant in the DTC. Such shareholders will have the right to instruct their broker, bank, nominee or other institution holding these shares on how to vote such shares by completing the voting instruction form provided by the applicable broker, bank, nominee, or other institution. Whether voting is by a show of hands or by a poll, DTC’s vote will be voted by the chairman of the meeting according to the results of the DTC’s participants’ votes (which results will reflect the instructions received from shareholders that own our shares electronically in book-entry form).

Minority Rights

The rights of minority shareholders of Singapore companies are protected, among other things, under Section 216 of the Singapore Companies Act, which gives the Singapore courts a general power to make any order, upon application by any shareholder of a company, as they think fit to remedy any of the following situations:

 

   

the affairs of a company are being conducted or the powers of the board of directors are being exercised in a manner oppressive to, or in disregard of the interests of, one or more of the shareholders, including the applicant; or

 

   

a company takes an action, or threatens to take an action, or the shareholders pass a resolution, or propose to pass a resolution, which unfairly discriminates against, or is otherwise prejudicial to, one or more of the shareholders, including the applicant.

Singapore courts have wide discretion as to the remedy they may grant, and the remedies listed in the Singapore Companies Act itself are not exclusive. In general, Singapore courts may, with a view to bringing to an end or remedying the matters complained of:

 

   

direct or prohibit any act or cancel or modify any transaction or resolution;

 

   

regulate the conduct of the affairs of the company in the future;

 

   

authorize civil proceedings to be brought in the name of, or on behalf of, the company by a person or persons and on such terms as the court may direct;

 

   

provide for the purchase of a minority shareholder’s shares by the other shareholders or by the company itself;

 

   

in the case of a purchase of shares by the company provide for a reduction accordingly of the company’s capital; or

 

   

provide that the company be wound up.

Dividends

Subject to any preferential rights of holders of any outstanding preferred shares, holders of our ordinary shares will be entitled to receive dividends and other distributions in cash, shares or property as may be declared by our company from time to time. We may, by ordinary resolution, declare dividends at a general meeting of shareholders, but we are restricted from paying dividends in excess of the amount recommended by our board of directors. Pursuant to Singapore law and our constitution, no dividend may be paid except out of our profits. To date, we have not declared any cash dividends on our ordinary shares and have no current plans to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

Bonus and Rights Issues

In a general meeting, our shareholders may, upon the recommendation of the directors, capitalize any reserves or profits and distribute them as bonus shares, credited as paid-up, to the shareholders in proportion to their shareholdings.

 

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Subject to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and our constitution, our directors may also issue rights to take up additional ordinary shares to our shareholders in proportion to their respective ownership. Such rights are subject to any condition attached to such issue and the regulations of any stock exchange on which our shares are listed, as well as U.S. federal and blue sky securities laws applicable to such issue.

Takeovers

The Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers applies to, among other things, the acquisition of voting shares of Singapore-incorporated public listed companies or unlisted public companies with more than 50 shareholders and net tangible assets of S$5 million or more. Any person acquiring, whether by a series of transactions over a period of time or not, either on his or her own or together with parties acting in concert with such person, 30% or more of our voting shares, or, if such person holds, either on his or her own or together with parties acting in concert with such person, between 30% and 50% (both amounts inclusive) of our voting shares, and if such person (or parties acting in concert with such person) acquires additional voting shares representing more than 1% of our voting shares in any six-month period, must, except with the consent of the Securities Industry Council in Singapore, extend a mandatory takeover offer for the remaining voting shares in accordance with the provisions of the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers. Responsibility for ensuring compliance with the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers rests with parties (including company directors) to a take-over or merger and their advisors.

“Parties acting in concert” comprise individuals or companies who, pursuant to an agreement or understanding (whether formal or informal), cooperate, through the acquisition by any of them of shares in a company, to obtain or consolidate effective control of that company. Certain persons are presumed (unless the presumption is rebutted) to be acting in concert with each other. They are as follows:

 

   

a company, its parent company, subsidiaries and fellow subsidiaries, the associated companies of any of the company and its related companies, subsidiaries and fellow subsidiaries, companies whose associated companies include any of these companies and any person who has provided financial assistance (other than a bank in the ordinary course of business) to any of the foregoing for the purchase of voting rights;

 

   

a company with any of its directors (together with their close relatives, related trusts and companies controlled by any of the directors, their close relatives and related trusts);

 

   

a company with any of its pension funds and employee share schemes;

 

   

a person with any investment company, unit trust or other fund whose investment such person manages on a discretionary basis, but only in respect of the investment account which such person manages;

 

   

a financial or other professional advisor, including a stockbroker, with its client in respect of the shareholdings of the advisor and persons controlling, controlled by or under the same control as the advisor;

 

   

directors of a company (together with their close relatives, related trusts and companies controlled by any of such directors, their close relatives and related trusts) which is subject to an offer or where the directors have reason to believe a bona fide offer for their company may be imminent;

 

   

partners; and

 

   

an individual and (i) such person’s close relatives, (ii) such person’s related trusts, (iii) any person who is accustomed to act in accordance with such person’s instructions, (iv) companies controlled by the individual, such person’s close relatives, related trusts or any person who is accustomed to act in accordance with such person’s instructions and (v) any person who has provided financial assistance (other than a bank in the ordinary course of business) to any of the foregoing for the purchase of voting rights.

 

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Subject to certain exceptions, a mandatory offer must be in cash or be accompanied by a cash alternative at not less than the highest price paid by the offeror or parties acting in concert with the offeror during the offer period and within the six months prior to its commencement.

Under the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers, where effective control of a company is acquired or consolidated by a person, or persons acting in concert, a general offer to all other shareholders is normally required. An offeror must treat all shareholders of the same class in an offeree company equally. A fundamental requirement is that shareholders in the company subject to the takeover offer must be given sufficient information, advice and time to consider and decide on the offer. These legal requirements may impede or delay a takeover of our company by a third-party.

We may submit an application to the Securities Industry Council of Singapore for a waiver from the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers so that the Singapore Code on Take-overs and Mergers will not apply to our company for so long as we are not listed on a securities exchange in Singapore. We will make an appropriate announcement if we submit the application and when the result of the application is known.

Liquidation or Other Return of Capital

On a winding-up or other return of capital, subject to any special rights attaching the Series A preferred shares or to any other class of shares, holders of ordinary shares will be entitled to participate in any surplus assets in proportion to their shareholdings.

Limitations of Liability and Indemnification Matters

Under Section 172 of the Singapore Companies Act, any provision exempting or indemnifying the officers of a company (including directors) against any liability that would otherwise attach to them in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company is void. However, a company is not prohibited from (a) purchasing and maintaining for any such individual insurance against liability incurred by him or her in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company, or (b) indemnifying the individual against liability incurred by him or her to a person other than the company except when the indemnity is against any liability (i) of the individual to pay a fine in criminal proceedings, (ii) of the individual to pay a penalty in respect of non-compliance with any requirements of a regulatory nature (howsoever arising), (iii) incurred by the individual in defending criminal proceedings in which he or she is convicted, (iv) incurred by the individual in defending civil proceedings brought by the company or a related company in which judgment is given against him or her, or (v) incurred by the individual in connection with an application for relief under Section 76A(13) or Section 391 of the Singapore Companies Act in which the court refuses to grant him or her relief.

Subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force concerning companies and affecting us, our constitution provides that each of our directors and other officers and those of our subsidiaries and affiliates shall be entitled to be indemnified by us or such subsidiary against any liability incurred by him or her arising out of or in connection with any acts, omissions or conduct, actual or alleged, by such individual acting in his or her capacity as either director, officer, secretary or employee of us or the relevant subsidiary, except to such extent as would not be permitted under applicable Singapore laws or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being void in accordance with the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act.

Subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force and affecting our company, we may indemnify our directors and officers against costs, charges, fees and other expenses that may be incurred by any of them in defending any proceedings (whether civil or criminal) relating to anything done or omitted or alleged to be done or omitted by such person acting in his or her capacity as a director, officer or employee of our company, in which judgment is given in his or her favor, or in which he or she is acquitted or in which the courts have granted relief pursuant to the provisions of the Singapore Companies

 

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Act, provided that such indemnity shall not extend to any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he may be guilty in relation to our company, or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being voided under applicable Singapore laws.

No director or officer of our company shall be liable for any acts, omissions, neglects, defaults or other conduct of any other director or officer, and to the extent permitted by Singapore law, our company shall contribute to the amount paid or payable by a director or officer in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative fault of such director or officer, taking into consideration any other relevant equitable considerations, including acts of other directors or officers and our company, and the relative fault of such parties in respect thereof.

In addition, subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force and affecting our company, no director, managing director or other officer shall be liable for the acts, receipts, neglects or defaults of any other director or officer, or for joining in any receipt or other act for conformity, or for any loss or expense incurred by us, through the insufficiency or deficiency of title to any property acquired by order of the directors for us or for the insufficiency or deficiency of any security upon which any of our moneys are invested or for any loss or damage arising from the bankruptcy, insolvency or tortious act of any person with whom any moneys, securities or effects are deposited, or any other loss, damage or misfortune which happens in the execution of his duties, unless the same happens through his own negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust.

We have entered into deeds of indemnity with each of our directors and officers. These agreements will require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under our constitution and the Singapore Companies Act against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us as a director or officer of the company (as the case may be), and to advance expenses incurred in connection with any proceeding against them by reason of their status as a director, officer, agent or employee of the company in accordance with the terms of the deeds. These indemnification rights shall not be exclusive of any other right which an indemnified person may have or thereafter acquire under any applicable law, provision of our constitution, agreement, vote of shareholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

We expect to maintain standard policies of insurance that provide coverage (1) to our directors and officers against loss rising from claims made by reason of breach of duty or other wrongful act and (2) to us with respect to indemnification payments that we may make to such directors and officers.

 

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COMPARISON OF SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS

We are incorporated under the laws of Singapore. The following discussion summarizes material differences between the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and the rights of holders of the common stock of a typical corporation incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware which result from differences in governing documents and the laws of Singapore and Delaware.

This discussion does not purport to be a complete statement of the rights of holders of our ordinary shares under applicable law in Singapore and our constitution or the rights of holders of the common stock of a typical corporation under applicable Delaware law and a typical certificate of incorporation and bylaws.

 

Delaware

  

Singapore

Board of Directors

A typical certificate of incorporation and bylaws provides that the number of directors on the board of directors will be fixed from time to time by a vote of the majority of the authorized directors. Under Delaware law, a board of directors can be divided into classes and cumulative voting in the election of directors is only permitted if expressly authorized in a corporation’s certificate of incorporation.    The constitution of companies will typically state the minimum and maximum number of directors as well as provide that the number of directors may be increased or reduced by shareholders via ordinary resolution passed at a general meeting, provided that the number of directors following such increase or reduction is within the maximum (if any) and minimum number of directors provided in our constitution and the Singapore Companies Act, respectively.

Limitation on Personal Liability of Directors

A typical certificate of incorporation provides for the elimination of personal monetary liability of directors for breach of fiduciary duties as directors to the fullest extent permissible under the laws of Delaware, except for liability (i) for any breach of a director’s loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (relating to the liability of directors for unlawful payment of a dividend or an unlawful stock purchase or redemption) or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. A typical certificate of incorporation also provides that if the Delaware General Corporation Law is amended so as to allow further elimination of, or limitations on, director liability, then the liability of directors will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law as so amended.    Pursuant to the Singapore Companies Act, any provision (whether in the constitution, a contract with the company or otherwise) exempting or indemnifying a director against any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which such director may be guilty in relation to the company is void. However, a company is not prohibited from (a) purchasing and maintaining for any such director insurance against any such liability, or (b) indemnifying such director against any liability incurred by him or her to a person other than the company except when the indemnity is against any liability (i) of the director to pay a fine in criminal proceedings, (ii) of the director to pay a penalty in respect of non-compliance with any regulatory requirements, (iii) incurred by the director in defending criminal proceedings in which he or she is convicted, (iv) incurred by the director in defending civil proceedings brought by the company or a related company in which judgment is given against him or her, or (v) incurred by the director in connection with an application for relief under Section 76A(13) or Section 391 of the Singapore Companies Act in which the court refuses to grant him or her relief. Nevertheless, a director can be

 

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Delaware

  

Singapore

  

released by the shareholders of a company for breaches of duty to a company except in the case of fraud, illegality, insolvency of the company and oppression or disregard of minority interests.

 

Subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force and affecting the Company, we may indemnify our directors against costs, charges, fees, and other expenses that may be incurred by any of them in defending any proceedings (whether civil or criminal) relating to anything done or omitted or alleged to be done or omitted by such person acting in his or her capacity as a director of our company, in which judgment is given in his or her favor, or in which he or she is acquitted or in which the courts have granted relief pursuant to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, provided that such indemnity shall not extend to any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he may be guilty in relation to our company, or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being voided under applicable Singapore laws.

Interested Shareholders

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in specified corporate transactions (such as mergers, stock and asset sales, and loans) with an “interested stockholder” for three years following the time that the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Subject to specified exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person or group that owns 15% or more of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock (including any rights to acquire stock pursuant to an option, warrant, agreement, arrangement or understanding, or upon the exercise of conversion or exchange rights, and stock with respect to which the person has voting rights only), or is an affiliate or associate of the corporation and was the owner of 15% or more of the voting stock at any time within the previous three years.

 

A Delaware corporation may elect to “opt out” of, and not be governed by, Section 203 through a provision in either its original certificate of incorporation, or an amendment to its original certificate or bylaws that was approved by majority stockholder vote. With a limited exception, this amendment would not become effective until 12 months following its adoption.

   There are no comparable provisions under the Singapore Companies Act with respect to public companies which are not listed on the Singapore Exchange Securities Trading Limited.

 

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Delaware

  

Singapore

Removal of Directors

A typical certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that, subject to the rights of holders of any preferred stock, directors may be removed at any time by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority, or in some instances a supermajority, of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. A certificate of incorporation could also provide that such a right is only exercisable when a director is being removed for cause (removal of a director only for cause is the default rule in the case of a classified board).    Under the Singapore Companies Act, directors of a public company may be removed before expiration of their term of office, notwithstanding anything in its constitution or in any agreement between the public company and such directors, by ordinary resolution (i.e., a resolution which is passed by a simple majority of those shareholders present and voting in person or by proxy). Notice of the intention to move such a resolution has to be given to the company not less than 28 days before the meeting at which it is moved. The company shall then give notice of such resolution to its shareholders not less than 14 days before the meeting. Where any director removed in this manner was appointed to represent the interests of any particular class of shareholders or debenture holders, the resolution to remove such director will not take effect until such director’s successor has been appointed.

Filling Vacancies on the Board of Directors

A typical certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that, subject to the rights of the holders of any preferred stock, any vacancy, whether arising through death, resignation, retirement, disqualification, removal, an increase in the number of directors or any other reason, may be filled by a majority vote of the remaining directors, even if such directors remaining in office constitute less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. Any newly elected director usually holds office for the remainder of the full term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders at which the term of the class of directors to which the newly elected director has been elected expires.    The constitution of a Singapore company typically provides that the directors have the power to appoint any person to be a director, either to fill a vacancy or as an addition to the existing directors, but so that the total number of directors shall not at any time exceed the maximum number (if any) fixed by or in accordance with the constitution. Any director so appointed shall hold office until the next following annual general meeting, where such director will then be eligible for re-election. Our constitution provides that the directors may appoint any person to be a director either to fill a casual vacancy or as an additional director but so that the total number of Directors shall not at any time exceed the maximum number fixed by or in accordance with the constitution.

Amendment of Governing Documents

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, amendments to a corporation’s certificate of incorporation require the approval of stockholders holding a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment. If a class vote on the amendment is required by the Delaware General Corporation Law, a majority of the outstanding stock of the class is required, unless a greater proportion is specified in the certificate of incorporation or by other provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law.   

Our constitution may be altered by special resolution (i.e., a resolution passed by at least a three-fourths majority of the shareholders entitled to vote, present in person or by proxy at a meeting for which not less than 21 days’ written notice is given). The board of directors has no right to amend the constitution.

 

Under the Singapore Companies Act, an entrenching provision may be included in the constitution with which a company is formed and may at any time be inserted into the constitution of a company only if all

 

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Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, the board of directors may amend bylaws if so authorized in the charter. The stockholders of a Delaware corporation also have the power to amend bylaws.    the shareholders of the company agree. An entrenching provision is a provision of the constitution of a company to the effect that other specified provisions of the constitution may not be altered in the manner provided by the Singapore Companies Act or may not be so altered except (i) by a resolution passed by a specified majority greater than 75% (the minimum majority required by the Singapore Companies Act for a special resolution) or (ii) where other specified conditions are met. The Singapore Companies Act provides that such entrenching provision may be removed or altered only if all the members of the company agree.

Meetings of Shareholders

Annual and Special Meetings

 

Typical bylaws provide that annual meetings of stockholders are to be held on a date and at a time fixed by the board of directors. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a special meeting of stockholders may be called by the board of directors or by any other person authorized to do so in the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws.

  

Annual General Meetings

 

All companies are required to hold an annual general meeting after the end of each financial year within either 4 months (in the case of a public company that is listed on an exchange in Singapore approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore) or 6 months (in the case of any other company).

  

Extraordinary General Meetings

 

Any general meeting other than the annual general meeting is called an “extraordinary general meeting.” Notwithstanding anything in the constitution, directors of a company are required to convene an extraordinary general meeting if required to do so by requisition (i.e. written notice, requiring that a meeting be called, given to the directors) by shareholder(s) holding not less than 10% of the total number of paid-up shares as at the date of the deposit of the requisition carrying the right of voting at general meetings of the company. In addition, the constitution usually also provides that general meetings may be convened in accordance with the Singapore Companies Act by the directors.

Quorum Requirements

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws can specify the number of shares which constitute the quorum required to conduct business at a meeting, provided that in no event shall a quorum consist of less than one-third of the shares entitled to vote at a meeting.

  

Quorum Requirements

 

Our constitution provides that any two shareholders present in person or by proxy or by attorney or, in the case of a corporation, by a representative and entitled to vote thereat; in each case representing in aggregate not less than a majority of the total voting rights of all shareholders having the right to vote at a general meeting, shall constitute a quorum. In the event a quorum is not present, the meeting if not convened on the requisition of shareholders may be adjourned

 

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for one week. When reconvened, the quorum for the meeting will be the same and if at such adjourned meeting a quorum is not present, the meeting will be dissolved.

 

Shareholders’ Rights at Meetings

 

The Singapore Companies Act provides that every member shall, notwithstanding any provision in the constitution, have a right to attend any general meeting of the company and to speak on any resolution before the meeting. The company’s constitution may provide that a member shall not be entitled to vote unless all calls or other sums personally payable by him in respect of shares in the company have been paid.

 

Public companies may issue non-voting shares and shares that confer special, limited and conditional voting rights, such that the holder of a share may vote on a resolution before a general meeting if, in accordance with the provisions of Section 64A of the Singapore Companies Act, the share confers on the holder a right to vote on the resolution.

 

Circulation of Shareholders’ Resolutions

 

Under the Singapore Companies Act, (a) any number of shareholders representing not less than 5% of the total voting rights of all the shareholders having at the date of requisition a right to vote at a meeting to which the requisition relates or (b) not less than 100 shareholders holding shares on which there has been paid up an average sum, per shareholder, of not less than S$500, may requisition the company to give to shareholders notice of any resolution which may properly be moved and is intended to be moved at the next annual general meeting, and circulate to shareholders any statement of not more than 1,000 words with respect to the matter referred to in any proposed resolution or the business to be dealt with at that meeting.

Indemnification of Officers, Directors and Employees

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to specified limitations in the case of derivative suits brought by a corporation’s stockholders in its name, a corporation may indemnify any person who is made a party to any third-party action, suit or proceeding on account of being a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation (or was serving at the request of the corporation in such capacity for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise)    Under Section 172 of the Singapore Companies Act, any provision exempting or indemnifying the officers of a company (including directors) against liability, which by law would otherwise attach to them in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company is void.

 

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against expenses, including attorney’s fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with the action, suit or proceeding through, among other things, a majority vote of a quorum consisting of directors who were not parties to the suit or proceeding, if the person:

 

•  acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation or, in some circumstances, at least not opposed to its best interests; and

 

•  in a criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

 

Delaware corporate law permits indemnification by a corporation under similar circumstances for expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such persons in connection with the defense or settlement of a derivative action or suit, except that no indemnification may be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which the person is adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless the Delaware Court of Chancery or the court in which the action or suit was brought determines upon application that the person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for the expenses which the court deems to be proper.

 

To the extent a director, officer, employee or agent is successful in the defense of such an action, suit or proceeding, the corporation is required by Delaware corporate law to indemnify such person for reasonable expenses incurred thereby. Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by such persons in defending any action, suit or proceeding may be paid in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of that person to repay the amount if it is ultimately determined that that person is not entitled to be so indemnified.

  

However, the Singapore Companies Act allows a company to:

 

•  purchase and maintain for any officer insurance against any liability which by law would otherwise attach to such officer in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company;

 

•  indemnify such officer against any liability incurred by him or her to a person other than the company except when the indemnity is against any liability (i) of the officer to pay a fine in criminal proceedings, (ii) of the officer to pay a penalty in respect of non-compliance with any regulatory requirements, (iii) incurred by the officer in defending criminal proceedings in which he or she is convicted, (iv) incurred by the officer in defending civil proceedings brought by the company or a related company in which judgment is given against him or her, or (v) incurred by the officer in connection with an application for relief under Section 76A(13) or Section 391 of the Singapore Companies Act in which the court refuses to grant him or her relief.

 

In cases where a director is sued by the company, the Singapore Companies Act gives the court the power to relieve directors either wholly or partially from their liability for their negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust. In order for relief to be obtained, it must be shown that (i) the director acted reasonably and honestly; and (ii) it is fair, having regard to all the circumstances of the case including those connected with such director’s appointment, to excuse the director. However, Singapore case law has indicated that such relief will not be granted to a director who has benefited as a result of his or her breach of trust.

 

Our constitution provides that subject to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and every other applicable statute for the time being in force concerning companies and affecting the company, the directors and officers are entitled to be indemnified against costs, charges, fees and other expenses that may be incurred by such person in defending any proceedings, whether civil or criminal, which relates to anything done or omitted or alleged

 

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   to be done or omitted by such person as a director, officer or employee of the company and in which judgment is given in his or her favor or in which such person is acquitted or in which the courts have granted relief pursuant to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, provided that such indemnity shall not extend to any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he or she may be guilty in relation to the company, or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being voided under applicable Singapore laws.

Shareholder Approval of Issuances of Shares

Under Delaware law, the board of directors has the authority to issue, from time to time, capital stock in its sole discretion, as long the number the shares to be issued, together with those shares that are already issued and outstanding and those shares reserved to be issued, do not exceed the authorized capital for the corporation as previously approved by the stockholders and set forth in the corporation’s certificate of incorporation. Under the foregoing circumstances, no additional stockholder approval is required for the issuance of capital stock. Under Delaware law, stockholder approval is required (i) for any amendment to the corporation’s certificate of incorporation to increase the authorized capital and (ii) for the issuance of stock in a direct merger transaction where the number of shares exceeds 20% of the corporation’s shares outstanding prior to the transaction, regardless of whether there sufficient authorized capital.    Section 161 of the Singapore Companies Act provides that notwithstanding anything in the company’s constitution, the directors shall not exercise any power to issue shares without prior approval of Company’s shareholders in a general meeting. The affirmative vote of shareholders holding at least a majority of the ordinary shares held by the shareholders present in person or represented by proxy at the annual general meeting and entitled to vote is required for this authorization. Once this shareholders’ approval is obtained, unless previously revoked or varied by the company in general meeting, it continues in force until the conclusion of the next annual general meeting or the expiration of the period within which the next annual general meeting after that date is required by law to be held, whichever is earlier; but any approval may be revoked or varied by the company in general meeting. Notwithstanding this general authorization to allot and issue our ordinary shares, Wave will be required to seek shareholder approval with respect to future issuances of ordinary shares, where required under the Nasdaq Stock Market rules, such as if we were to propose an issuance of ordinary shares that would result in a change in control of Wave or in connection with a transaction involving the issuance of ordinary shares representing 20% or more of our outstanding ordinary shares.

Shareholder Approval of Business Combinations

Generally, under the Delaware General Corporation Law, completion of a merger, consolidation, or the sale, lease or exchange of substantially all of a corporation’s assets or dissolution requires approval by the board of directors and by a majority (unless the certificate of   

The Singapore Companies Act mandates that specified corporate actions require approval by the shareholders in a general meeting, notably:

 

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incorporation requires a higher percentage) of outstanding stock of the corporation entitled to vote.

 

The Delaware General Corporation Law also requires a special vote of stockholders in connection with a business combination with an “interested stockholder” as defined in section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. See “—Interested Shareholders” above.

  

carry into effect any proposals for disposing of the whole or substantially the whole of the company’s undertaking or property unless those proposals have been approved by shareholders in a general meeting;

 

•  the company may by special resolution resolve that it be wound up voluntarily;

 

•  subject to the constitution of each amalgamating company, an amalgamation proposal must be approved by the shareholders of each amalgamating company via special resolution at a general meeting;

 

•  a compromise or arrangement proposed between a company and its shareholders, or any class of them, must, among other things, be approved by a majority in number representing three-fourths in value of the shareholders or class of shareholders present and voting either in person or by proxy at the meeting ordered by the court; and

 

•  notwithstanding anything in the company’s constitution, the directors may not, without the prior approval of shareholders, issue shares, including shares being issued in connection with corporate actions.

Shareholder Action Without A Meeting

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, unless otherwise provided in a corporation’s certificate of incorporation, any action that may be taken at a meeting of stockholders may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote if the holders of outstanding stock, having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize such action, consent in writing. It is not uncommon for a corporation’s certificate of incorporation to prohibit such action.    There are no equivalent provisions under the Singapore Companies Act in respect of public companies which are listed on a securities exchange, like our company.

Shareholder Suits

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a stockholder may bring a derivative action on behalf of the corporation to enforce the rights of the corporation. An individual also may commence a class action suit on behalf of himself or herself and other similarly situated stockholders where the requirements for maintaining a   

Standing

 

Only registered shareholders of our company reflected in our register of members are recognized under Singapore law as shareholders of our company. As a result, only registered shareholders have legal standing to institute shareholder actions against us or

 

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class action under the Delaware General Corporation Law have been met. A person may institute and maintain such a suit only if such person was a stockholder at the time of the transaction which is the subject of the suit or his or her shares thereafter devolved upon him or her by operation of law. Additionally, under Delaware case law, the plaintiff generally must be a stockholder not only at the time of the transaction which is the subject of the suit, but also through the duration of the derivative suit. The Delaware General Corporation Law also requires that the derivative plaintiff make a demand on the directors of the corporation to assert the corporate claim before the suit may be prosecuted by the derivative plaintiff, unless such demand would be futile.   

otherwise seek to enforce their rights as shareholders. Holders of book-entry interests in our shares will be required to exchange their book-entry interests for certificated shares and to be registered as shareholders in our shareholder register in order to institute or enforce any legal proceedings or claims against us, our directors or our executive officers relating to shareholder rights. A holder of book-entry interests may become a registered shareholder of our company by exchanging its interest in our shares for certificated shares and being registered in our shareholder register.

 

Personal remedies in cases of oppression or injustice

 

A shareholder may apply to the court for an order under Section 216 of the Singapore Companies Act to remedy situations where (i) the company’s affairs are being conducted or the powers of the company’s directors are being exercised in a manner oppressive to, or in disregard of the interests of one or more of the shareholders or holders of debentures of the company, including the applicant; or (ii) the company has done an act, or threatens to do an act, or the shareholders or holders of debentures have passed some resolution, which unfairly discriminates against, or is otherwise prejudicial to, one or more of the company’s shareholders or holders of debentures, including the applicant.

 

Singapore courts have wide discretion as to the relief they may grant under such application, including, inter alia, directing or prohibiting any act or cancelling or varying any transaction or resolution, providing that the company be wound up, or authorizing civil proceedings to be brought in the name of or on behalf of the company by such person or persons and on such terms as the court directs.

 

Derivative actions and arbitrations

 

The Singapore Companies Act has a provision which provides a mechanism enabling shareholders to apply to the court for leave to bring a derivative action or commence an arbitration on behalf of the company. Derivative actions are also allowed as a common law action.

 

Applications are generally made by shareholders of the company, but courts are given the discretion to allow such persons as they deem proper to apply (e.g., beneficial owner of shares).

 

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shareholders to bring an action or arbitration in the name and on behalf of the company or intervene in an action or arbitration to which the company is a party for the purpose of prosecuting, defending or discontinuing the action or arbitration on behalf of the company. Prior to commencing a derivative action or arbitration, the court must be satisfied that (i) 14 days’ notice has been given to the directors of the company of the party’s intention to commence such action or arbitration if the directors of the company do not bring, diligently prosecute or defend or discontinue the action, (ii) the party is acting in good faith and (iii) it appears to be prima facie in the interests of the company that the action be brought, prosecuted, defended or discontinued.

 

Class actions

 

The concept of class action suits in the United States, which allows individual shareholders to bring an action seeking to represent the class or classes of shareholders, does not exist in the same manner in Singapore. In Singapore, it is possible as a matter of procedure for a number of shareholders to begin proceedings on behalf of themselves and other shareholders who have the same interest in the proceedings whom they represent. These shareholders are known as “representative plaintiffs.”

Distributions and Dividends; Repurchases and Redemptions

The Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to declare and pay dividends out of statutory surplus or, if there is no surplus, out of net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or for the preceding fiscal year as long as the amount of capital of the corporation following the declaration and payment of the dividend is not less than the aggregate amount of the capital represented by the issued and outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets.

 

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, any corporation may purchase or redeem its own shares, except that generally it may not purchase or redeem these shares if the capital of the corporation is impaired at the time or would become impaired as a result of the redemption. A corporation may, however, purchase or redeem out of capital shares that are entitled upon any distribution of its assets to a preference over another class or series of its shares if the shares are to be retired and the capital reduced.

  

The Singapore Companies Act provides that no dividends can be paid to shareholders except out of profits.

 

The Singapore Companies Act does not provide a definition on when profits are deemed to be available for the purpose of paying dividends and this is accordingly governed by case law.

 

Our constitution provides that no dividend can be paid otherwise than out of profits.

 

Acquisition of a company’s own shares

 

The Singapore Companies Act generally prohibits a company from acquiring its own shares or purporting to acquire the shares of its holding company or ultimate holding company, whether directly or indirectly, in any way, subject to certain exceptions. Any contract or transaction made or entered into in contravention of the aforementioned prohibition by which a company acquires or purports to acquire its own shares or shares in its holding company or ultimate holding company is void. However,

 

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provided that it is expressly permitted to do so by its constitution and subject to the special conditions of each permitted acquisition contained in the Singapore Companies Act, a company may:

 

•  redeem redeemable preferred shares on such terms and in such manner as is provided by its constitution. Preferred shares may be redeemed out of capital only if all the directors make a solvency statement in relation to such redemption in accordance with the Singapore Companies Act, and the company lodges a copy of the statement with the Registrar of Companies;

 

•  whether listed on an exchange in Singapore approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore or any securities exchange outside Singapore, or not, make an off-market purchase of its own shares in accordance with an equal access scheme authorized in advance at a general meeting;

 

•  make a selective off-market purchase of its own shares in accordance with an agreement authorized in advance at a general meeting by a special resolution where persons whose shares are to be acquired and their associated persons have abstained from voting; and

 

•  whether listed on an exchange in Singapore approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore or any securities exchange outside Singapore, or not, make an acquisition of its own shares under a contingent purchase contract which has been authorized in advance at a general meeting by a special resolution.

 

A company may also purchase its own shares by an order of a Singapore court.

 

•  The total number of ordinary shares, stocks in any class and non-redeemable preferred shares that may be acquired by a company in a relevant period may not exceed 20% (or such other prescribed percentage) of the total number of ordinary shares, stocks in any class or non-redeemable preferred shares (as the case may be) as of the date of the resolution to acquire the shares. Where, however, a company has reduced its share capital by a special resolution or a

 

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Singapore court made an order to such effect, the total number of ordinary shares, stocks in any class or non-redeemable preferred shares shall be taken to be the total number of ordinary shares, stocks in any class or non-redeemable preferred shares (as the case may be) as altered by the special resolution or the order of the court. Payment, including any expenses (including brokerage or commission) incurred directly in the acquisition by the company of its own shares, may be made out of the company’s profits or capital, provided that the company is solvent.

  

Financial assistance for the acquisition of shares

 

A public company or a company whose holding company or ultimate holding company is a public company may not give financial assistance to any person whether directly or indirectly for the purpose of or in connection with:

 

•  the acquisition or proposed acquisition of shares in the company or units of such shares; or

 

•  the acquisition or proposed acquisition of shares in its holding company or ultimate holding company, or units of such shares.

 

Financial assistance may take the form of a loan, the giving of a guarantee, the provision of security, the release of an obligation, the release of a debt or otherwise.

 

However, it should be noted that a company may provide financial assistance for the acquisition of its shares or shares in its holding company or ultimate holding company if it complies with the requirements (including approval by special resolution) set out in the Singapore Companies Act.

 

Our constitution provides that subject to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, we may purchase or otherwise acquire our own shares upon such terms and subject to such conditions as we may deem fit. We may deal with any such shares which is so purchased or acquired by us in such manner as may be permitted under the Singapore Companies Act (including, without limitation, hold such shares as treasury shares).

Transactions with Officers or Directors

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, some contracts or transactions in which one or more of a corporation’s directors has an interest are not void or    Under the Singapore Companies Act, directors and the chief executive officer of the company are not prohibited from dealing with the company, but where

 

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voidable because of such interest provided that some conditions, such as obtaining the required approval and fulfilling the requirements of good faith and full disclosure, are met. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, either (a) the stockholders or the board of directors of a corporation must approve in good faith any such contract or transaction after full disclosure of the material facts or (b) the contract or transaction must have been “fair” as to the corporation at the time it was approved. If board approval is sought, the contract or transaction must be approved in good faith by a majority of disinterested directors after full disclosure of material facts, even though less than a majority of a quorum.   

they have an interest, whether directly or indirectly, in a transaction with the company, that interest must be disclosed to the board of directors. In particular, every director or chief executive officer who is in any way, whether directly or indirectly, interested in a transaction or proposed transaction with the company must, as soon as is practicable after the relevant facts have come to such director’s or, as the case may be, the chief executive officer’s knowledge, declare the nature of such interest at a meeting of the directors or send a written notice to the company detailing the nature, character and extent of the interest.

 

In addition, a director or chief executive officer who holds any office or possesses any property which directly or indirectly might create interests in conflict with such director’s or, as the case may be, the chief executive officer’s duties as director or chief executive officer is required to declare the fact and the nature, character and extent of the conflict at a meeting of directors or send a written notice to the company detailing the nature, character and extent of the conflict.

 

The Singapore Companies Act extends the scope of this statutory duty of a director and chief executive officer to disclose any interests by pronouncing that an interest of a member of a director’s or, as the case may be, the chief executive officer’s family (including spouse, son, adopted son, step-son, daughter, adopted daughter and step-daughter) will be treated as an interest of the director or chief executive officer (as the case may be).

 

A director or chief executive officer shall not be deemed to be interested or at any time interested in a transaction or proposed transaction where the interest of the director or chief executive officer (as the case may be) consists only of being a member or creditor of a corporation which is interested in the transaction or proposed transaction with the company if the interest may properly be regarded as immaterial. Where the transaction or the proposed transaction relates to any loan to the company, no disclosure need be made where the director or chief executive officer (as the case may be) has only guaranteed the repayment of such loan, unless the constitution provides otherwise.

 

Further, where the transaction or the proposed transaction has been or will be made with or for the benefit of a related corporation (i.e., the holding company, subsidiary or subsidiary of a common

 

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holding company), the director or chief executive officer shall not be deemed to be interested or at any time interested in such transaction or proposed transaction by virtue of only being a director or chief executive officer (as the case may be) of the related corporation, unless the constitution provides otherwise.

 

Subject to specified exceptions, the Singapore Companies Act prohibits a company (other than an exempt private company) from, among others, (i) making a loan or a quasi-loan to its directors or to directors of a related corporation, or giving a guarantee or security in connection with such a loan or quasi-loan, (ii) entering into a credit transaction as creditor for the benefit of its directors or the directors of a related corporation, or giving a guarantee or any security in connection with such a credit transaction, (iii) arranging an assignment to or assumption by us of any rights, obligations or liabilities under a transaction which, if it had been entered into by us, would have been a restricted transaction, and (iv) taking part in an arrangement under which another person enters into a transaction which, if entered into by us, would have been a restricted transaction and such person obtains a benefit from us or our related corporation pursuant thereto. Companies are also prohibited from entering into any of these transactions with the spouse or children (whether adopted or natural or step-children) of its directors.

 

Subject to specified exceptions, the Singapore Companies Act prohibits a company (other than an exempt private company) from making a loan or a quasi-loan to another company or a limited liability partnership or entering into any guarantee or providing any security in connection with a loan or a quasi-loan made to another company or a limited liability partnership by a person other than the first-mentioned company, entering into a credit transaction as a creditor for the benefit of another company or a limited liability partnership, or entering into any guarantee or provide any security in connection with a credit transaction entered into by any person for the benefit of another company or a limited liability partnership if a director or directors of the first-mentioned company is or together are interested in 20% or more of the total voting power in the other company or the limited liability partnership (as the case may be).

 

Such prohibition shall extend to apply to a loan, quasi-loan, credit transaction made by a company

 

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(other than an exempt private company), a credit transaction made by a company (other than an exempt private company) for the benefit of another company or limited liability partnership and a guarantee or security provided by a company (other than an exempt private company) in connection with a loan or quasi-loan made by a person other than the first-mentioned company to another company or a limited liability partnership where such other company or limited liability partnership is incorporated or formed (as the case may be) outside Singapore, if a director or directors of the first-mentioned company (a) is or together are interested in 20% or more of the total voting power in the other company or limited liability partnership or (b) in a case where the other company does not have a share capital, exercises or together exercise control over the other company whether by reason of having the power to appoint directors or otherwise.

 

The Singapore Companies Act also provides that an interest of a member of a director’s family (including spouse, son, adopted son, step-son, daughter, adopted daughter and step-daughter) will be treated as an interest of the director.

Dissenters’ Rights

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a stockholder of a corporation participating in some types of major corporate transactions may, under varying circumstances, be entitled to appraisal rights pursuant to which the stockholder may receive cash in the amount of the fair market value of his or her shares in lieu of the consideration he or she would otherwise receive in the transaction.    There are no equivalent provisions in Singapore under the Singapore Companies Act.

Cumulative Voting

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may adopt in its bylaws that its directors shall be elected by cumulative voting. When directors are elected by cumulative voting, a stockholder has the number of votes equal to the number of shares held by such stockholder times the number of directors nominated for election. The stockholder may cast all of such votes for one director or among the directors in any proportion.    There are no equivalent provisions in Singapore under the Singapore Companies Act.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into an Open Market Sales Agreement, dated May 10, 2019, or the Sales Agreement, with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, under which we may offer and sell ordinary shares having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $250.0 million from time to time through Jefferies, acting as agent. Sales of the ordinary shares, if any, may be made on the Nasdaq Global Market or into any other existing trading market for our ordinary shares at market prices and such other sales as agreed upon by us and Jefferies. The Sales Agreement has been filed as an exhibit to our registration statement on Form S-3 of which this prospectus forms a part.

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, Jefferies may sell our ordinary shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act.

When requested by us, Jefferies will offer the ordinary shares subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, which may be on a daily basis for periods of time, or as we may otherwise agree with Jefferies. We will designate the maximum amount of ordinary shares to be sold through Jefferies when we request Jefferies to do so. Jefferies has agreed, subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, to use its commercially reasonable efforts to execute our orders to sell, as our sales agent and on our behalf, ordinary shares submitted to Jefferies from time to time by us, consistent with its normal sales and trading practices. We may instruct Jefferies not to place ordinary shares at or below a price designated by us. In any event, the ordinary shares shall be placed by Jefferies substantially at market price. We or Jefferies may suspend the offering of ordinary shares under the Sales Agreement upon proper notice to the other party.

If we and Jefferies so agree, Jefferies may act as principal in connection with the placement of the securities offered hereby.

We will pay Jefferies a commission of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares sold through it pursuant to this prospectus, and reimburse Jefferies for up to $50,000 of its expenses, including fees and disbursements to its legal counsel. The estimated offering expenses payable by us, in addition to such commission and expenses, are approximately $220,000, which includes legal, accounting and printing costs and various other fees associated with registering the ordinary shares. The remaining sale proceeds, after deducting any other transaction fees, will equal our net proceeds from the sale of such shares.

Jefferies will provide written confirmation to us before the open of trading on the Nasdaq Global Market on the day following each day on which ordinary shares are sold under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on that day, the aggregate gross proceeds of such sales and the net proceeds to us. Settlement for sales of ordinary shares will occur, unless otherwise agreed, on the second business day following the date on which such sales were made.

In connection with the sale of our ordinary shares on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify Jefferies against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We have also agreed to contribute to payments Jefferies may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.

The offering of ordinary shares pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon the termination of the Sales Agreement according to its terms by either Jefferies or us.

Jefferies and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking, financial advisory and other services to us and our affiliates and may in the future receive customary fees. In the course of its business, Jefferies may actively trade our securities for its own account or for the accounts of customers, and,

 

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accordingly, Jefferies may at any time hold long or short positions in such securities. To the extent required by Regulation M, Jefferies will not engage in any market making activities involving our ordinary shares while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Jefferies, and Jefferies may distribute this prospectus electronically.

 

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ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES UNDER UNITED STATES SECURITIES LAWS

We are incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Singapore, and certain of our officers and directors are residents outside the United States. Moreover, a majority of our consolidated assets are located outside the United States. Although we are incorporated outside the United States, we have agreed to accept service of process in the United States through our agent designated for that purpose. Nevertheless, since a majority of the consolidated assets owned by us are located outside the United States any judgment obtained in the United States against us may not be enforceable within the United States. There is no treaty between the United States and Singapore providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters and a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any federal or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the federal securities laws, would, therefore, not be automatically enforceable in Singapore.

There is uncertainty as to whether judgments of courts in the United States based upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States would be recognized or enforceable in Singapore. In making a determination as to enforceability of a foreign judgment, the Singapore courts would have regard to whether the judgment was final and conclusive and on the merits of the case, given by a court of law of competent jurisdiction, and was expressed to be for a fixed sum of money. In general, a foreign judgment would be enforceable in Singapore unless procured by fraud, or the proceedings in which such judgments were obtained were not conducted in accordance with principles of natural justice, or the enforcement thereof would be contrary to public policy, or if the judgment would conflict with earlier judgment(s) from Singapore or earlier foreign judgment(s) recognized in Singapore, or if the judgment would amount to the direct or indirect enforcement of foreign penal, revenue or other public laws. Civil liability provisions of the federal and state securities law of the United States permit the award of punitive damages against us, our directors and officers. Singapore courts would not recognize or enforce judgments against us, our directors and officers to the extent that doing so would amount to the direct or indirect enforcement of foreign penal, revenue or other public laws. It is uncertain as to whether a judgment of the courts of the United States under civil liability provisions of the federal securities law of the United States would be regarded by the Singapore courts as being pursuant to foreign, penal, revenue or other public laws. Such a determination has yet to be made by a Singapore court in a reported decision.

In addition, holders of book-entry interests in our shares will be required to exchange such interests for certificated shares and to be registered as shareholders in our shareholder register in order to have standing to bring a shareholder suit and, if successful, to enforce a foreign judgment against us, our directors or our executive officers in the Singapore courts.

A holder of book-entry interests in our shares may become a registered shareholder of our company by exchanging such holder’s interest in our shares for certificated shares and being registered in our shareholder register. The administrative process of becoming a registered shareholder could result in delays prejudicial to any legal proceeding or enforcement action.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the ordinary shares offered by us in this offering and certain other matters of Singapore law will be passed upon for us by WongPartnership LLP, Singapore. Selected legal matters as to U.S. law in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts. Jefferies LLC is being represented by White & Case LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Wave Life Sciences Ltd. as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018, and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the reports of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. SEC filings are available at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, and you can read and inspect our filings at the offices of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority at 1735 K Street, Washington, D.C. 20006.

This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document. You may obtain a copy of the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules, from the SEC’s website.

We also maintain a website at http://www.wavelifesciences.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, may be obtained from the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 that we filed with the SEC on March  1, 2019, as amended by the Form 10-K/A filed with the SEC on April 29, 2019;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019 that we filed with the SEC on May 10, 2019;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 23, 2019, January 24, 2019 and April 16, 2019 (in each case, except for information contained therein which is furnished rather than filed);

 

   

the description of our ordinary shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on November 9, 2015, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

   

all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-37627.

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

c/o 733 Concord Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ATTN: Investor Relations

You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.wavelifesciences.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

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LOGO

Up to $250,000,000 of Ordinary Shares

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Jefferies

 

 

May 10, 2019

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth an itemization of the various expenses, all of which we will pay, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered.

 

SEC Registration Fee

   $ 3,946.08

Legal Fees and Expenses

          ** 

Accounting Fees and Expenses

          ** 

Miscellaneous

          ** 
  

 

 

 

Total

   $       ** 
  

 

 

 

 

*

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r), we are deferring payment of the registration fee for the securities offered under this registration statement other than the fees due in connection with the $250,000,000 of our ordinary shares that may be issued and sold from time to time under an open market sales agreement with Jefferies LLC. The offering of $227,384,992 of these ordinary shares was previously registered by us under a prior registration statement and in accordance with Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), in respect of which we previously paid registration fees of $26,353.92. Consequently, a filing fee of $3,946.08 is due in connection with the filing of this registration statement, which amount reflects the difference between the registration fee to be paid in connection with the $250,000,000 of securities to be registered pursuant to this registration statement, which is $30,300.00, and the previously paid fees of $26,353.92.

**

These fees and expenses depend on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time. Fees paid at this time related to the ordinary shares to be issued and sold from time to time under the open market sales agreement with Jefferies LLC consist of $100,000 in legal fees and expenses, $110,000 in accounting fees and expenses, and $5,000 in miscellaneous fees, for total fees related to the at the market offering of approximately $220,000.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Under Section 172 of the Singapore Companies Act, any provision exempting or indemnifying the officers of a company (including directors) against liability, which by law would otherwise attach to them in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company is void. However, the Singapore Companies Act allows a company to (a) purchase and maintain for any officer insurance against any liability which by law would otherwise attach to such officer in connection with any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the company; and (b) indemnify such officer against any liability incurred by him or her to a person other than the company except when the indemnity is against any liability (i) of the officer to pay a fine in criminal proceedings, (ii) of the officer to pay a penalty in respect of non-compliance with any regulatory requirements, (iii) incurred by the officer in defending criminal proceedings in which he or she is convicted, (iv) incurred by the officer in defending civil proceedings brought by the company or a related company in which judgment is given against him or her, or (v) incurred by the officer in connection with an application for relief under Section 76A(13) or Section 391 of the Singapore Companies Act in which the court refuses to grant him or her relief.

In cases where a director is sued by the company, the Singapore Companies Act gives the court the power to relieve directors either wholly or partially from their liability for their negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust. In order for relief to be obtained, it must be shown that (i) the director acted reasonably and honestly; and (ii) it is fair, having regard to all the circumstances of the case including those connected with such director’s appointment, to excuse the director. However, Singapore case law has indicated that such relief will not be granted to a director who has benefited as a result of his or her breach of trust.

 

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Our constitution provides that subject to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act and every other applicable statute for the time being in force concerning companies and affecting the company, the directors and officers are entitled to be indemnified against costs, charges, fees and other expenses that may be incurred by such person in defending any proceedings, whether civil or criminal, which relates to anything done or omitted or alleged to be done or omitted by such person as a director, officer or employee of the company and in which judgment is given in his or her favor or in which such person is acquitted or in which the courts have granted relief pursuant to the provisions of the Singapore Companies Act, provided that such indemnity shall not extend to any liability which by law would otherwise attach to him or her in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust of which he or she may be guilty in relation to the company, or which would otherwise result in such indemnity being voided under applicable Singapore laws. No director or officer of our company shall be liable for any acts, omissions, neglects, defaults or other conduct of any other director or officer, and to the extent permitted by Singapore law, our company shall contribute to the amount paid or payable by a director or officer in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative fault of such director or officer, taking into consideration any other relevant equitable considerations, including acts of other directors or officers and our company, and the relative fault of such parties in respect thereof.

In addition, subject to the Singapore Companies Act and every other Singapore statute for the time being in force and affecting our company, no director, managing director or other officer shall be liable for the acts, receipts, neglects or defaults of any other director or officer, or for joining in any receipt or other act for conformity, or for any loss or expense incurred by us, through the insufficiency or deficiency of title to any property acquired by order of the directors for us or for the insufficiency or deficiency of any security upon which any of our moneys are invested or for any loss or damage arising from the bankruptcy, insolvency or tortious act of any person with whom any moneys, securities or effects are deposited, or any other loss, damage or misfortune which happens in the execution of his duties, unless the same happens through his own negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust.

We have entered into deeds of indemnity with each of our directors and officers. These agreements require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Singapore law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us, as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. These indemnification rights shall not be exclusive of any other right which an indemnified person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of our constitution, agreement, vote of shareholders or disinterested directors or otherwise if such indemnified person is subsequently found to have been negligent or otherwise have breached indemnified person’s trust or fiduciary duties or to be in default thereof, or where the Singapore courts have declined to grant relief.

We expect to maintain standard policies of insurance that provide coverage (1) to our directors and officers against loss rising from claims made by reason of breach of duty or other wrongful act and (2) to us with respect to indemnification payments that we may make to such directors and officers.

Any underwriting agreements that we may enter into will likely provide for the indemnification of us, our controlling persons, our directors and certain of our officers by the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Item 16. Exhibits

The exhibits to this registration statement are listed in the Exhibit Index to this registration statement, which Exhibit Index is hereby incorporated by reference.

 

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Item 17. Undertakings

 

  (a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a

 

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  purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (b)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

  (d)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
Number

 

Description

  1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement.
  1.2   Open Market Sale Agreement, dated as of May 10, 2019, by and between the Registrant and Jefferies LLC.
  4.1(1)   Constitution (formerly known as Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association).
  4.2(2)   Form of Specimen Ordinary Share Certificate.
  4.3(3)   Investors’ Rights Agreement by and among the Registrant and certain of its shareholders, dated as of August 14, 2015.
  4.4(4)   Amendment No.  1 to Investors’ Rights Agreement by and among the Registrant and certain of its shareholders, dated as of November 8, 2018.
  4.5(5)   Share Purchase Agreement by and between the Registrant and C.P. Pharmaceuticals International C.V., dated as of May 5, 2016
  4.6*   Form of Senior Debt Security.
  4.7*   Form of Subordinated Debt Security.
  4.8   Form of Senior Indenture.
  4.9   Form of Subordinated Indenture.
  4.10*   Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
  4.11*   Form of Rights Agreement and Right Certificate.
  4.12*   Form of Unit Agreement and Unit.
  5.1   Opinion of WongPartnership LLP with respect to the legality of the securities being registered.
  5.2   Opinion of WongPartnership LLP with respect to the legality of the securities to be offered pursuant to the Sales Agreement.
  5.3   Opinion of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. with respect to the legality of the debt securities being registered.
23.1   Consent of KPMG LLP.
23.2   Consent of WongPartnership LLP (included in the opinions filed as Exhibit 5.1 and Exhibit 5.2).
23.3   Consent of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. (included in the opinion filed as Exhibit 5.3).
24.1   Powers of Attorney (included on the signature page of this registration statement).
25.1*   The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
25.2*   The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

*

To be subsequently filed, if applicable, by an amendment to this registration statement or as an exhibit to a report on Form 10-K, Form 10-Q or Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.

 

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(1)

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to Amendment No. 5 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-207379), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 10, 2015.

(2)

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Amendment No. 3 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-207379), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 6, 2015.

(3)

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-207379), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 9, 2015.

(4)

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Filed No. 001-37627), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 9, 2018.

(5)

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Filed No. 001-37627), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 15, 2016.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on May 10, 2019.

 

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.
By:   /s/ Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA
 

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA

President and Chief Executive Officer

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Wave Life Sciences Ltd., hereby severally constitute and appoint Paul B. Bolno, M.D. and Keith C. Regnante, and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them for him and in his name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including, without limitation, post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them or their or his substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA

Paul B. Bolno, M.D., MBA

  

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(principal executive officer)

  May 10, 2019

/s/ Keith C. Regnante

Keith C. Regnante

  

Chief Financial Officer

(principal financial officer and principal

accounting officer)

  May 10, 2019

/s/ Christian Henry

Christian Henry

   Chairman of the Board of Directors   May 10, 2019

/s/ Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D.

Gregory L. Verdine, Ph.D.

   Director   May 10, 2019

/s/ Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D.

Peter Kolchinsky, Ph.D.

   Director   May 10, 2019

 

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Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Koji Miura

Koji Miura

   Director   May 10, 2019

/s/ Adrian Rawcliffe

Adrian Rawcliffe

   Director   May 10, 2019

/s/ Ken Takanashi

Ken Takanashi

   Director   May 10, 2019

 

II-8

EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

OPEN MARKET SALE AGREEMENTSM

May 10, 2019

JEFFERIES LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Wave Life Sciences Ltd., a company incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Singapore (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein, to issue and sell from time to time through Jefferies LLC, as sales agent and/or principal (the “Agent”), ordinary shares of the Company, no par value (the “Ordinary Shares”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000.00 on the terms set forth in this agreement (this “Agreement”).

Section 1. DEFINITIONS

(a)    Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Agreement, capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined shall have the following respective meanings:

Affiliate” of a Person means another Person that directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such first-mentioned Person. The term “control” (including the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”) means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

Agency Period” means the period commencing on the date of this Agreement and expiring on the earliest to occur of (i) the date on which the Agent shall have placed the Maximum Program Amount pursuant to this Agreement and (ii) the date this Agreement is terminated pursuant to Section 7.

Agent” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of this Agreement.

Agreement” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of this Agreement.

Code” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(cc).

Commission” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Ordinary Shares” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of this Agreement.

Company” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of this Agreement.

 


Debt Repayment Triggering Event” means any event or condition which gives, or with the giving of notice or lapse of time would give, the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company or any of its subsidiaries.

Default” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(s).

EDGAR” means the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system.

Environmental Laws” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(bb).

ERISA” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(cc).

ERISA Affiliate” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(cc).

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Existing Instrument” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(s).

FCPA” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(jj).

FinCEN Certification” has the meaning set forth in Section4(x).

FINRA” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(s).

Floor Price” means the minimum price set by the Company in the Issuance Notice below which the Agent shall not sell Shares during the applicable Selling Period, which may be adjusted by the Company at any time during the Selling Period by delivering written notice of such change to the Agent and which in no event shall be less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which consent may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion.

Free Writing Prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Section 4(e).

Hazardous Materials” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(bb).

Health Care Laws” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(ss).

HIPAA” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(ss).

Intellectual Property” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(v).

Interim Prospectus Supplement” has the meaning set forth in Section 4(a).

 

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Investment Company Act” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(dd).

Issuance Amount” means the aggregate Sales Price of the Shares to be sold by the Agent pursuant to any Issuance Notice.

Issuance Notice” means a written notice delivered to the Agent by the Company in accordance with this Agreement in the form attached hereto as Exhibit A that is executed by its Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer.

Issuance Notice Date” means any Trading Day during the Agency Period that an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

Issuance Price” means the Sales Price less the Selling Commission.

Material Adverse Change” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(j).

Material Adverse Effect” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(o).

Maximum Program Amount” means Ordinary Shares with an aggregate Sales Price of the lesser of (1) $250,000,000.00 and (2) the aggregate amount of Shares registered under the Registration Statement.

Money Laundering Laws” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(kk).

OFAC” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(ll).

Original Registration Statement” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(a).

Open Market Sale Agreement” is a service mark of Jefferies LLC.

PCAOB” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(k).

Permits” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(x).

Person” means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or other entity of any kind.

PFIC” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(zz).

Principal Market” means the Nasdaq Global Market or such other national securities exchange on which the Ordinary Shares, including any Shares, are then listed.

Privacy Rule” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(ss).

Prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(a).

 

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Registration Statement” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(a).

Regulation M” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(ee).

Regulatory Agencies” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(rr).

Related Judgment” has the meaning set forth in Section 8(g).

Related Proceedings” has the meaning set forth in Section 8(g).

Representation Date” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of Section 2.

Rule 462(b) Registration Statement” means any registration statement filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act in connection with the offer and sale of Shares.

Rule 102” has the meaning set forth in Section 4(u).

Sales Price” means the actual sale execution price of each Share placed by the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Selling Commission” means up to three percent (3.0%) of the gross proceeds for the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement.

Selling Period” means the period of one (1) to twenty (20) consecutive Trading Days (as determined by the Company in the Company’s sole discretion and specified in the applicable Issuance Notice) including the Trading Day on which an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to Section 3(b)(i), if such notice is delivered prior to 3:00 p.m. (New York City time) and otherwise, following the Trading Day on which an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

Settlement Date” means the second business day following each Trading Day during the Selling Period on which Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement, when the Company shall deliver to the Agent the amount of Shares sold on such Trading Day and the Agent shall deliver to the Company the Issuance Price received on such sales.

Shares” shall mean the Company’s Ordinary Shares issued or issuable pursuant to this Agreement.

Specified Courts” has the meaning set forth in Section 8(g).

Time of Sale” has the meaning set forth in Section 3(b)(v).

Time of Sale Information” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(b).

 

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Trading Day” means any day on which the Principal Market is open for trading.

Triggering Event Date” has the meaning set forth in Section 4(o).

USA Patriot Act” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(kk).

Section 2. REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF THE COMPANY

The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of (1) the date of this Agreement, (2) each Issuance Notice Date, (3) each Settlement Date, (4) each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) and (5) as of each Time of Sale (each of the times referenced above is referred to herein as a “Representation Date”), except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto) on or before a Representation Date:

(a)    Registration Statement. The Company has prepared and filed with the Commission an “automatic shelf registration statement,” as defined under Rule 405 under the Securities Act on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including Ordinary Shares, to be issued from time to time by the Company, as well as a prospectus included as part of the Registration Statement specifically relating to the Shares (the “Sales Prospectus”) to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder. The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable, with respect to the Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, including all financial statements, exhibits and schedules thereto and all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act as from time to time amended or supplemented, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430(B) of the Securities Act, is herein referred to as the “Registration Statement.” The Sales Prospectus and any other prospectus specifically relating to the Shares constituting a part of such registration statement(s), together with any prospectus supplement filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act relating to a particular issuance of the Shares, including all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, in each case, as from time to time amended or supplemented, is referred to herein as the “Prospectus,” except that if any revised prospectus is provided to the Agent by the Company for use in connection with the offering of the Shares that is not required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, the term “Prospectus” shall refer to such revised prospectus from and after the time it is first provided to the Agent for such use. The Registration Statement at the time it originally became effective is herein called the “Original Registration Statement.” As used in this Agreement, the terms “amendment” or “supplement” when applied to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to

 

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include the filing by the Company with the Commission of any document under the Exchange Act after the date hereof that is or is deemed to be incorporated therein by reference.

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in, or “part of” the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date; and all references in this Agreement to amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to mean and include, without limitation, the filing of any document under the Exchange Act which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date. All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendments or supplements thereto, or any Free Writing Prospectus (as defined herein), shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR.

(a)    Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have become effective under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Issuance Notices by the Company. The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions set forth in Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B) under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information, if any. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, are contemplated or threatened by the Commission. At the time the Registration Statement originally became effective and at the time the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.1. During the Agency Period, each time the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K the Company will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instructions I.B.1. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act specified in FINRA Conduct Rule 5110(B)(7)(C)(i).

(b)    Disclosure. The Prospectus when filed complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and, if filed by electronic transmission pursuant to EDGAR, was identical (except as may be permitted by Regulation S-T under the Securities Act) to the copy thereof delivered to the Agent for use in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendment or supplement thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective and at all subsequent times, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. As of the date of this Agreement, the Prospectus and any Free Writing Prospectus

 

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considered together (collectively, the “Time of Sale Information”) did not, and at each Settlement Date will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Prospectus, as of its date, did not, and at each Settlement Date will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the three immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus or the Time of Sale Information, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information relating to the Agent furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein, it being understood and agreed that the only such information consists of the information described in Section 6 below. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required.

(c)    Ineligible Issuer Status. As of the determination date referenced in Rule 164(h) under the Securities Act, the Company was not, is not or will not be (as applicable) an “ineligible issuer” in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to Rules 164, 405 and 433 under the Securities Act. Any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company is required to file pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act has been, or will be, filed with the Commission in accordance with the requirements of the Securities Act. Each Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used or referred to by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of Rule 433 under the Securities Act, including timely filing with the Commission or retention where required and legending, and each such Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and at all subsequent times through the completion of the issuance and sale of the Shares did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and not superseded or modified. Except for any Free Writing Prospectus, and electronic road shows, if any, furnished to the Agent before first use, the Company has not prepared, used or referred to, and will not, without the prior written consent of the Agent, prepare, use or refer to, any Free Writing Prospectus.

(d)    Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, at the time they were filed with the Commission, complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, as applicable, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, do not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. Any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, when such documents become effective or are filed with the Commission, as the case may be, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact

 

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required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(e)    Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, and any Free Writing Prospectus or amendment or supplement thereto complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the time the Registration Statement and any amendments thereto become effective and as of each Representation Date, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(f)    Distribution of Offering Material by the Company. Prior to the completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Shares, the Company has not distributed and will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Free Writing Prospectus reviewed and consented to by the Representatives.

(g)    The Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(h)    Authorization of the Shares. The Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, and the issuance and sale of the Shares is not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Shares.

(i)    No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights. There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.

(j)    No Material Adverse Change. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, of the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity (any such change being referred to herein as a “Material Adverse Change”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity, have not incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, including without limitation any losses or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood, earthquakes, accident or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any strike, labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree, that are material, individually or in the aggregate, to the

 

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Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity, entered into any transactions not in the ordinary course of business nor entered into any material agreement not in the ordinary course of business; and (iii) there has not been any material decrease in the share capital or capital stock or any material increase in any short-term or long-term indebtedness of the Company or its subsidiaries and there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or, except for dividends paid to the Company or other subsidiaries, by any of the Company’s subsidiaries on any class of share capital or capital stock, or any repurchase or redemption by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any class of share capital or capital stock.

(k)    Independent Accountants. KPMG LLP, which has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements (which term as used in this Agreement includes the related notes thereto) filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, is (i) an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, and the rules of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), (ii) in compliance with the applicable requirements relating to the qualification of accountants under Rule 2-01 of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act and (iii) a registered public accounting firm as defined by the PCAOB whose registration has not been suspended or revoked and who has not requested such registration to be withdrawn.

(l)    Financial Statements. The consolidated financial statements of the Company filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries as of and at the dates indicated and the results of their operations, changes in shareholders’ equity and cash flows for the periods specified. Such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved, except as may be expressly stated in the related notes thereto. No other financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus. To the Company’s knowledge, no person who has been suspended or barred from being associated with a registered public accounting firm, or who has failed to comply with any sanction pursuant to Rule 5300 promulgated by the PCAOB, has participated in or otherwise aided the preparation of, or audited, the financial statements or other financial data filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and included in the Prospectus.

(m)    Company’s Accounting System. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, the Company and each of its subsidiaries make and keep accurate books and records and maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) the

 

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interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(n)    Disclosure Controls and Procedures; Deficiencies in or Changes to Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, the Company has established and maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act), which (i) are designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer by others within those entities; (ii) have been evaluated by management of the Company for effectiveness as of the end of the Company’s most recent fiscal quarter; and (iii) are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there have been no significant deficiencies or material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. The Company is not aware of any change in its internal control over financial reporting that has occurred during its most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(o)    Incorporation and Good Standing of the Company. The Company has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the Republic of Singapore and has the corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement. The Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure to so qualify or to be in good standing would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

(p)    Subsidiaries. Each of the Company’s “subsidiaries” (for purposes of this Agreement, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) has been duly incorporated or organized, as the case may be, and is validly existing as a corporation or company, as applicable, in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization and has the power and authority (corporate or other) to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its businesses as described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus. Each of the Company’s subsidiaries is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure to so qualify or to be in good standing would not

 

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reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. All of the issued and outstanding share capital or capital stock or other equity or ownership interests of each of the Company’s subsidiaries have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and are owned by the Company, directly or through subsidiaries, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K or otherwise disclosed in any filing by the Company with the Commission subsequent to the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K.

(q)    Capitalization and Other Capital Stock Matters. The issued and outstanding capital stock of the Company is as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus (other than for subsequent issuances, if any, pursuant to employee benefit plans or upon the exercise of outstanding options or warrants, in each case, described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus). The Ordinary Shares (including the Shares) conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. All of the issued and outstanding Ordinary Shares have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable, at the respective time of their issuance were free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim, and have been issued in compliance with all applicable laws and the constitution of the Company, and are not subject to any restrictions on voting, pre-emptive or similar rights or transfer restrictions or liens thereunder. None of the outstanding Ordinary Shares were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. There are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any shares, capital stock or ownership interests of the Company or any of its subsidiaries other than those described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus. The descriptions of the Company’s share or stock option, share or stock bonus and other share or stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus accurately and fairly present the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights. Except as disclosed in the Time of Sale Information, the Company has not sold, issued or distributed any Shares during the six month period preceding the date hereof, including any sales pursuant to Rule 144A under, or Regulation D or S of, the Securities Act, other than shares issued pursuant to employee benefit plans, stock option plans or other employee compensation plans or pursuant to outstanding options, restricted stock units, rights or warrants.

(r)    Stock Exchange Listing. The Ordinary Shares are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Ordinary Shares under the Exchange Act or delisting the Ordinary Shares from the Nasdaq Global Market, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Nasdaq Global Market is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Nasdaq Global Market.

 

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(s)    Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments; No Further Authorizations or Approvals Required. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of its constitution, memorandum and articles of association, charter, by-laws, or similar organizational documents, as applicable, or is in default (or, with the giving of notice or lapse of time, would be in default) (“Default”) under any indenture, loan, credit agreement, note, lease, license agreement, contract, franchise or other instrument (including, without limitation, any pledge agreement, security agreement, mortgage or other instrument or agreement evidencing, guaranteeing, securing or relating to indebtedness) to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which it or any of them may be bound, or to which any of their respective properties or assets are subject (each, an “Existing Instrument”), except for such Defaults as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus and the issuance and sale of the Shares (including the use of proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) (i) have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and will not result in any violation of the provisions of the constitution, memorandum and articles of association, charter, by-laws, or similar organizational documents, as applicable, of the Company or any subsidiary, (ii) will not conflict with or constitute a breach of, or Default or a Debt Repayment Triggering Event under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, or require the consent of any other party to, any Existing Instrument and (iii) will not result in any violation of any law, administrative regulation or administrative or court decree applicable to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, except in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a Material Adverse Effect. No consent, approval, authorization or other order of, or registration or filing with, any court or other governmental or regulatory authority or agency, is required for the Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, except such as have been obtained or made by the Company and are in full force and effect under the Securities Act and such as may be required under applicable state securities or blue sky laws or the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

(t)    Compliance with Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries have been and are in compliance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations, except where failure to be so in compliance could not be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(u)    No Material Actions or Proceedings. There is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation brought by or before any governmental entity now pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, against or affecting the Company or any such subsidiary, which would reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect or materially and adversely affect the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder; and the aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any of their respective properties or assets is the subject,

 

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including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, if determined adversely to the Company, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. No material labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or with the employees of any principal supplier, manufacturer, customer or contractor of the Company, exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened or imminent, which would reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(v)    Intellectual Property Rights. The Company and its subsidiaries own, or have obtained valid and enforceable licenses for, the inventions, patent applications, patents, trademarks, trade names, service names, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus as being owned or licensed by them or which are necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted or as currently proposed to be conducted (collectively, “Intellectual Property”). To the Company’s knowledge: (i) the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus accurately sets forth third party ownership and other interests (including, e.g., co-exclusive license rights) in the Intellectual Property; there are no third party rights in any Intellectual Property that are not identified in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus; and (ii) there is no infringement by third parties of any Intellectual Property. There is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others: (A) challenging the Company’s ownership of, or rights in or to, any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim that, if asserted on the date hereof, would reasonably be expected to succeed; (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property (other than the ordinary rejections and assertions typically levied during patent examination within patent offices), and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim that, if asserted on the date hereof, would reasonably be expected to succeed; or (C) asserting that the Company or any of its subsidiaries infringes or otherwise violates, or would, through pursuing the discovery and development programs described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus infringe or violate, any valid patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim that, if asserted on the date hereof, would reasonably be expected to succeed. The Company and its subsidiaries have complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or any subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect, except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Intellectual Property includes claims that cover various valuable aspects and features of the discovery and development programs described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus as being pursued by the Company and/or its subsidiaries. All patents and patent applications owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company have been duly and properly filed and maintained, except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. To the knowledge of the Company, the parties prosecuting such patents and patent applications have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and the Company is not aware of any violation of such duty which would preclude the grant of a patent in connection with any such application or would reasonably be expected to form the basis of a finding of invalidity with

 

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respect to any patents that have issued from such applications. The Company has complied with applicable laws relating to privacy, data protection, and the collection and use of personal information collected, used, or held for use by it in the conduct of its business, except where the failure to do so, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Since November 1, 2015, no claims have been asserted or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against the Company alleging a violation of any person’s privacy or personal information or data rights and, to the knowledge of the Company, the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby will not breach or otherwise cause any violation of any law related to privacy, data protection, or the collection and use of personal information collected, used, or held for use by the Company in the conduct of the Company’s business. The Company takes reasonable measures, consistent with industry standards, to ensure that such information is protected against unauthorized access, use, modification, or other misuse, except where the failure to do so, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(w)    IT Systems and Data. Except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, since November 1, 2015, to the Company’s knowledge, there has been no security breach or attack or other compromise of or relating to any of the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology.

(x)    All Necessary Permits, etc. The Company and its subsidiaries possess such valid and current certificates, authorizations or permits required by state, federal or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted and as described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus (“Permits”), except where failure to so possess would not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of, or in default under, any of the Permits or has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of, or non-compliance with, any such certificate, authorization or permit, except as would not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(y)    Title to Properties. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all of the personal property and other assets reflected as owned in the financial statements referred to in Section 2(l) above (or elsewhere in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus), in each case free and clear of any security interests, mortgages, liens, encumbrances, equities, adverse claims and other defects, except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The equipment and personal property held under lease by the Company or any of its subsidiaries are held under valid and enforceable leases, with such exceptions as are not material and do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such equipment or personal property by the Company or such subsidiary. The Company and its subsidiaries do not own any real property.

 

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(z)    Tax Law Compliance. The Company and its subsidiaries have filed all necessary federal, state, local and foreign income and franchise tax returns or have properly requested extensions thereof, except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, and have paid all taxes required to be paid by any of them and, if due and payable, any related or similar assessment, fine or penalty levied against any of them except for any such taxes being contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings or where the failure to make such payment would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has made adequate charges, accruals and reserves in the financial statements referred to in Section 2(l) above in respect of all federal, state, local and foreign income and franchise taxes for all periods as to which the tax liability of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has not been finally determined, except as would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(aa)    Insurance. Each of the Company and its subsidiaries are insured by recognized, financially sound and reputable institutions with policies in such amounts and with such deductibles and covering such risks as are generally deemed adequate and customary for their businesses including, but not limited to, policies covering real and personal property owned or leased by the Company and its subsidiaries against theft, damage, destruction, acts of vandalism, hurricanes and earthquakes and policies covering the Company and its subsidiaries for product liability claims and clinical trial liability claims. The Company has no reason to believe that it or any of its subsidiaries will not be able (i) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has been denied any insurance coverage which it has sought or for which it has applied.

(bb)    Compliance with Environmental Laws. Except as could not be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, (i) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of any federal, state, local or foreign statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent, decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the release or threatened release of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum or petroleum products (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries have all permits, authorizations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are each in compliance with their requirements, (iii) there are no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened administrative, regulatory or judicial actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigation or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law against the Company or any of its subsidiaries and (iv) to the Company’s knowledge, there are no events or circumstances that might reasonably be expected to form the basis of an order for clean-up or remediation, or an action, suit or proceeding by any

 

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private party or governmental body or agency, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries relating to Hazardous Materials or any Environmental Laws.

(cc)    ERISA Compliance. The Company and its subsidiaries and any “employee benefit plan” (as defined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (collectively, “ERISA”)) established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or their “ERISA Affiliates” (as defined below) are in compliance in all material respects with ERISA. “ERISA Affiliate” means, with respect to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, any member of any group of organizations described in Sections 414(b), (c), (m) or (o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (the “Code”) of which the Company or such subsidiary is a member. No “reportable event” (as defined under ERISA) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur with respect to any “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA Affiliates. No “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA Affiliates, if such “employee benefit plan” were terminated, would have any “amount of unfunded benefit liabilities” (as defined under ERISA). Neither the Company, its subsidiaries nor any of their ERISA Affiliates has incurred or reasonably expects to incur any liability under (i) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any “employee benefit plan” or (ii) Sections 412, 4971, 4975 or 4980B of the Code. Each “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA Affiliates that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified and nothing has occurred, whether by action or failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.

(dd)    Company Not an “Investment Company.” The Company is not, and will not be, either after receipt of payment for the Shares or after the application of the proceeds therefrom as described under “Use of Proceeds” in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus, required to register as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

(ee)    No Price Stabilization or Manipulation; Compliance with Regulation M. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Ordinary Shares or of any “reference security” (as defined in Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act (“Regulation M”)) with respect to the Shares, whether to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise, and has taken no action which would directly or indirectly violate Regulation M.

(ff)    Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any other person required to be described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus that have not been described as required.

(gg)    FINRA Matters. All of the information provided to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent by the Company, its counsel, its officers and directors and, to the Company’s knowledge, its counsel and the holders of any securities (debt or equity) or options to acquire any

 

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securities of the Company in connection with the offering of the Shares is true, complete and correct in all material respects and compliant with FINRA’s rules and any letters, filings or other supplemental information provided in response to questions relating to FINRA Rules 5110 and 5190 and is true, complete and correct in all material respects.

(hh)    Statistical and Market-Related Data. All statistical, demographic and market-related data included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate in all material respects. To the extent required, the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources.

(ii)    No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments. Neither the Company nor any subsidiary nor, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, any employee or agent of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, has made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state or foreign office in violation of any law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus.

(jj)    Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has, in the course of its actions for, or on behalf of, the Company or any of its subsidiaries (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expenses relating to political activity; (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to any domestic government official, “foreign official” (as defined in the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “FCPA”)) or employee from corporate funds; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the FCPA or any applicable non-U.S. anti-bribery statute or regulation; or (iv) made any unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful payment to any domestic government official, such foreign official or employee; and the Company and its subsidiaries and, to the knowledge of the Company, the Company’s affiliates have conducted their respective businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(kk)    Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are, and have been conducted at all times, in compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act) (Title III of Pub. L. 107-56 (signed into law October 26, 2001)) (the “USA Patriot Act”), and those of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, and the money laundering statutes of all applicable jurisdictions, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar applicable rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

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(ll)    OFAC. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, after due inquiry, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department (“OFAC”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of this offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, or any joint venture partner or other person or entity, for the purpose of financing the activities of or business with any person, or in any country or territory, that currently is the subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by OFAC or in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of U.S. sanctions administered by OFAC. For the past five years, the Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in, and the Company and its subsidiaries are not now knowingly engaged in, any dealings or transactions with any individual or entity, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

(mm)    Brokers. Except pursuant to this Agreement, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(nn)    Forward-Looking Statements. Each financial or operational projection or other “forward-looking statement” (as defined by Section 27A of the Securities Act or Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus (i) was so included by the Company in good faith and with reasonable basis after due consideration by the Company of the underlying assumptions, estimates and other applicable facts and circumstances and (ii) is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying those factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statement. No such statement was made with the knowledge of an executive officer or director of the Company that it was false or misleading.

(oo)    Dividend Restrictions. Except in each case as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, no subsidiaries of the Company are prohibited or restricted, directly or indirectly, from paying any dividends to the Company, or from making any other distribution with respect to such subsidiary’s equity securities or from repaying to the Company any amounts that may from time to time become due under any loans or advances to either of the subsidiaries from the Company or from transferring any property or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company. Except as described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, no approvals of any governmental or regulatory body or agency are required in the Republic of Singapore in order for the Company to pay dividends or other distributions declared by the Company to the holders of Shares. Except as described in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, under the laws and regulations of the Republic of Singapore (A) any amounts payable with respect to the Shares upon liquidation of the Company or upon redemption thereof and dividends and other distributions declared and payable on the Shares may be paid by the Company to the holders of Shares in Singapore dollars that may be converted into foreign currency and freely transferred out of the Republic of Singapore; and (B) no such payments made to holders thereof or therein who are non-residents of the Republic of

 

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Singapore will be subject to income, withholding or other taxes under the laws and regulations of the Republic of Singapore or taxing authority thereof or therein and will otherwise be free and clear of any other tax, duty, withholding or deduction in the Republic of Singapore or taxing authority thereof or therein and without the necessity of obtaining any governmental authorization in the Republic of Singapore or taxing authority thereof or therein.

(pp)    No Outstanding Loans or Other Extensions of Credit. Neither the Company nor its subsidiaries has any outstanding extension of credit, in the form of a personal loan, to or for any director or executive officer (or equivalent thereof) of the Company and/or its subsidiaries except for such extensions of credit as are expressly permitted by Section 13(k) of the Exchange Act and the Companies Act (Chapter 50) of Singapore.

(qq)    Communications. Since November 2015, the Company has not engaged in any communications with potential investors in reliance on Section 5(d) of the Securities Act and has not authorized anyone other than the Representatives to engage in such communications.

(rr)    Clinical Data and Regulatory Compliance. The preclinical studies and clinical trials, and other studies (collectively, “studies”) being conducted by or, to the knowledge of the Company, for the Company, or that are described in, or the results of which are referred to in, the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols, procedures and controls designed and approved for such studies and with standard medical and scientific research procedures; each description of the results of such studies is accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly presents the data derived from such studies, and the Company and its subsidiaries have no knowledge of any other studies the results of which are inconsistent with, or otherwise call into question, the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus; the Company and its subsidiaries have made all such filings and obtained all such approvals as may be required by the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or from any other applicable U.S. or foreign governmental agency engaged in the regulation of drugs or medical devices (including diagnostics) (collectively, the “Regulatory Agencies”), except where the failure to obtain such approval would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any written notice of, or other correspondence from, any Regulatory Agency requiring the termination, suspension or modification of any clinical trials that are described or referred to in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information or the Prospectus, except those which have been removed or are no longer applicable or in effect or are disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus; and the Company and its subsidiaries have each operated and currently are in compliance in all material respects with all applicable rules, regulations and policies of the Regulatory Agencies.

(ss)    Compliance with Health Care Laws. The Company’s and each of its subsidiaries’ business practices have been structured in a manner reasonably designed to comply with the state, federal and foreign Health Care Laws applicable to the Company and its subsidiaries respective businesses, and the Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance with Health Care Laws, except where the failure to do so would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its subsidiaries have not engaged in activities which to its

 

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knowledge are cause for false claims liability, civil penalties, or mandatory or permissive exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid, or any other state health care program or federal health care program. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” includes without limitation applicable provisions of the: (i) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq.) and the regulations promulgated thereunder; (ii) all applicable federal, state, local and all applicable foreign health care related fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(b)), the U.S. civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. Section 3729 et seq.), the federal criminal false claims law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), the federal civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), the Stark Law (42 U.S.C. §1395nn), 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287, the health care fraud criminal provisions under the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) (42 U.S.C. Section 1320d et seq.), the exclusion laws (42 U.S.C. §1320a-7), the statutes and regulations government healthcare programs, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (EU 2016 679), Medicare, Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, and Medicaid, Title XIX of the Social Security Act, and the regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes; (iii) the U.S. federal Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987, as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder; (iv) the U.S. Controlled Substances Act; (v) the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act; and (vi) the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information (the “Privacy Rule”), the Security Standards, and the Standards for Electronic Transactions and Code Sets promulgated under HIPAA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.), and the regulations promulgated thereunder and any state or non-U.S. counterpart thereof or other law or regulation the purpose of which is to protect the privacy of individuals or prescribers. Neither the Company nor its subsidiaries have received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any product, operation or activity is in violation of any Health Care Laws nor, to the Company’s knowledge, is any such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action threatened. The Company and its subsidiaries have filed, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws, and all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and accurate on the date filed in all material respects (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission). Neither the Company nor its subsidiaries are a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, plans of correction, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority. Additionally, neither the Company, its subsidiaries nor any of their respective employees, officers or directors has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. federal health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion.

(tt)    No Rights to Purchase Preferred Shares. The issuance and sale of the Shares as contemplated hereby will not cause any holder of any shares, securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares or options, warrants or other rights to purchase shares or

 

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any other securities of the Company to have any right to acquire any preference shares of the Company.

(uu)    No Contract Terminations. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sent or received any communication regarding termination of, or intent not to renew, any of the contracts or agreements referred to or described in the Prospectus or any Free Writing Prospectus, or referred to or described in, or filed as an exhibit to, the Registration Statement, and no such termination or non-renewal has been threatened by the Company or any of its subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any other party to any such contract or agreement, which threat of termination or non-renewal has not been rescinded as of the date hereof.

(vv)    Submission to Jurisdiction. The Company and each of its subsidiaries has the power to submit, and pursuant to Section 8(g) of this Agreement, has legally, validly, effectively and irrevocably submitted, to the personal jurisdiction of the Specified Courts (as defined herein), and the Company and each of its subsidiaries has the power to designate, appoint and authorize, and pursuant to Section 8(g) of this Agreement, has legally, validly, effectively and irrevocably designated, appointed and authorized an agent for service of process in any action arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the Shares in any state or federal court in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York, and service of process effected on such authorized agent will be effective to confer valid personal jurisdiction over the Company as provided in Section 8(g) hereof.

(ww)    No Rated Debt. There are no debt securities or preferred stock issued, or guaranteed, by the Company or any of its subsidiaries that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization,” as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act.

(xx)    Compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley. The Company is in compliance, in all material respects, with all applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder that are then in effect and with which the Company is required to comply as of the effectiveness of the Registration Statement. Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company or any of its subsidiaries and delivered to the Agent or counsel for the Agent in connection with an issuance of Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Agent as to the matters covered thereby. The Company has a reasonable basis for making each of the representations set forth in this Section 2. The Company acknowledges that the Agent and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(p) hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to the Agent, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

(yy)    Well-Known Seasoned Issuer. (i) At the original effectiveness of the Registration Statement, (ii) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment or incorporated report filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or in the form of a prospectus), (iii) at the time the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this clause only, of Rule 163(c) under the Securities Act) made any offer relating to the Shares in reliance on the exemption of Rule 163 under the Securities Act, and (iv) as of the Time of Sale, the Company was and is a “well-known seasoned issuer” (as defined in Rule 405).

 

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(zz)    Passive Foreign Investment Company. The Company was not a “passive foreign investment company” (“PFIC”) as defined in Section 1297 of the Code for its most recently completed taxable year and, based on the Company’s current projected income, assets and activities, the Company does not expect to be classified as a PFIC for the subsequent taxable year.

(aaa)    No Other At-The-Market Offerings. The Company has not entered into any other sales agency agreements or other similar arrangements with any agent or any other representative in respect of at the market offerings of the Shares in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act.

(bbb)    Registration Rights. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Time of Sale Information and the Prospectus, there are no contracts, agreements or understandings between the Company and any person granting such person the right to require the Company to file a registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to any securities of the Company owned or to be owned by such person or to require the Company to include such securities in the securities registered pursuant to a Registration Statement or in any securities being registered pursuant to any other registration statement filed by the Company under the Securities Act.

Section 3. ISSUANCE AND SALE OF ORDINARY SHARES

(a)    Sale of Securities. On the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements herein contained, but subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company may from time to time seek to sell Shares through the Agent, acting as sales agent, or directly to the Agent, acting as principal, as follows, with an aggregate Sales Price of up to the Maximum Program Amount, based on and in accordance with Issuance Notices as the Company may deliver, during the Agency Period.

(b)    Mechanics of Issuances.

(i) Issuance Notice. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, on any Trading Day during the Agency Period on which the conditions set forth in Section 5 shall have been satisfied, the Company may exercise its right to request an issuance of Shares by delivering to the Agent an Issuance Notice; provided, however, that (A) in no event may the Company deliver an Issuance Notice to the extent that the sum of (x) the aggregate Sales Price of the requested Issuance Amount, plus (y) the aggregate Sales Price of all Shares issued under all previous Issuance Notices effected pursuant to this Agreement, would exceed the Maximum Program Amount; and (B) prior to delivery of any Issuance Notice, the Selling Period for any previous Issuance Notice shall have expired or been terminated. An Issuance Notice shall be considered delivered on the Trading Day that it is received by e-mail to the persons set forth in Exhibit B hereto and confirmed by the Company by telephone (including a voicemail message to the persons so identified), with the understanding that, with adequate prior written notice, the Agent may modify the list of such persons from time to time.

(ii)    Agent Efforts. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in this Agreement, upon the receipt of an Issuance Notice, the Agent will use its commercially

 

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reasonable efforts consistent with its normal sales and trading practices to place the Shares with respect to which the Agent has agreed to act as sales agent, subject to, and in accordance with the information specified in, the Issuance Notice, unless the sale of the Shares described therein has been suspended, cancelled or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. For the avoidance of doubt, the parties to this Agreement may modify an Issuance Notice at any time provided they both agree in writing to any such modification.

(iii)    Method of Offer and Sale. The Shares may be offered and sold (A) in privately negotiated transactions (in accordance with Nasdaq 5635(d)), (B) as block transactions or (C) by any other method or payment permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Principal Market or sales made into any other existing trading market of the Ordinary Shares. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to require either party to agree to the method of offer and sale specified in the preceding sentence (except as specified in clauses (A) and (B) above), and the method of placement of any Shares by the Agent shall be at the Agent’s discretion.

(iv)    Confirmation to the Company. If acting as sales agent hereunder, the Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day next following the Trading Day on which it has placed Shares hereunder setting forth the number of shares sold on such Trading Day, the corresponding Sales Price and the Issuance Price payable to the Company in respect thereof.

(v)    Settlement. Each issuance of Shares will be settled on the applicable Settlement Date for such issuance of Shares and, subject to the provisions of Sections 5, on or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit/Withdrawal At Custodian (DWAC) System, or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto and, upon receipt of such Shares, which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form, the Agent will deliver, by wire transfer of immediately available funds, the related Issuance Price in same day funds delivered to an account designated by the Company prior to the Settlement Date. The Company may sell Shares to the Agent as principal at a price agreed upon at each relevant time Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement (each, a “Time of Sale”).

(vi)    Suspension or Termination of Sales. Consistent with standard market settlement practices, the Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party hereto in writing or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable email), suspend any sale of Shares, and the Selling Period shall immediately terminate; provided, however, that (A) such suspension and termination shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Shares placed or sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice; (B) if the Company suspends or terminates any sale of Shares after the Agent confirms such sale to the Company, the Company shall still be obligated to comply with Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares; and (C) if the Company defaults in its obligation to deliver Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that it will hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage or expense (including, without limitation, penalties, interest and reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company. The parties hereto acknowledge and agree

 

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that, in performing its obligations under this Agreement, the Agent may borrow Ordinary Shares from stock lenders in the event that the Company has not delivered Shares to settle sales as required by subsection (v) above, and may use the Shares to settle or close out such borrowings. The Company agrees that no such notice shall be effective against the Agent unless it is made to the persons identified in writing by the Agent pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

(vii)    No Guarantee of Placement, Etc. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in placing Shares, (B) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other Person if it does not sell Shares, and (C) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Agent and the Company.

(viii)    Material Non-Public Information. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company shall not deliver any Issuance Notice to the Agent, and the Agent shall not be obligated to place any Shares, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information.

(c)    Sales through Agent. With respect to the offering and sale of Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the Company agrees that any offer to sell Shares, any solicitation of an offer to buy Shares, and any sales of Shares shall only be effected by or through Jefferies LLC, as Agent.

(d)    Fees. As compensation for services rendered, the Company shall pay to the Agent, on the applicable Settlement Date, the Selling Commission for the applicable Issuance Amount (including with respect to any suspended or terminated sale pursuant to Section 3(b)(vi)) by the Agent deducting the Selling Commission from the applicable Issuance Amount.

(e)    Expenses. The Company agrees to pay all costs, fees and expenses incurred in connection with the performance of its obligations hereunder and in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation (i) all expenses incident to the issuance and delivery of the Shares (including all printing and engraving costs), (ii) all fees and expenses of the registrar and transfer agent of the Shares, (iii) all necessary issue, transfer and other stamp taxes in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares, (iv) all fees and expenses of the Company’s counsel, independent public or certified public accountants and other advisors, (v) all costs and expenses incurred in connection with the preparation, printing, filing, shipping and distribution of the Registration Statement (including financial statements, exhibits, schedules, consents and certificates of experts), the Prospectus, any Free Writing Prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company, and all amendments and supplements thereto, and this Agreement, (vi) all filing fees, attorneys’ fees and expenses incurred by the Company or the Agent in connection with qualifying or registering (or obtaining exemptions from the qualification or registration of) all or any part of the Shares for offer and sale under the state securities or blue sky laws or the provincial securities laws of Canada, and, if requested by the Agent, preparing and printing a “Blue Sky Survey” or memorandum and a “Canadian wrapper,” and any supplements thereto, advising the Agent of such qualifications, registrations, determinations and exemptions, (vii) the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of the Agent’s counsel, including the filing fees incident to, and the reasonable and documented fees and expenses of counsel for the Agent in connection with, FINRA review, if any, and approval of the Agent’s participation in the offering and distribution of the Shares,

 

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(viii) the costs and expenses of the Company relating to investor presentations on any “road show” undertaken in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Shares, including, without limitation, expenses associated with the preparation or dissemination of any electronic road show, expenses associated with the production of road show slides and graphics, fees and expenses of any consultants engaged in connection with the road show presentations with the prior approval of the Company, travel and lodging expenses of the representatives, employees and officers of the Company and of the Agent and any such consultants, and the cost of any aircraft chartered in connection with the road show and (ix) the fees and expenses associated with listing the Shares on the Principal Market. The fees and disbursements of Agent’s counsel pursuant to subsections (vi) and (vii) above shall not exceed $50,000.

Section 4. ADDITIONAL COVENANTS

The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent as follows, in addition to any other covenants and agreements made elsewhere in this Agreement:

(a)    Exchange Act Compliance. During the Agency Period, the Company shall (i) file, on a timely basis, with the Commission all reports and documents required to be filed under Section 13, 14 or 15 of the Exchange Act in the manner and within the time periods required by the Exchange Act and (ii) either (A) include in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and its annual reports on Form 10-K, a summary detailing, for the relevant reporting period, (1) the number of Shares sold, if any, through the Agent pursuant to this Agreement and (2) the net proceeds, if any, received by the Company from such sales or, in the Company’s sole discretion, (B) prepare a prospectus supplement containing or include in such other filing permitted by the Securities Act or Exchange Act (each an “Interim Prospectus Supplement”), such summary information and, at least once a quarter and subject to this Section 4, file such Interim Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (and within the time periods required by Rule 424(b) and Rule 430B under the Securities Act)), provided, however, that prior notice is given to the Agent of any such filing of an Interim Prospectus Supplement.

(b)    Securities Act Compliance. After the date of this Agreement, the Company shall promptly advise the Agent in writing (i) of the receipt of any comments of, or requests for additional or supplemental information from, the Commission, (ii) of the time and date of any filing of any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, or any Free Writing Prospectus, (iii) of the time and date that any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement becomes effective and (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment thereto, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus or of any order preventing or suspending the use of any Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus, or of any proceedings to remove, suspend or terminate from listing or quotation the Ordinary Shares from any securities exchange upon which they are listed for trading or included or designated for quotation, or of the threatening or initiation of any proceedings for any of such purposes. If the Commission shall enter any such stop order at any time, the Company will use its best efforts to obtain the lifting of such order at the earliest possible moment. Additionally, the Company agrees that it shall comply with the provisions of Rule 424(b) and Rule 433, as applicable, under the Securities Act and will use its

 

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reasonable efforts to confirm that any filings made by the Company under such Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 were filed in a timely manner with the Commission.

(c)    Amendments and Supplements to the Prospectus and Other Securities Act Matters. If any event shall occur or condition exist as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus so that the Prospectus does not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading, or if in the opinion of the Agent or counsel for the Agent it is otherwise necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus to comply with applicable law, including the Securities Act, the Company agrees (subject to Sections 4(d) and 4(f)) to promptly prepare, file with the Commission and furnish at its own expense to the Agent, amendments or supplements to the Prospectus so that the statements in the Prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, be misleading or so that the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, will comply with applicable law including the Securities Act. Neither the Agent’s consent to, or delivery of, any such amendment or supplement shall constitute a waiver of any of the Company’s obligations under Section 4(d) and 4(f)). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be required to file such amendment or supplement if there is no pending Issuance Notice and the Company believes that it is in its best interest not to file such amendment or supplement.

(d)    Agents Review of Proposed Amendments and Supplements. Prior to amending or supplementing the Registration Statement (including any registration statement filed under Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act) or the Prospectus (excluding any amendment or supplement through incorporation of any report filed under the Exchange Act), the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each such proposed amendment or supplement, insofar as such proposed amendment or supplement relates to the transactions contemplated hereby, and the Company shall not file or use any such proposed amendment or supplement without the Agent’s prior written consent, and the Company shall file with the Commission within the applicable period specified in Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act any prospectus required to be filed pursuant to such Rule.

(e)    Use of Free Writing Prospectus. Neither the Company nor the Agent has prepared, used, referred to or distributed, or will prepare, use, refer to or distribute, without the other party’s prior written consent, any “written communication” that constitutes a “free writing prospectus” as such terms are defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act with respect to the offering contemplated by this Agreement (any such free writing prospectus being referred to herein as a “Free Writing Prospectus”).

(f)    Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each proposed free writing prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto to be prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company insofar as such proposed free writing prospectus or amendment or supplement relates to the transactions contemplated hereby, and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any such proposed free writing prospectus or any such

 

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amendment or supplement thereto without the Agent’s prior written consent. The Company shall furnish to the Agent, without charge, as many copies of any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, or used by or referred to by the Company insofar as such proposed free writing prospectus relates to the transactions contemplated hereby, as the Agent may reasonably request. If at any time when a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 under the Securities Act or any similar rule) in connection with sales of the Shares (but in any event if at any time through and including the date of this Agreement) there occurred or occurs an event or development as a result of which any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company conflicted or would conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or included or would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or would omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at that subsequent time, not misleading, the Company shall promptly amend or supplement such free writing prospectus to eliminate or correct such conflict or so that the statements in such free writing prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at such subsequent time, not misleading, as the case may be; provided, however, that prior to amending or supplementing any such free writing prospectus, the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of such proposed amended or supplemented free writing prospectus and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any such amended or supplemented free writing prospectus without the Agent’s prior written consent, not to be unreasonably withheld.

(g)    Filing of Agent Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company shall not take any action that would result in the Agent or the Company being required to file with the Commission pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act a free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of the Agent that the Agent otherwise would not have been required to file thereunder.

(h)    Copies of Registration Statement and Prospectus. After the date of this Agreement through the last time that a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares, the Company agrees to furnish the Agent with copies (which may be electronic copies) of the Registration Statement and each amendment thereto, and with copies (which may be electronic copies) of the Prospectus and each amendment or supplement thereto in the form in which it is filed with the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act or Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, both in such quantities as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time; and, if the delivery of a prospectus is required under the Securities Act or under the blue sky or securities laws of any jurisdiction at any time on or prior to the applicable Settlement Date for any Selling Period in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares and if at such time any event has occurred as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made when such Prospectus is delivered, not misleading, or, if for any other reason it is necessary during such same period to amend or supplement the Prospectus or to file under the Exchange Act any document incorporated by reference in the Prospectus in order to comply with the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, to notify the Agent and to request that the Agent suspend

 

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offers to sell Shares (and, if so notified, the Agent shall cease such offers as soon as practicable); and if the Company decides to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented, to advise the Agent promptly by telephone (with confirmation in writing) and to prepare and cause to be filed promptly with the Commission an amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented that will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that if during such same period the Agent is required to deliver a prospectus in respect of transactions in the Shares, the Company shall promptly prepare and file with the Commission such an amendment or supplement.

(i)    Blue Sky Compliance. The Company shall cooperate with the Agent and counsel for the Agent to qualify or register the Shares for sale under (or obtain exemptions from the application of) the state securities or blue sky laws or Canadian provincial securities laws (or other foreign laws) of those jurisdictions designated by the Agent, shall comply with such laws and shall continue such qualifications, registrations and exemptions in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares. The Company shall not be required to qualify as a foreign corporation or to take any action that would subject it to general service of process in any such jurisdiction where it is not presently qualified or where it would be subject to taxation as a foreign corporation. The Company will advise the Agent promptly of the suspension of the qualification or registration of (or any such exemption relating to) the Shares for offering, sale or trading in any jurisdiction or any initiation or threat of any proceeding for any such purpose, and in the event of the issuance of any order suspending such qualification, registration or exemption, the Company shall use its best efforts to obtain the withdrawal thereof at the earliest possible moment.

(j)    Earnings Statement. As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent an earnings statement (which need not be audited) covering a period of at least 12 months beginning with the first fiscal quarter of the Company occurring after the date of this Agreement which shall satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158 under the Securities Act.

(k)    Listing; Reservation of Shares. (a) The Company will use its best efforts to maintain the listing of the Shares on the Nasdaq Global Market, and (b) the Company will reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, Shares for the purpose of enabling the Company to satisfy its obligations under this Agreement.

(l)    Transfer Agent. The Company shall engage and maintain, at its expense, a registrar and transfer agent for the Shares.

(m)    Due Diligence. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will reasonably cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during normal business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time.

(n)    Representations and Warranties. The Company acknowledges that each delivery of an Issuance Notice and each delivery of Shares on a Settlement Date shall be deemed to be (i)

 

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an affirmation to the Agent that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such Issuance Notice or of such Settlement Date, as the case may be, as though made at and as of each such date, except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto), and (ii) an undertaking that the Company will advise the Agent if any of such representations and warranties will not be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such Issuance Notice, as though made at and as of each such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

(o)    Deliverables at Triggering Event Dates; Certificates. The Company agrees that on or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and, during the term of this Agreement after the date of the first Issuance Notice, upon:

(A) the filing of the Prospectus or the amendment or supplement of any Registration Statement or Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Shares or a prospectus filed pursuant to Section 4(a)(ii)(B)), by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement, but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus;

(B) the filing with the Commission of an annual report on Form 10-K or a quarterly report on Form 10-Q (including any Form 10-K/A or Form 10-Q/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q), in each case, of the Company; or

(C) the filing with the Commission of a current report on Form 8-K of the Company containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) that is material to the offering of securities of the Company in the Agent’s reasonable discretion;

(any such event, a “Triggering Event Date”), the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (C) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such current report on Form 8-K of the Company is material) with a certificate as of the Triggering Event Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented, (A) confirming that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in this Agreement are true and correct, (B) that the Company has performed all of its obligations hereunder to be performed on or prior to the date of such certificate and as to the matters set forth in Section 5 hereof, and (C) containing any other certification that the Agent shall reasonably request. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 4(o) shall be waived for any Triggering Event Date occurring at a time when no Issuance Notice is pending or a suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter

 

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shall be considered a Triggering Event Date) and the next occurring Triggering Event Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Triggering Event Date when a suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 4(o), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Shares or the Agent sells any Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate in conformity with this Section 4(o) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Shares are issued.

(p)    Legal Opinions and Negative Assurances Letters. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and within three (3) Trading Days of each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished, at the request of the Agent, the written legal opinion and negative assurance letter of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., U.S. counsel to the Company, the written legal opinion of WongPartnership LLP, Singapore counsel to the Company, and the written legal opinion of Choate Hall & Stewart LLP, intellectual property counsel to the Company, each dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter. In lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings, in the discretion of the Agent, the Company may furnish a reliance letter from such counsel to the Agent, permitting the Agent to rely on a previously delivered opinion letter, modified as appropriate for any passage of time or Triggering Event Date (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of such Triggering Event Date).

(q)    Comfort Letter. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and within three (3) Trading Days of each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause KPMG LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm who has audited the financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, to furnish the Agent a comfort letter, dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel; provided, however, that any such comfort letter will only be required on the Triggering Event Date specified to the extent that it contains financial statements filed with the Commission under the Exchange Act and incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into a Prospectus. If requested by the Agent, the Company shall also cause a comfort letter to be furnished to the Agent within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event requiring the filing of a current report on Form 8-K containing material amended financial information of the Company, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Company shall be required to furnish no more than one comfort letter hereunder per calendar quarter

(r)    Directors Certificate. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and within three (3) Trading Days of each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company

 

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is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall furnish the Agent a certificate executed by a Director of the Company, signing in such capacity, each dated the date of delivery (i) certifying that attached thereto are true and complete copies of the resolutions duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution and delivery of this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby (including, without limitation, the issuance of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement), which authorization shall be in full force and effect on and as of the date of such certificate, (ii) certifying and attesting to the office, incumbency, due authority and specimen signatures of each Person who executed this Agreement for or on behalf of the Company, and (iii) containing any other certification that the Agent shall reasonably request.

(s)    Agent’s Own Account; Clients’ Account. The Company consents to the Agent trading, in compliance with applicable law, in the Ordinary Shares for the Agent’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement.

(t)    Investment Limitation. The Company shall not invest, or otherwise use the proceeds received by the Company from its sale of the Shares in such a manner as would require the Company or any of its subsidiaries to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

(u)    Market Activities. The Company will not take, and will ensure that no affiliate of the Company will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Shares or any other reference security, whether to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise, and the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with all applicable provisions of Regulation M. If the limitations of Rule 102 of Regulation M (“Rule 102”) do not apply with respect to the Shares or any other reference security pursuant to any exception set forth in Section (d) of Rule 102, then promptly upon notice from the Agent (or, if later, at the time stated in the notice), the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with Rule 102 as though such exception were not available but the other provisions of Rule 102 (as interpreted by the Commission) did apply.

(v)    Notice of Other Sale. Without the written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Ordinary Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Ordinary Shares (other than Shares hereunder), warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Ordinary Shares, during the period beginning on the third Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Issuance Notice is delivered to the Agent hereunder and ending on the third Trading Day immediately following the Settlement Date with respect to Shares sold pursuant to such Issuance Notice; and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Ordinary Shares (other than the Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Ordinary Shares, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Ordinary Shares prior to the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restriction will not be required in connection with the Company’s (i) issuance

 

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or sale of Ordinary Shares, options to purchase Ordinary Shares or Ordinary Shares issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any employee or director share option, incentive or benefit plan, share purchase or ownership plan, long-term incentive plan, dividend reinvestment plan, inducement award under the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market or other compensation plan of the Company or its subsidiaries, as in effect on the date of this Agreement, (ii) issuance or sale of Ordinary Shares issuable upon exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise or vesting of warrants, options or other equity awards outstanding at the date of this Agreement, (iii) issuance or sale of Ordinary Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Ordinary Shares as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations, joint ventures, collaborations, licensing arrangements or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not used for capital raising purposes and (iv) modification of any outstanding options, warrants of any rights to purchase or acquire Ordinary Shares.

(w)    Use of Proceeds. The Company intends to apply the net proceeds from the sale of the Shares sold by it in the manner described under the caption “Use of Proceeds” in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(x)    Certification Regarding Beneficial Owners. The Company will deliver to the Agent, on the date of execution of this Agreement, a properly completed and executed Certification Regarding Beneficial Owners of Legal Entity Customers (the “FinCEN Certification”), together with copies of identifying documentation, or such other documentation as the Agent may reasonably request in connection therewith and the Company undertakes to provide such additional supporting documentation as the Agent may reasonably request in connection with the verification of the FinCEN Certification during the Agency Period.

Section 5. CONDITIONS TO DELIVERY OF ISSUANCE NOTICES AND TO SETTLEMENT

Conditions Precedent to the Right of the Company to Deliver an Issuance Notice and the Obligation of the Agent to Sell Shares During the Selling Period(s). The right of the Company to deliver an Issuance Notice hereunder is subject to the satisfaction, on the date of delivery of such Issuance Notice, and the obligation of the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares during the applicable Selling Period is subject to the satisfaction, on each Trading Day during the Selling Period, of each of the following conditions:

(a)    Accuracy of the Company’s Representations and Warranties; Performance by the Company. The Company shall have delivered the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 4(o). The Company shall have performed, satisfied and complied with all covenants, agreements and conditions required by this Agreement to be performed, satisfied or complied with by the Company at or prior to such date, including, but not limited to, the covenants contained in , Section 4(p), Section 4(q) and Section 4(r).

(b)    No Injunction. No statute, rule, regulation, executive order, decree, ruling or injunction shall have been enacted, entered, promulgated or endorsed by any court or governmental authority of competent jurisdiction or any self-regulatory organization having

 

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authority over the matters contemplated hereby that prohibits or directly and materially adversely affects any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, and no proceeding shall have been commenced that may have the effect of prohibiting or materially adversely affecting any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(c)    Material Adverse Changes. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus and the Time of Sale Information, (a) in the reasonable judgment of the Agent nothing shall have occurred that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (b) there shall not have occurred any downgrading, nor shall any notice have been received by the Company of any intended or potential downgrading or of any review for a possible change that does not indicate the direction of the possible change, in the rating accorded any securities of the Company or any of its subsidiaries by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” as such term is defined under Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act.

(d)    No Suspension of Trading in or Delisting of Ordinary Shares; Other Events. The trading of the Ordinary Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall not have been suspended by the Commission, the Principal Market or FINRA and the Ordinary Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall have been approved for listing or quotation on and shall not have been delisted from the Principal Market. There shall not have occurred (and be continuing in the case of occurrences under clauses (i) and (ii) below) any of the following: (i) trading or quotation in any of the Company’s securities shall have been suspended or limited by the Commission or by the Principal Market, or trading in securities generally on the Principal Market shall have been suspended or limited, or minimum or maximum prices shall have been generally established on any of such stock exchanges by the Commission or FINRA; (ii) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of federal, New York, Delaware, Massachusetts or Singapore authorities; or (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States’ or international political, financial or economic conditions, as in the judgment of the Agent is material and adverse and makes it impracticable to market the Shares in the manner and on the terms described in the Prospectus or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities;

(e)    Documents Required to be Delivered on each Issuance Notice Date. The Agent’s obligation to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares hereunder shall additionally be conditioned upon the delivery to the Agent on or before the Issuance Notice Date of a certificate in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, executed by the Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, to the effect that all conditions to the delivery of such Issuance Notice shall have been satisfied as at the date of such certificate as required to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) (which certificate shall not be required if the foregoing representations shall be set forth in the Issuance Notice).

(f)    No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Time of Sale Information, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is

 

33


material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(g)    Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish the Agent with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent shall have reasonably requested.

(h)    Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act with respect to the Shares to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Issuance Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

(i)    FINRA. If applicable, FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of this offering and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

Section 6. INDEMNIFICATION AND CONTRIBUTION

(a)    Indemnification of the Agent. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates, directors, agents, officers and employees, and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Agent or such affiliate, director, agent, officer, employee or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based upon (A) (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, or the omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement to the foregoing), or the omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact necessary in order to make the statements, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; or (iii) any act or failure to act or any alleged act or failure to act by the Agent in connection with, or relating in any manner to, the Ordinary Shares or the offering contemplated hereby, and which is included as part of or referred to in any loss, claim, damage, liability or action arising out of or based upon any matter covered by clause (i) or (ii) above, or (B) the violation of any laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold; and to reimburse the Agent and each such affiliate, director, agent, officer, employee and controlling person for any and all expenses (including the fees and disbursements of counsel) as such expenses are incurred

 

34


by the Agent or such affiliate, director, agent, officer, employee or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action; provided, however, that the foregoing indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense to the extent, but only to the extent, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent furnished to the Company by the Agent in writing expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), it being understood and agreed that the only such information consists of the information described in Section 6(b) below. The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(a) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Company may otherwise have.

(b)    Indemnification of the Company and its Directors and Officers. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Company, or any such director, officer, or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation, if such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Agent), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, or any omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included or incorporated by reference in any Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433 of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any such amendment or supplement) or the omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact necessary in order to make the statements, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, in each case to the extent, but only to the extent, that such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission was made in the Registration Statement, Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any such amendment or supplement), in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent furnished to the Company by the Agent in writing expressly for use therein; and to reimburse the Company, or any such director, officer, or controlling person for any and all expenses (including the fees and disbursements of counsel) as such expenses are incurred by the Company, or any such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action. The Company hereby acknowledges that the only information that the Agent have furnished to the Company expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement to the foregoing) is the information set forth in the first sentence of the ninth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus. The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(b) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Agent may otherwise have.

 

35


(c)    Notifications and Other Indemnification Procedures. Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 6 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against an indemnifying party under this Section 6, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof, but the omission so to notify the indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from any liability which it may have to any indemnified party to the extent the indemnifying party is not materially prejudiced as a proximate result of such failure and shall not in any event relieve the indemnifying party from any liability that it may have otherwise than on account of this indemnity agreement. In case any such action is brought against any indemnified party and such indemnified party seeks or intends to seek indemnity from an indemnifying party, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in, and, to the extent that it shall elect, jointly with all other indemnifying parties similarly notified, by written notice delivered to the indemnified party promptly after receiving the aforesaid notice from such indemnified party, to assume the defense thereof with counsel reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party; provided, however, that if the defendants in any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded that a conflict may arise between the positions of the indemnifying party and the indemnified party in conducting the defense of any such action or that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, the indemnified party or parties shall have the right to select separate counsel to assume such legal defenses and to otherwise participate in the defense of such action on behalf of such indemnified party or parties. Upon receipt of notice from the indemnifying party to such indemnified party of such indemnifying party’s election so to assume the defense of such action and approval by the indemnified party of counsel, the indemnifying party will not be liable to such indemnified party under this Section 6 for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by such indemnified party in connection with the defense thereof unless (i) the indemnified party shall have employed separate counsel in accordance with the proviso to the preceding sentence (it being understood, however, that the indemnifying party shall not be liable for the fees and expenses of more than one separate counsel (together with local counsel), representing the indemnified parties who are parties to such action), which counsel (together with any local counsel) for the indemnified parties shall be selected by the Agent (in the case of counsel for the indemnified parties referred to in Section 6(a) above) or by the Company (in the case of counsel for the indemnified parties referred to in Section 6(b) above)) or (ii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of commencement of the action or (iii) the indemnifying party has authorized in writing the employment of counsel for the indemnified party at the expense of the indemnifying party, in each of which cases the fees and expenses of counsel shall be at the expense of the indemnifying party and shall be paid as they are incurred.

(d)    Settlements. The indemnifying party under this Section 6 shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the indemnifying party agrees to indemnify the indemnified party against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense by reason of such settlement or judgment. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for fees and expenses of counsel as contemplated by Section 6(c) hereof, the indemnifying party

 

36


shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 30 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request and (ii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed the indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of the indemnified party, effect any settlement, compromise or consent to the entry of judgment in any pending or threatened action, suit or proceeding in respect of which any indemnified party is or could have been a party and indemnity was or could have been sought hereunder by such indemnified party, unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of such indemnified party from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such action, suit or proceeding.

(e)    Contribution. If the indemnification provided for in this Section 6 is for any reason held to be unavailable to or otherwise insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party in respect of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein, then each indemnifying party shall contribute to the aggregate amount paid or payable by such indemnified party, as incurred, as a result of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, from the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement or (ii) if the allocation provided by clause (i) above is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) above but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. The relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement shall be deemed to be in the same respective proportions as the total proceeds from the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total Selling Commission received by the Agent. The relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any such untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company, on the one hand, or the Agent, on the other hand, and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.

The amount paid or payable by a party as a result of the losses, claims, damages, liabilities and expenses referred to above shall be deemed to include, subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(c), any legal or other fees or expenses reasonably incurred by such party in connection with investigating or defending any action or claim. The provisions set forth in Section 6(c) with respect to notice of commencement of any action shall apply if a claim for contribution is to be made under this Section 6(e); provided, however, that no additional notice shall be required with respect to any action for which notice has been given under Section 6(c) for purposes of indemnification.

The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 6(e) were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in this Section 6(e).

 

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Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the Selling Commission received by the Agent in connection with the offering contemplated hereby. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 6(e), each affiliate, director, agent, officer and employee of the Agent and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Agent, and each director of the Company, each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company.

Section 7. TERMINATION & SURVIVAL

(a)    Term. Subject to the provisions of this Section 7, the term of this Agreement shall continue from the date of this Agreement until the end of the Agency Period, unless earlier terminated by the parties to this Agreement pursuant to this Section 7.

(b)    Termination; Survival Following Termination. (i) Either party may terminate this Agreement prior to the end of the Agency Period, by giving written notice as required by this Agreement, upon one Trading Day’s notice to the other party; provided that, (A) if the Company terminates this Agreement after the Agent confirms to the Company any sale of Shares, the Company shall remain obligated to comply with Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares and (B) Section 2, Section 6, Section 7 and Section 8 shall survive termination of this Agreement. If termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such sale shall nevertheless settle in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.

(ii) In addition to the survival provision of Section 7(b)(i), the respective indemnities, agreements, representations, warranties and other statements of the Company, of its officers and of the Agent set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent or the Company or any of its or their partners, officers or directors or any controlling person, as the case may be, and, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding, will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares sold hereunder and any termination of this Agreement.

Section 8. MISCELLANEOUS

(a)    Press Releases and Disclosure. The Company may issue a press release describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby as soon as practicable following the date of this Agreement, and may file with the Commission a current report on Form 8-K, with this Agreement attached as an exhibit thereto, describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby, and the Company shall consult with the Agent prior to making such disclosures, and the parties hereto shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosures that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto. No party hereto shall issue thereafter any press release or like public statement (including, without limitation, any disclosure required in reports filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act) related to this Agreement or any of the transactions contemplated

 

38


hereby without the prior written approval of the other party hereto, except as may be necessary or appropriate in the reasonable opinion of the party seeking to make disclosure to comply with the requirements of applicable law or stock exchange rules and except for the disclosure required pursuant to Section 4(a) of this Agreement in the Company’s quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or annual reports on Form 10-K. If any such press release or like public statement is so required, the party making such disclosure shall consult with the other party prior to making such disclosure, and the parties shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosure that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto.

(b)    No Advisory or Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including the determination of any fees, are arm’s-length commercial transactions between the Company and the Agent, (ii) when acting as a principal under this Agreement, the Agent is and has been acting solely as a principal and is not the agent or fiduciary of the Company, or its securityholders, creditors, employees or any other party, (iii) the Agent has not assumed nor will assume an advisory or fiduciary responsibility in favor of the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby or the process leading thereto (irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is currently advising the Company on other matters) and the Agent does not have any obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement, (iv) the Agent and its respective affiliates may be engaged in a broad range of transactions that involve interests that differ from those of the Company, and (v) the Agent has not provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby and the Company has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it deemed appropriate.

(c)    Research Analyst Independence. The Company acknowledges that the Agent’s research analysts and research departments are required to and should be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and as such the Agent’s research analysts may hold views and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company or the offering that differ from the views of their respective investment banking divisions. The Company understands that the Agent is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short positions in debt or equity securities of the companies that may be the subject of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(d)    Notices. All communications hereunder shall be in writing and shall be mailed, hand delivered or telecopied and confirmed to the parties hereto as follows:

If to the Agent:

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Facsimile: (646) 619-4437

Attention: General Counsel

 

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with a copy (which shall not constitute a notice) to:

White & Case LLP

1221 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10020-1095

Facsimile: (212) 354-8113

Attention: Stuart Bressman, Esq.

If to the Company:

Wave Life Sciences Ltd.

733 Concord Ave

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138

Facsimile: 617-949-2901

Attention: Paul Bolno.

with a copy (which shall not constitute a notice) to:

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.

One Financial Center

Boston, MA 02111

Facsimile: 617-542-2241

Attention: John Rudy, Esq.

Any party hereto may change the address for receipt of communications by giving written notice to the others in accordance with this Section 8(d).

(e)    Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto, and to the benefit of the affiliates, agents, employees, officers and directors and controlling persons referred to in Section 6, and in each case their respective successors and personal representatives, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder. The term “successors” shall not include any purchaser of the Shares as such from the Agent merely by reason of such purchase.

(f)    Partial Unenforceability. The invalidity or unenforceability of any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other Article, Section, paragraph or provision hereof. If any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement is for any reason determined to be invalid or unenforceable, there shall be deemed to be made such minor changes (and only such minor changes) as are necessary to make it valid and enforceable.

(g)    Governing Law Provisions. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York applicable to agreements made and to be performed in such state. Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby (“Related Proceedings”) may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located

 

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in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York (collectively, the “Specified Courts”), and each party irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction (except for proceedings instituted in regard to the enforcement of a judgment of any such court (a “Related Judgment”), as to which such jurisdiction is non-exclusive) of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The parties irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim in any such court that any such suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court has been brought in an inconvenient forum. Each party not located in the United States has irrevocably appointed CT Corporation, which currently maintains a New York City office at 111 Eighth Avenue, 13th floor, New York, NY 10011, United States of America, as its agent to receive service of process or other legal summons for purposes of any such suit, action or proceeding that may be instituted in any state or federal court in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York. With respect to any Related Proceeding, each party irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, all immunity (whether on the basis of sovereignty or otherwise) from jurisdiction, service of process, attachment (both before and after judgment) and execution to which it might otherwise be entitled in the Specified Courts, and with respect to any Related Judgment, each party waives any such immunity in the Specified Courts or any other court of competent jurisdiction, and will not raise or claim or cause to be pleaded any such immunity at or in respect of any such Related Proceeding or Related Judgment, including, without limitation, any immunity pursuant to the United States Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976, as amended.

(h)    Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes. In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity that becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from the Agent, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States. In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity that becomes, or a BHC Act Affiliate of the Agent becomes, subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against the Agent are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

For purposes of this Section 8(h), a “BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k). “Covered Entity” means any of the following: (i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b); (ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or (iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b). “Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable. “U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

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(i)    General Provisions. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement of the parties to this Agreement and supersedes all prior written or oral and all contemporaneous oral agreements, understandings and negotiations with respect to the subject matter hereof. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each one of which shall be an original, with the same effect as if the signatures thereto and hereto were upon the same instrument, and may be delivered by facsimile transmission or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file. This Agreement may not be amended or modified unless in writing by all of the parties hereto, and no condition herein (express or implied) may be waived unless waived in writing by each party whom the condition is meant to benefit. The Article and Section headings herein are for the convenience of the parties only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation of this Agreement.

[Signature Page Immediately Follows]

 

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If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, kindly sign and return to the Company the enclosed copies hereof, whereupon this instrument, along with all counterparts hereof, shall become a binding agreement in accordance with its terms.

 

Very truly yours,

 

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.

By:   /s/ Keith C. Regnante
 

Name: Keith C. Regnante

Title: Chief Financial Officer

The foregoing Agreement is hereby confirmed and accepted by the Agent in New York, New York as of the date first above written.

 

JEFFERIES LLC
By:   /s/ Kevin J. Sheridan
 

Name: Kevin J. Sheridan

Title: Managing Director


EXHIBIT A

ISSUANCE NOTICE

[Date]

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Attn: [__________]

Reference is made to the Open Market Sale Agreement between Wave Life Sciences Ltd. (the “Company”) and Jefferies LLC (the “Agent”) dated as of May 10, 2019. The Company confirms that all conditions to the delivery of this Issuance Notice are satisfied as of the date hereof.

Date of Delivery of Issuance Notice (determined pursuant to Section 3(b)(i)): _______________________

 

Issuance Amount (equal to the total Sales Price for such Shares):  
  $  
 

 

 
Number of Days in Selling Period:    
 

 

 
First Date of Selling Period:    
 

 

 
Last Date of Selling Period:    
 

 

 
Settlement Date(s) if other than standard T+2 settlement:  
   
 

 

 

Floor Price Limitation (in no event less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which consent may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion): $ ____ per share

Comments:                                                                                                                                                                        

 

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.
By:    
 

Name:

Title:

 

A-1


EXHIBIT B

Notice Parties

The Company

Paul Bolno, M.D.

Keith Regnante

Linda Rockett

The Agent

Michael Magarro

Donald Lynaugh

 

B-2

EX-4.8

Exhibit 4.8

FORM OF SENIOR INDENTURE

WAVE LIFE SCIENCES LTD.,

ISSUER

and

                    ,

TRUSTEE

INDENTURE

Dated as of                     , 20        

Senior Debt Securities


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE1

 

Section of     
Trust Indenture Act Section of    Section of

of 1939, as amended

   Indenture

310(a)

   7.09

310(b)

   7.08, 7.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)

   7.13

311(b)

   7.13

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   5.01,

5.02(a)

312(b)

   5.02(c)

312(c)

   5.02(c)

313(a)

   5.04(a)

313(b)

   5.04(b)

313(c)

   5.04(a),
5.04(b),
5.04(b)

313(d)

   5.04(c)

314(a)

   5.03,

3.05(c)

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   13.05

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   13.05

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   7.01(b),

7.02

315(b)

   5.04(d)

315(c)

   7.01

315(d)

   7.01, 7.02

315(e)

   6.07

316(a)

   6.06, 8.04

316(b)

   6.04

316(c)

   8.01

317(a)

   6.02

317(b)

   4.03

318(a)

   13.06

 

1 

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

- i -


TABLE OF CONTENTS2

 

ARTICLE I   DEFINITIONS      1
           SECTION 1.01      Definitions of Terms      1

 

ARTICLE II

  ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES      5
           SECTION 2.01      Designation and Terms of Securities      5
  SECTION 2.02      Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate      7
  SECTION 2.03      Denominations; Provisions for Payment      7
  SECTION 2.04      Execution and Authentications      9
  SECTION 2.05      Registration of Transfer and Exchange    10
  SECTION 2.06      Temporary Securities    11
  SECTION 2.07      Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities    11
  SECTION 2.08      Cancellation    12
  SECTION 2.09      Benefits of Indenture    12
  SECTION 2.10      Authenticating Agent    12
  SECTION 2.11      Global Securities    13

 

ARTICLE III

  REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS    14
  SECTION 3.01      Redemption    14
  SECTION 3.02      Notice of Redemption    14
  SECTION 3.03           Payment Upon Redemption    15
  SECTION 3.04      Sinking Fund    16
  SECTION 3.05      Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities    16
  SECTION 3.06      Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund    16

 

ARTICLE IV

  COVENANTS    17
  SECTION 4.01      Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest    17
  SECTION 4.02      Maintenance of Office or Agency    17
  SECTION 4.03      Paying Agents    17
  SECTION 4.04